Share This Article:

Accomplishments in Learning Self-Regulation in Personal Environments

Abstract Full-Text HTML XML Download Download as PDF (Size:518KB) PP. 1108-1120
DOI: 10.4236/ce.2015.611109    3,295 Downloads   3,969 Views   Citations


This article aims to analyze the accomplishments in learning self-regulation from a student popu-lation in personal learning environments. A Likert scale-like questionnaire is applied to a random cluster sample of students from the Pedagogy, Social Education and Psychopedagogy degrees from the University of Granada, Spain. Descriptive or inferential analyses are carried out along the research in order to characterize the population. Additionally, Kendall’s correlation coefficients are calculated and interpreted to define the relations among students’ accomplishments. Finally, Kruskal-Wallis H tests are performed to ascertain through analysis of variance if the variable degree influences such accomplishments. The results show that the students from these three degrees set goals, perform tasks in an organized manner, accomplish extra work on time, meet the deadlines to hand in the class-work, and reflect on their learning. Pedagogy presents the highest relation between achieving an appropriate period of time to perform the tasks and carrying out their extra work on time. Social Education shows a smaller number of students and less intensity when meeting the deadlines to hand in the classwork. The students from Psychopedagogy have the highest accomplishments in reading the whole material suggested by the teacher. The research concludes that, although there are some variations among these three degrees, they are homo-geneous in the majority of the variables studied here. The students succeeded in learning self-regulation; however, it is necessary to reinforce the time planning, the reading of the material suggested by the teacher, enhancement of knowledge, and complementary research. One student subgroup is distinguished for its accomplishments in task organization and performance, while other groups excel for deepening their understanding of the units and metacognition.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Cite this paper

Chaves-Barboza, E. , Trujillo-Torres, J. and López-Núñez, J. (2015) Accomplishments in Learning Self-Regulation in Personal Environments. Creative Education, 6, 1108-1120. doi: 10.4236/ce.2015.611109.


[1] Archee, R. (2012). Reflections on Personal Learning Environments: Theory and Practice. Procedia—Social and Behavioral Sciences, 55, 419-428.
[2] Aron, A., Coups, E. J., & Aron, E. N. (2013). Statistics Psychology (6th ed.). Upper Sadle River, NJ: Pearson Education, Inc.
[3] Attwell, G. (2007a). E-portfolios—The DNA of the Personal Learning Environment? Journal of e-Learning and Knowledge Society, 3, 39-61.
[4] Attwell, G. (2007b). Personal Learning Environments—The Future of eLearning? Elearning Papers, 2, 1-7.
[5] Bandura, A. (1997). Self-Efficacy: The Exercise of Control. New York: Freeman.
[6] Bandura, A. (2006). Guide for Constructing Self-Efficacy Scales. In F. Pajares, & T. Urdan (Eds.), Self-Efficacy Beliefs of Adolescents (Vol. 5, pp. 307-337). Greenwich, CT: Information Age Publishing.
[7] Broadbent, J., & Poon, W. L. (2015). Self-Regulated Learning Strategies & Academic Achievement in Online Higher Education Learning Environments: A Systematic Review. The Internet and Higher Education,27, 1-13.
[8] Carver, C. S., & Scheier, M. F. (1998). On the Self-Regulation of Behavior. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.
[9] Chatti, M. A., Agustiawan, M. R., Jarke, M., & Specht, M. (2010). Toward a Personal Learning Environment Framework. International Journal of Virtual and Personal Learning Environments, 1, 66-85.
[10] Chaves, E. (2014). Investigación educativa sobre autogestión en los Entornos Personales de Aprendizaje (PLE): Una revisión de la literatura. EDMETIC, Revista de Educación Mediática y TIC, 3, 114-134.
[11] Chaves, E., Trujillo, J. M., & López, J. A. (2015). Autorregulación del aprendizaje en entornos personales de aprendizaje en el Grado de Educación Primaria de la Universidad de Granada, España. Formación Universitaria, 8, en prensa.
[12] Covington, M. V. (1992). Making the Grade: A Self-Worth Perspective on Motivation and School Reform. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
[13] Cronbach, L. J. (1951). Coefficient Alpha and the Internal Structure of Test. Psychometrika, 16, 297-334.
[14] Dabbagh, N., & Kitsantas, A. (2012). Personal Learning Environments, Social Media, and Self-Regulated Learning: A Natural Formula for Connecting Formal and Informal Learning. The Internet and Higher Education, 15, 3-8.
[15] Drexler, W. (2010). The Networked Student Model for Construction of Personal Learning Environments: Balancing Teacher Control and Student Autonomy. Australasian Journal of Educational Technology, 26, 369-385.
[16] Ebner, M., & Taraghi, B. (2010). Personal Learning Environment for Higher Education—A First Prototype. Proceedings of the World Conference on Educational Multimedia, Hypermedia and Telecommunications, Toronto, 28 June-2 July 2010, 1158-1166.
[17] Forgas J. P., Baumeister R. F., & Tice D. M. (2009). Psychology and Self-Regulation: Cognitive, Affective, and Motivational Processes. New York: Psychology Press.
[18] Gillet, D., Law, E., & Chatterjee, A. (2010). Personal Learning Environments in a Global Higher Engineering Education Web 2.0 Realm. Proceedings of the IEEE Global Engineering Education Conference, Madrid, 14-16 April 2010, 897-906.
[19] Godwin-Jones, R. (2009). Emerging Technologies: Personal Learning Environments. Language Learning & Technology, 13, 3-9.
[20] Hadwin, A. F., Oshige, M., Gress, C. L. Z., & Winne, P. H. (2010). Innovative Ways for Using Study to Orchestrate and Research Social Aspects of Self-Regulated Learning. Computers in Human Behavior, 26, 794-805.
[21] Haslaman, T., & Askar, P. (2015). The Measures of Students’ Self-Regulated Learning and Teachers’ Supportive Self-Re-gulated Learning Behaviors. Hacettepe University Journal of Education, 30, 106-121.
[22] Howell, D. C. (2014). Fundamental Statistics for the Behavioral Sciences (8th ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.
[23] Jin, P., & Low, R. (2009). Enhancing Motivation and Self-Regulated Learning in Multimedia Environments. In R. D. Koo, B. C. Choi, M. R. D. Lucas, & T. C. Chan (Eds.), Education Policy, Reform, and School Innovations in the Asia-Pacific Region (pp. 525-547). Hong Kong: Association for Childhood Education International-Hong Kong & Macao (ACEI-HKM).
[24] Johnson, M. W., & Liber, O. (2008). The Personal Learning Environment and the Human Condition: From Theory to Teaching Practice. Interactive Learning Environments, 16, 3-15.
[25] Johnson, M. W., & Sherlock, D. (2014). Beyond the Personal Learning Environment: Attachment and Control in the Classroom of the Future. Interactive Learning Environments, 22, 146-164.
[26] Kendall, M. G., & Stuart. A. (1979). The Advanced Theory of Statistics (4th ed.). New York: Hafner Press.
[27] Kruskal, W. H., & Wallis, W. A. (1952). Use of Ranks in One-Criterion Variance Analysis. Journal of the American Statistical Association, 47, 583-621.
[28] Leech, N., Barrett, K., & Morgan, G. (2011). IBM SPSS for Intermediate Statistics, Use and Interpretation. New York: Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.
[29] Liber, O., & Johnson, M. (2008). Personal Learning Environments. Interactive Learning Environments, 16, 1-2.
[30] Martin, A. J. (2007). Examining a Multidimensional Model of Student Motivation and Engagement Using a Construct Validation Approach. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 77, 413-440.
[31] Martin, A. J. (2008). Enhancing Student Motivation and Engagement: The Effects of a Multidimensional Intervention. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 33, 239-269.
[32] Martin, A. J. (2009). The Motivation and Engagement Scale—User Manual (9th ed.). Sydney: Lifelong Achievement Group.
[33] McInerney, D. (2000). Helping Kids Achieve Their Best. Sydney: Allen and Unwin.
[34] Nelson, K. G., Shell, D. F., Husman, J., Fishman, E. J., & Soh, L. K. (2015). Motivational and Self-Regulated Learning Profiles of Students Taking a Foundational Engineering Course. Journal of Engineering Education, 104, 74-100.
[35] Osterlind, S.J. (1989). Constructing Tests Items. Boston, MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers.
[36] Pajares, F. (2002). Gender and Perceived Self-Efficacy in Self-Regulated Learning. Theory into Practice, 41, 116-225.
[37] Pajares, F. (2007). Motivational Role of Self-Efficacy Beliefs in Self-Regulated Learning. In B. J. Zimmerman, & D. H. Schunk (Eds.), Motivation and Self-Regulated Learning: Theory, Research, and Applications (pp. 111-140). New York: Erlbaum.
[38] Pintrich, P., & Schunk, D. (2002). Motivation in Education: Theory, Research, and Application (2nd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Merrill Prentice Hall.
[39] Rahimi, E., & Jan Van den Berg, W. V. (2015). Facilitating Student-Driven Constructing of Learning Environments Using Web 2.0 Personal Learning Environments. Computers & Education, 81, 235-246.
[40] Rezaee, R., & Mosalanejad, L. (2015). The Effects of Case-Based Team Learning on Students’ Learning, Self Regulation and Self Direction. Global Journal of Health Science, 7, 295-306.
[41] Ricoy, C., & Cuoto, M. J. (2010). El alumnado de secundaria y el ambiente Personal de aprendizaje en Internet. Proceedings of the PLE Conference. Barcelona, 8-9 July 2010, 131-143.
[42] Schunk, D. H. (2004). Learning Theories: An Educational Perspective (4th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education.
[43] Schunk, D. H., & Zimmerman, B. (2003). Self-Regulation and Learning. In W. M. Reynolds, & G. E. Miller (Eds.), Handbook of Psychology (Vol. 7): Educational Psychology (pp. 59-78). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
[44] Schunk, D. H., & Zimmerman, B. J. (Eds.) (1994). Self-Regulation of Learning and Performance. Hillsdale: Lawrence Erlbaum.
[45] Usher, E. L., & Pajares, F. (2008). Self-Efficacy for Self-Regulated Learning: A Validation Study. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 68, 443-463.
[46] Väljataga, T., & Laanpere, M. (2010). Learner Control and Personal Learning Environment: A Challenge for Instructional Design. Interactive Learning Environments, 18, 277-291.
[47] Vanthournout, G., Kyndt, E., Gijbels, D., & Van den Bossche, P. (2015). Understanding the Direct and Indirect Relations between Motivation to Participate, Goal Orientation and the Use of Self-Regulation Strategies during a Formal Training. Zeitschrift für Erziehungswissenschaft, 18, 89-106.
[48] Wilson, S. (2008). Patterns of Personal Learning Environments. Interactive Learning Environments, 16, 17-34.
[49] Wilson, S., Liber, O., Johnson, M., Beauvoir, P., Sharples, P., & Milligan, C. (2007). Personal Learning Environments: Challenging the Dominant Design of Educational Systems. Journal of E-Learning and Knowledge Society, 2, 1-11.
[50] Winne, P. H. (2015). Self-Regulated Learning. In J. D. Wright (Ed.), International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences (pp. 535-540). Oxford: Elsevier.
[51] Zimmerman, B. J. (1990). Self-Regulated Learning and Academic Achievement: An Overview. Educational Psychologist, 25, 3-17.
[52] Zimmerman, B. J. (2000). Attaining Self-Regulation: A Social Cognitive Perspective. In M. Boekaerts, P. R. Pintrich, & M. Zeidner (Eds.), Handbook of Self-Regulation (pp. 13-39). San Diego, CA: Academic Press.
[53] Zimmerman, B. J. (2006). Self-Regulation and Effective Learning. In: D. M. McInerney, & V. McInerney (Eds.), Educational Psychology: Constructing Learning (pp. 190-191). Sydney: Pearson Education.
[54] Zimmerman, B. J. (2008). Investigating Self-Regulation and Motivation: Historical Background, Methodological Development, and Future Prospects. American Educational Research Journal, 45, 166-183.
[55] Zimmerman, B. J. (2015). Self-Regulated Learning: Theories, Measures, and Outcomes. In J. D. Wright (Ed.), International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences (pp. 541-546). Oxford: Elsevier.
[56] Zimmerman, B. J., & Cleary, T. J. (2006). Adolescents’ Development of Personal Agency. In F. Pajares, & T. Urdan (Eds.), Adolescence and Education (Vol. 5): Self-Efficacy Beliefs of Adolescents (pp. 45-69). Greenwich, CT: Information Age Publishing.
[57] Zimmerman, B. J., & Cleary, T. J. (2009). Motives to Self-Regulate Learning. In K. R. Wentzel, & A. Wigfield (Eds.), Handbook of Motivation at School (pp. 247-264). New York: Routledge.
[58] Zimmerman, B. J., & Schunk, D. H. (Eds.) (1989). Self-Regulated Learning and Academic Achievement: Theory, Research and Practice. New York: Springer.

comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2018 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.