Share This Article:

Technical Adequacy of the Student Protective Factors Screening Scale (SPF-7) as a Universal Screening Tool

Abstract Full-Text HTML XML Download Download as PDF (Size:371KB) PP. 817-832
DOI: 10.4236/psych.2015.67081    4,349 Downloads   4,944 Views  

ABSTRACT

Universal screening is a critical foundation for school-based prevention and early intervention. This study examined the technical adequacy of the SPF-7, an instrument designed to assist school personnel in the early identification of students at-risk for emotional and behavioral concerns. The SPF-7 differs from other measures used in identifying emotionally and behaviorally at-risk students, as the SPF-7 focuses on protective factors rather than risk factors. The results of this study suggest that the SPF-7 has adequate test-retest reliability and criterion validity, but limited inter-rater agreement. The SPF-7 is a potentially promising tool for identifying students in need of support within a multi-tiered system of increasingly intensive interventions.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Cite this paper

Morrison, J. (2015). Technical Adequacy of the Student Protective Factors Screening Scale (SPF-7) as a Universal Screening Tool. Psychology, 6, 817-832. doi: 10.4236/psych.2015.67081.

References

[1] Achenbach, T. (1985). Assessment and Taxonomy Child and Adolescent Psychopathology. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.
[2] Alvord, M. K., & Grados, J. (2005). Enhancing Resilience in Children: A Proactive Approach. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 36, 238-245.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0735-7028.36.3.238
[3] Anderson, C. M., & Kincaid, D. (2005). Applying Behavior Analysis to School Violence and Discipline Problems: School-Wide Positive Behavior Support. Behavior Analyst, 28, 49-63.
[4] Anastasi, A. (1988). Psychological Testing (6th ed.). New York: Macmillan.
[5] Anderman, E. M., & Maehr, M.L. (1994). Motivation and Schooling in the Middle Grades. Review of Educational Research, 64, 287-309.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3102/00346543064002287
[6] Appleton, J. J., Christenson, S. L., & Furlong, M. J. (2008). Student Engagement with School: Critical Conceptual and Methodological Issues of the Construct. Psychology in the Schools, 45, 369-386.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pits.20303
[7] Barnett, D. W., Daly III, E. J., Jones, K. M., & Lentz Jr., F. (2004). Response to Intervention: Empirically Based Special Service Decisions from Single-Case Designs of Increasing and Decreasing Intensity. Journal of Special Education, 38, 66-79.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/00224669040380020101
[8] Bassarath, L. (2001). Conduct Disorder: A Biopsychosocial Review. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 46, 609-616.
[9] Baumeister, R. F., & Leary, M. R. (1995). The Need to Belong: Desire for Interpersonal Attachments as a Fundamental Motivation. Psychological Bulletin, 117, 497-529.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.117.3.497
[10] Birch, S., & Ladd, G. W. (1997). The Teacher-Child Relationship and Children’s Early School Adjustment. Journal of School Psychology, 35, 61-79.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0022-4405(96)00029-5
[11] Bonny, A. E., Britto, M. T., Klostermann, B. K., Hornung, R. W., & Slap, G. B. (2000). School Disconnectedness Identifying Adolescents at Risk. Pediatrics, 106, 1017-1021.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1542/peds.106.5.1017
[12] Booth, A., & Dunn, J. F. (1996). Family-School Links: How Do They Affect Education Outcomes. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
[13] Brown, B. B., & Huang, G. H. (1995). Examining Parenting Practices in Different Peer Contexts: Implications for Adolescent Trajectories. In L. J. Crockett, & A. C. Crouter (Eds.), Pathways through Adolescence: Relation to Social Contexts (pp. 151-174). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
[14] Brown-Chidsey, R., & Steeg, M. (2005). Response to Intervention: Principles and Strategies for Effective Practice. New York: Guilford.
[15] Cairns, R. B., Cairns, B. D., Neckerman, H. J., Gest, S. D., & Gariepy, J. L. (1988). Peer Networks and Aggressive Behavior: Peer Support or Peer Rejection? Developmental Psychology, 24, 815-823.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0012-1649.24.6.815
[16] Canter, A. S., Lau, M. Y., & House, A. (2002). Best Practices in Developing Local Norms in Behavioral Assessment. In A. Thomas, & J. Grimes (Eds.), Best Practices in School Psychology, Fourth Edition (pp. 1099-1114). Bethesda, MD: National Association of School Psychologists.
[17] Caprara, G. V., Barbaranelli, C., Pastorelli, C., Bandura, A., & Zimbardo, P. G. (2000). Prosocial Foundations of Children’s Academic Achievement. Psychological Science, 11, 302-306.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1467-9280.00260
[18] Catalano, R. F., & Hawkins, J. D. (1996). The Social Development Model: A Theory of Antisocial Behavior. In J. D. Hawkins (Ed.), Delinquency and Crime: Current Theories (pp. 149-197). New York: Cambridge University Press.
[19] Christenson, S. L., Sinclair, M. F., Lehr, C. A., & Godber, Y. (2001). Promoting Successful School Completion: Critical Conceptual and Methodological Guidelines. School Psychology Quarterly, 16, 468-484.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1521/scpq.16.4.468.19898
[20] Clark, R. M. (1993). Homework-Focused Parenting Practices That Positively Affect Student Achievement. In N. F. Chavkin (Ed.), Families and Schools in a Pluralistic Society. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press.
[21] Coie, J. D., & Jacobs, M. R. (1993). The Role of Social Context in the Prevention of Conduct Disorder. Development and Psychopathology, 5, 263-275.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0954579400004387
[22] Connell, J. P., Halpern-Felsher, B. L., Clifford, E., Crichlow, W., & Usinger, P. (1995). Hanging in There: Behavioral, Psychological, and Contextual Factors Affecting Whether African American Adolescents Stay in High School. Journal of Adolescent Research, 10, 41-63.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0743554895101004
[23] Criss, M. M., Pettit, G. S., Bates, J. E., Dodge, K. A., & Lapp, A. L. (2002). Family Adversity, Positive Peer Relationships, and Children’s Externalizing Behavior: A Longitudinal Perspective on Risk and Resilience. Child Development, 73, 1220-1237.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1467-8624.00468
[24] de Wied, M., Goudena, P. P., & Matthys, W. (2005). Empathy in Boys with Disruptive Behavior Disorders. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 46, 867-880.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7610.2004.00389.x
[25] DiPerna, J., & Elliott, S. N. (2000). Academic Competence Evaluation Scales. San Antonio, TX: Harcourt Assessment.
[26] DiPerna, J. C., Volpe, R. J., & Elliott, S. N. (2002). A Model of Academic Enablers and Elementary Reading/Language Arts Achievement. School Psychology Review, 31, 298-312.
[27] Dishion, T. J., Andrews, D. W., & Crosby, L. (1995). Antisocial Boys and Their Friends in Early Adolescence: Relationship Characteristics, Quality, and Interactional Process. Child Development, 66, 139-151.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1131196
[28] Dishion, T. J., Patterson, G. R., Stoolmiller, M., & Skinner, M. L. (1991). Family, School, and Behavioral Antecedents to Early Adolescents Involvement with Antisocial Peers. Developmental Psychology, 27, 172-180.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0012-1649.27.1.172
[29] Doll, B., & Hess, R. S. (2001). Through a New Lens: Contemporary Psychological Perspectives on School Completion and Dropping Out of High School. School Psychology Quarterly, 16, 351-356.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1521/scpq.16.4.351.19895
[30] Doll, B., & Lyon, M. A. (1998). Risk and Resilience: Implications for the Delivery of Educational and Mental Health Services in Schools. School Psychology Review, 27, 348-363.
[31] Drummond, T. (1993). The Student Risk Screening Scale (SRSS). Grants Pass, OR: Josephine County Mental Health Program.
[32] Dunn, C. W., & Tucker, M. (1993). Black Children’s Adaptive Functioning and Maladaptive Behavior Associated with Quality of Family Support. Journal of Multicultural Counseling and Development, 21, 79-87.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/j.2161-1912.1993.tb00586.x
[33] Eccles, J. S., Wigfield, A., Midgley, C., Reuman, D., MacIver, D., & Feldlaufer, H. (1993). Negative Effects of Traditional Middle Schools on Students’ Motivation. The Elementary School Journal, 93, 553-574.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/461740
[34] Eisenberg, N., Fabes, R. A., Shepard, S. A., Murphy, B. C., Guthrie, I. K., Jones, S., Friedman, J., Poulin, R., & Maszk, P. (1997). Contemporaneous and Longitudinal Prediction of Children’s Social Functioning from Regulation and Emotionality. Child Development, 68, 642-664.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1132116
[35] Elliott, S. N., Huai, N., & Roach, A. T. (2007). Universal and Early Screening for Educational Difficulties: Current and Future Approaches. Journal of School Psychology, 45, 137-161.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jsp.2006.11.002
[36] Epstein, J. L. (1983). Longitudinal Effects of Family-School-Person Interactions on Student Outcomes. In A. Kerckhoff (Ed.), Research in Sociology of Education and Socialization (Vol. 4, pp. 101-128). Greenwich, CT: JAI.
[37] Feil, E. G., Severson, H. H., & Walker, H. M. (2002). Early Screening and Intervention to Prevent the Development of Aggressive, Destructive Behavior Patterns among At-Risk Children. In M. R. Shinn, H. M. Walker, & G. Stoner (Eds.), Interventions for Achievement and Behavior Problems II: Preventive and Remedial Approaches. Bethesda, MD: The National Association of School Psychologists.
[38] Finn, J. D. (1989). Withdrawing from School. Review of Educational Research, 59, 117-142.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3102/00346543059002117
[39] Finn, J. D. (1993). School Engagement and Students at Risk. Washington DC: National Center for Education Statistics.
[40] Finn, J. D., & Rock, D. A. (1997). Academic Success among Students at Risk for School Failure. Journal of Applied Psychology, 82, 221-234.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.82.2.221
[41] Fredericks, J. A., Blumenfeld, P. C., & Paris, A. H. (2004). School Engagement: Potential of the Concept, State of the Evidence. Review of Educational Research, 74, 59-109.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3102/00346543074001059
[42] Furlong, M. J., Whipple, A. D., St. Jean, G., Simental, J., Soliz, A., & Punthuna, S. (2003). Multiple Contexts of School Engagement: Moving toward a Unifying Framework for Educational Research and Practice. California School Psychologist, 8, 99-114.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF03340899
[43] Garnefski, N., & Diekstra, W. (1996). Perceived Social Support from Family, School, and Peers: Relationship with Emotional and Behavioral Problems among Adolescents. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 35, 1657-1664.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00004583-199612000-00018
[44] Gresham, F. M. (2002). Best Practices in Social Skills Training. In A. Thomas, & J. Grimes (Eds.), Best Practices in School Psychology IV (pp. 1029-1040). Bethesda, MD: National Association of School Psychologists.
[45] Gresham, F. M. (2004). Current Status and Future Directions of School-Based Behavioral Interventions. School Psychology Review, 33, 326-343.
[46] Gresham, F. M. (2005). Response to Intervention: An Alternative Means of Identifying Students as Emotionally Disturbed. Education and Treatment of Children, 28, 328-344.
[47] Habedank, L. (1995). Best Practices in Developing Local Norms for Problem Solving in the Schools. In A. Thomas, & J. Grimes (Eds.), Best Practices in School Psychology (3rd ed., pp. 701-715). Washington DC: National Association of School Psychologists.
[48] Henricsson, L., & Rydell, A. (2004). Elementary School Children with Behavior Problems: Teacher-Child Relations and Self-Perception. A Prospective Study. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 50, 111-138.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1353/mpq.2004.0012
[49] Hinshaw, S. (1987). On the Distinction between Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity and Conduct Problems/Aggression in Child Psychopathology. Psychological Bulletin, 101, 443-463.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.101.3.443
[50] Hinshaw, S. (1992). Externalizing Behavior Problems and Academic Underachievement in Childhood and Adolescence: Causal Relationships and Underlying Mechanisms. Psychological Bulletin, 111, 127-155.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.111.1.127
[51] Horner, R. H., Sugai, G., Todd, A. W., & Lewis-Palmer, T. (2005). School-Wide Positive Behavior Support. In L. Bambara, & L. Kern (Eds.), Individualized Supports for Students with Problem Behaviors: Designing Positive Behavior Plans (pp. 359-390). New York: Guilford Press.
[52] Ikeda, M. J., Neessen, E., & Witt, J. C. (2008). Best Practices in Universal Screening. In A. Thomas, & J. Grimes (Eds.), Best Practices in School Psychology (5th ed., pp. 103-114). Bethesda, MD: National Association of School Psychologists.
[53] Irvin, L. K., Horner, R. H., Ingram, K., Todd, A. W., Sugai, G., Sampson, N. K., et al. (2006). Using Office Discipline Referral Data for Decision Making about Student Behavior in Elementary and Middle Schools: An Empirical Evaluation of Validity. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 8, 10-23.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/10983007060080010301
[54] Irvin, L. K., Tobin, T. J., Sprague, J. R., Sugai, G., & Vincent, C. G. (2004). Validity of Office Discipline Referral Measures as Indices of School-Wide Behavioral Status and Effects of School-Wide Behavioral Interventions. Journal of Positive Behavioral Interventions, 6, 131-147.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/10983007040060030201
[55] Jimerson, S. R., Campos, E., & Greif, J. L. (2003). Toward an Understanding of Definitions and Measures of School Engagement and Related Terms. California School Psychologist, 8, 7-27.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF03340893
[56] Kamphaus, R. W., & Reynolds, C. R. (2007). BASC-2 Behavioral and Emotional Screening System. Minneapolis, MN: Pearson.
[57] Karcher, M. J. (2002). The Cycle of Violence and Disconnection among Rural Middle School Students: Teacher Disconnection as a Consequence of Violence. Journal of School Violence, 1, 35-51.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J202v01n01_03
[58] Karcher, M. J., Davis, C., & Powell, B. (2002). The Effects of Developmental Mentoring on Connectedness and Academic Achievement. School Community Journal, 12, 35-50.
[59] Kavale, K. A., & Forness, S. R. (1998). Covariance in Learning Disability and Behavior Disorder: An Examination of Classification and Placement Issues. In T. E. Scruggs, & M. A. Mastropieri (Eds.), Advances in Learning and Behavioral Disabilities (pp. 1-42). Greenwich, CT: JAI Press.
[60] Kazdin, A. (1987). Treatment of Antisocial Behavior in Children: Current Status and Future Directions. Psychological Bulletin, 102, 187-203.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.102.2.187
[61] Kazdin, A. E., Kraemer, H. C., Kessler, R. C., & Kupfer, D. J. (1997). Contributions of Risk-Factor Research to Developmental Psychopathology. Clinical Psychology Review, 17, 375-406.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0272-7358(97)00012-3
[62] Kern, L., & Manz, P. (2004). A Look at Current Validity Issues of School-Wide Behavior Support. Behavioral Disorders, 30, 47-59.
[63] Kilgus, S. P., Chafouleas, S. M., &Riley-Tillman, T. C. (2013). Development and Initial Validation of the Social and Academic Behavior Risk Screener for Elementary Grades. School Psychology Quarterly, 28, 210-226.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/spq0000024
[64] Kochenderfer, B. J., & Ladd, G. W. (1996). Peer Vicitimization: Cause or Consequence of School Maladjustment? Child Development, 67, 1305-1317.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1131701
[65] Kuperminc, G. P., Blatt, S. J., & Leadbeater, B. J. (1997). Relatedness, Self-Definition, and Early Adolescent Adjustment. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 21, 301-320.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1021826500037
[66] Kupersmidt, J. B., & Coie, J. D. (1990). Preadolescent Peer Status, Aggression, and School Adjustment as Predictors of Externalizing Problems in Adolescence. Child Development, 61, 1350-1362.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1130747
[67] Kupersmidt, J., Coie, J., & Dodge, K., (1990). The Role of Peer Relationships in the Development of Disorder. In S. Asher, & J. Coie (Eds.), Peer Rejection in Childhood (pp. 274-308). New York: Cambridge University Press.
[68] Ladd, G. W., Kochenderfer, B. J., & Coleman, C. C. (1997). Classroom Peer Acceptance, Friendship, and Victimization: Distinct Relational Systems That Contribute Uniquely to Children’s School Adjustment? Child Development, 68, 1181-1197.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1132300
[69] Lane, K. L., Kalberg, J. R., Parks, R. J., & Carter, E. W. (2008). Student Risk Screening Scale: Initial Evidence for Score Reliability and Validity at the High School Level. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders, 16, 178-190.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1063426608314218
[70] Lane, K. L., Menzies, H. M., Oakes, W. P., Kalberg, J. R. (2012). Systematic Screenings of Behavior to Support Instruction: From Preschool to High School. New York: Guilford Press.
[71] Majoribanks, K. (1987). Ability and Attitude Correlates of ACADEMIC achievement: Family Group Differences. Journal of Educational Psychology, 79, 171-178.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-0663.79.2.171
[72] Masten, A. S., & Coatsworth, J. D. (1998). The Development of Competence in Favorable and Unfavorable Environments: Lessons from Research on Successful Children. American Psychologist, 53, 205-220.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.53.2.205
[73] Malecki, C. K., & Elliott, S. N. (2002). Children’s Social Behaviors as Predictors of Academic Achievement: A Longitudinal Analysis. School Psychology Quarterly, 17, 1-23.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1521/scpq.17.1.1.19902
[74] Marston, D. (2005). Tiers of Intervention in Responsiveness to Intervention: Prevention Outcomes and Learning Disabilities Identification Patterns. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 38, 539-544.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/00222194050380061001
[75] Morano, C. D., Cisler, R. A., & Lemerond, J. (1993). Risk Factors for Adolescent Suicidal Behavior: Loss, Insufficient Familial Support, and Hopelessness. Adolescence, 28, 851-865.
[76] Morrison, G. M., Robertson, L., Laurie, B., & Kelly, J. (2002). Protective Factors Related to Antisocial Behavior Trajectories. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 58, 277-290.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jclp.10022
[77] Morrison, J. Q., Kobayashi, M., & Bolognone, J. (2007). Use of Protective Factors to Develop Behavioral Norms for English Language Learners. Unpublished manuscript, Dayton, OH: University of Dayton.
[78] Mounts, N. S., & Steinberg, L. (1995). An Ecological Analysis of Peer Influence on Adolescent Grade Point Average and Drug Use. Developmental Psychology, 31, 915-922.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0012-1649.31.6.915
[79] Murray, C., & Greenberg, T. (2000). Children’s Relationship with Teachers and Bonds with School. An Investigation of Patterns and Correlates in Middle Childhood. Journal of School Psychology, 38, 423-445.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0022-4405(00)00034-0
[80] National Research Council & Institute of Medicine (2004). Engaging Schools: Fostering High School Students’ Motivation to Learn. Washington DC: The National Academies Press.
[81] Osher, D., Dwyer, K., & Jimerson, S. R. (2006). Safe, Supportive, and Effective Schools: Promoting School Success to Reduce School Violence. In S. R. Jimerson, & M. J. Furlong (Eds.), The Handbook of School Violence and School Safety: From Research to Practice (pp. 51-71). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
[82] Parker, J., & Asher, S. (1987). Peer Relations and Later Personal Adjustment: Are Low-Accepted Children At-Risk? Psychological Bulletin, 102, 357-389.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.102.3.357
[83] Patterson, G. R., DeBaryshe, B. D., & Ramsey, E. (1989). A Developmental Perspective on Antisocial Behavior. American Psychologist, 44, 329-335.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.44.2.329
[84] Piko, B. F., Fitzpatrick, K. M., & Wright, D. R. (2005). A Risk and Protective Factors Framework for Understanding Youth’s Externalizing Problem Behavior in Two Different Cultural Settings. European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 14, 95-103.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00787-005-0437-z
[85] Pianta, R. C., Steinberg, M., & Rollins, K. (1995). The First Two Years of School: Teacher-Child Relationships and Deflections in Children’s Classroom Adjustment. Development and Psychopathology, 7, 295-312.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0954579400006519
[86] Putnam, R. F., Luiselli, J. K., Handler, M. W., & Jefferson, G. L. (2003). Evaluating Student Discipline Practices in a Public School through Behavioral Assessment of Office Referrals. Behavior Modification, 27, 505-523.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0145445503255569
[87] Reschly, A., & Christenson, S. L. (2006a). Promoting Successful School Completion. In G. Bear, & K. Minke (Eds.), Children’s Needs, III: Development, Prevention, and Intervention (pp. 103-113). Bethesda, MD: National Association of School Psychologists.
[88] Reschly, A., & Christenson, S. L. (2006b). Research Leading to a Predictive Model of Dropout and Completion among Students with Mild Disabilities and the Role of Student Engagement. Remedial and Special Education, 27, 276-292.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/07419325060270050301
[89] Reynolds, A. J., & Wahlberg, H. J. (1991). A Structural Model of Science Achievement. Journal of Educational Psychology, 83, 97-107.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-0663.83.1.97
[90] Roberts, W., & Strayer, J. (1996). Empathy, Emotional Expressiveness, and Prosocial Behavior. Child Development, 67, 449-470.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1131826
[91] Ryan, B. A., Adams, G. R., Gullotta, T. P., Weissberg, R. P., & Hampton, R. L. (1995). The Family-School Connection: Theory, Research and Practice. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
[92] Scott-Jones, D. (1995). Parent-Child Interactions and School Achievement. In B. A. Ryan, G. R. Adams, T. P. Gullotta, R. P. Weissberg, & R. L. Hampton (Eds.), The Family-School Connection: Theory, Research and Practice (Vol. 2, pp. 75-107). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
[93] Severson, H. H., Walker, H. M., Hope-Doolittle, J., Kratochwill, T. R., & Gresham, F. M. (2007). Proactive, Early Screening to Detect Behaviorally At-Risk Students: Issues, Approaches, Emerging Innovations, and Professional Practices. Journal of School Psychology, 45, 193-223.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jsp.2006.11.003
[94] Smokowski, P. R., Mann, E. A., Reynolds, A. J., & Fraser, M. W. (2004). Childhood Risk and Protective Factors and Late Adolescent Adjustment in Inner City Minority Youth. Children and Youth Services Review, 26, 63-91.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.childyouth.2003.11.003
[95] Spoth, R., Yoo, S., Kahn, J. H., & Redmond, C. (1996). A Model of the Effects of Protective Parent and Peer Factors on Young Adolescent Alcohol Refusal Skills. Journal of Primary Prevention, 16, 373-394.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02411742
[96] Sprague, J. R., & Horner, R. H. (2006). School Wide Positive Behavioral Supports. In S. R. Jimerson, & M. J. Furlong (Eds.), The Handbook of School Violence and School Safety: From Research to Practice. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
[97] Steinberg, L. (1996). Beyond the Classroom: Why School Reform Has Failed and What Parents Need to Do. New York: Simon & Schuster.
[98] Steinberg, L., Lamborn, S. D., Dornbusch, S. M., & Darling, N. (1992). Impact of Parenting Practices on Adolescent Achievement: Authoritative Parenting, School Involvement, and Encouragement to Succeed. Child Development, 63, 1266-1281.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1131532
[99] Steinhausen, H., & Metzke, W. (2001). Risk, Compensatory, Vulnerability, and Protective Factors Influencing Mental Health in Adolescence. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 30, 259-280.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1010471210790
[100] Stevenson, H. W., Chen, C., & Lee, S. Y. (1993). Mathematics Achievement of Chinese, Japanese, and American Children: Ten Years Later. Science, 259, 53-58.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.8418494
[101] Stoner, G. (2006). School Psychology and Screening for Problems. The School Psychologist, 60, 104-105, 132.
[102] Strayer, J., & Roberts, W. (2004). Empathy and Observed Anger and Aggression in Five-Year-Olds. Social Development, 13, 1-13.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9507.2004.00254.x
[103] Sugai, G., & Horner, R. H. (2002). Introduction to the Special Series on Positive Behavior Support in Schools. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders, 10, 130-135.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/10634266020100030101
[104] Sugai, G., Sprague, J. R., Horner, R. H., & Walker, H. M. (Eds.). (2001). Preventing School Violence: The Use of Office Discipline Referrals to Assess and Monitor School-Wide Discipline Intervention (reprinted chapter). Austin, TX: Pro-Ed, Inc.
[105] Todis, B., Severson, H. H., & Walker, H. M. (1990). The Critical Events Scale: Behavioral Profiles of Students with Externalizing and Internalizing Behavior Disorders. Behavioral Disorders, 15, 75-86.
[106] Walker, H. M., Block-Pedego, A., Todis, B., & Severson, H. (1991). School Archival Records Search. Longmont, CO: Sopris West.
[107] Walker, H. M., Colvin, G., & Ramsey, E. (1995). Antisocial Behavior in School: Strategies and Best Practices. Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole.
[108] Walker, H. M., & Shinn, M. A. (2002). Structuring School-Based Interventions to Achieve Integrated Primary, Secondary, and Tertiary Prevention Goals for Safe and Effective Schools. In M. Shinn, H. Walker, & G. Stoner (Eds.), Interventions for Academic and Behavior Problems II (pp. 1-26). Bethesda, MD: National Association of School Psychologists.

  
comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2018 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.