Share This Article:

Dustfall Associated with Dust Storms in the Al-Ahsa Oasis of Saudi Arabia

Abstract Full-Text HTML XML Download Download as PDF (Size:1193KB) PP. 65-75
DOI: 10.4236/ojap.2015.42007    3,688 Downloads   4,234 Views   Citations

ABSTRACT

Dustfall is a major threat to agricultural and industrial infrastructures, as well as to other aspects of livelihood. Dustfall associated to a severe dust storm that hit the Al-Ahsa Oasis of Saudi Arabia during 12-13 March 2014 is discussed in this paper. The storm caused widespread and heavy dust deposition. A dramatic decrease in the visibility coincided with the storm, and the average dust concentrations recorded during a peak 10-hour period were 6772, 5862.4 and 451.1 μg/m3 for total suspended particles (TSP), particulate matter smaller than or equal to 10 μm (PM10) and those smaller than or equal to 2.5 μm (PM2.5), respectively. The lowest visibility was 200 m, and the wind speed increased to 17.5 m/s from the north. The average daily dust deposited in the study area during the event was 12.84 (SD = 1.2) g/(m2?d). The dust samples comprised insoluble dust (48.5%) and soluble dust (51.5%). Based on the Munsell color system, the final color description of the falling dust was 10 YR/6/3. A microphotograph of the dustfall (settleable particulate matter) captured by a stereo dissection microscope shows that the dust particles had various colors and sizes, and they contained fibers and vegetative debris).

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Cite this paper

Almuhanna, E. (2015) Dustfall Associated with Dust Storms in the Al-Ahsa Oasis of Saudi Arabia. Open Journal of Air Pollution, 4, 65-75. doi: 10.4236/ojap.2015.42007.

References

[1] Querol, X., Pey, J., Pandolfi, M., Alastuey, A., Cusack, M., Perez, N., Moreno, T., Viana, M., Mihalopoulos, N., Kallos, G. and Kleanthous, S. (2009) African Dust Contributions to Mean Ambient PM10 Mass-Levels across the Mediterranean Basin. Atmospheric Environment, 43, 4266-4277.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2009.06.013
[2] Badarinath, K.V.S., Kharol, S.K., Kaskaoutis, D.G., Sharma, A.R., Ramaswamy, V. and Kambezidis, H.D. (2010) Long-Range Transport of Dust Aerosols over the Arabian Sea and Indian Region: A Case Study Using Satellite Data and Ground-Based Measurements. Global Planet Change, 72, 164-181.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gloplacha.2010.02.003
[3] Grousset, F.E. and Biscaye, P.E. (2005) Tracing Dust Sources and Transport Patterns Using Sr, Nd and Pb Isotopes. Chemical Geology, 222, 149-167.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemgeo.2005.05.006
[4] Feng, J., Zhu, L., Ju, J., Zhou, L., Zhen, X., Zhang, W. and Gao, S. (2008) Heavy Dustfall in Beijing, on April 16-17, 2006: Geochemical Properties and Indications of the Dust Provenance. Geochemical Journal, 42, 221-236.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2343/geochemj.42.221
[5] Cao, J.J., Lee, S.C., Zheng, X.D., Ho, K.F., Zhang, X.Y., Guo, H., Chow, J.C. and Wang, H. (2003) Characterization of Dust Storms to Hong Kong in April 1998. Water, Air, and Soil Pollution: Focus, 3, 213-229.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1023202926292
[6] Goudie, A.S. (2009) Dust Storms: Recent Developments. Journal of Environmental Management, 90, 89-94.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2008.07.007
[7] Aydin, F., Aydint, I., Erdogan, S., Akba, O., Isik, B. and Hamamci, C. (2012) Chemical Characteristics of Settled Particles during a Dust-Storm. Polish Journal of Environmental Studies, 21, 533-537.
[8] Maghrabi, A., Alharbi, B. and Tapper, N. (2011). Impact of the March 2009 Dust Event in Saudi Arabia on Aerosol Optical Properties, Meteorological Parameters, Sky Temperature and Emissivity. Atmospheric Environment, 45, 2164-2173.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2011.01.071
[9] Ackerman, S.A. and Cox, S.K. (1989) Surface Weather Observations of Atmospheric Dust over the Southwest Summer Monsoon Region. Meteorology and Atmospheric Physics, 41, 19-34.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01032587
[10] Chung, Y.S., Kim, H.S., Jugder, D., Natsagdorj, L. and Chen, S.J. (2003) On Sand and Duststorms and Associated Significant Dustfall Observed in Chongju-Chongwon, Korea during 1997-2000. Water, Air, and Soil Pollution: Focus, 3, 5-19.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1023242000367
[11] Frolova, N.S., Zinchenko, G.S. and Papina, T.S. (2007) Influence of Regional Atmospheric Processes on the Formation of Dust Pollution Layers in Belukha Glacial Deposits. Russian Meteorology and Hydrology, 32, 212-216.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3103/S1068373907030090
[12] Fetoh, B.E.S.A. and Al-Shammery, K.A. (2011) Acaricidal Ovicial and Repellent Activities of Some Plant Extracts on the Date Palm Dust Mite, Oligonychus afrasiaticus Meg. (Acari: Tetranychidae). International Journal of Environmental Science and Engineering (IJESE), 2, 45-52.
[13] Aldosari, S.A. (2009) Occurrence of Dust Mite, Oligonychus afrasiaticus Meg. On Fruits, Leaflets of Some Date Palm Trees and Evaluation of the Efficiency of Botanical Compound, (Biaco) as Compared with Some Acaricides. AUCES.
[14] Kuehni, R.G. (2002) The Early Development of the Munsell System. Color Research and Application, 27, 20-27.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/col.10002
[15] Landa, E.R. and Fairchild, M.D. (2005) Charting Color from the Eye of the Beholder. American Scientist, 93, 436-443.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1511/2005.55.975
[16] Elminir, H.K., Ghitas, A.E., Hamid, R.H., El-Hussainy, F., Beheary, M.M. and Abdel-Moneim, K.M. (2006) Effect of Dust on the Transparent Cover of Solar Collectors. Energy Conversion and Management, 47, 3192-3203.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.enconman.2006.02.014
[17] Abolkhair, Y.M. (1981) Sand Encroachment by Wind in Al-Hasa of Saudi Arabia. Dissertation, Indiana University, Bloomington.
[18] ASTM D1739-98 (2010) Standard Test Method for Collection and Measurement of Dustfall (Settleable Particulate Matter). ASTM International, West Conshohocken.
[19] Munsell Color (2014)
http://munsell.com/about-munsell-color/.
[20] Cleland, T.M. (1921) The Munsell Color System: A Practical Description with Suggestions for Its Use. Munsell Color Company.
http://www.applepainter.com/
[21] Abdulmalik, A., Alghamdi, A. and Al-Kahtan, N.S. (2005) Sand Control Measures and Sand Drift Fences. Journal of Performance of Constructed Facilities, 19, 295-299.
[22] Modaihsh, A.S. and Mahjoub, M.O. (2013) Falling Dust Characteristics in Riyadh City, Saudi Arabia during Winter Months. APCBEE Procedia, 5, 50-58.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apcbee.2013.05.010
[23] Khalaf, F. and Al-Hashash, M. (1983) Aeolian Sedimentation in the North-Western Part of the Arabian Gulf. Journal of Arid Environments, 6, 319-332.
[24] Al-Awadhi, J. (2005) Dust Fallout Characteristics in Kuwait: A Case Study. Kuwait Journal of Science, 32, 135-152.

  
comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2018 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.