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Pathogenesis of Neuropsychiatric Syndromes of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

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DOI: 10.4236/ojra.2015.52009    4,413 Downloads   4,864 Views   Citations

ABSTRACT

The pathogenesis of neuropsychiatric syndromes of systemic lupus erythematosus (NPSLE) is multifactorial and can involve various inflammatory cytokines, autoantibodies such as anti-neuronal antibodies, anti-ribosomal P antibodies, anti-NR2 glutamate receptor binding antibodies, anti-Sm antibodies, anti-U1-RNP antibodies and anti-phospholipid antibodies, and immune complexes (IC). Disruption of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) is integral to the neuropathology of SLE. Recently the possibility has been reported that aforementioned autoantibodies in the circulation may be strongly associated with disruption of the BBB. Each of these mechanisms might contribute to the pathogenesis of focal NPSLE (for example, cerebrovascular disease, movement disorders, myelopathy, seizures and cranial neuropathy) or diffuse NPSLE (for example, acute confusional state, psychosis and cognitive dysfunction) to varying degrees. In this review we focus on how the aforementioned autoantibodies, the BBB, IC and cytokines as well as chemokines are associated with the appearance of NPSLE.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Cite this paper

Yoshio, T. and Okamoto, H. (2015) Pathogenesis of Neuropsychiatric Syndromes of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus. Open Journal of Rheumatology and Autoimmune Diseases, 5, 46-56. doi: 10.4236/ojra.2015.52009.

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