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Co-Localization of Alpha1-Adrenoceptors and GPR55: A Novel Prostate Cancer Paradigm?

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DOI: 10.4236/pp.2015.64023    2,656 Downloads   4,591 Views   Citations

ABSTRACT

α1-adrenoceptors (α1-ARs) and “cannabinoid-like” G Protein Coupled Receptor 55 (GPR55) belong to the G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) family and play a crucial role in regulating prostate function. Although physical and functional interactions between the cannabinoid and adrenergic systems have been reported, analysis of functional interactions between α1-AR and GPR55 in normal and neoplastic prostate has not been reported. Since GPR55 levels are high in rodent adrenal gland, we propose a function link between the adrenergic system and GPR55 receptor. Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy (CLSM) was employed to examine the endogenous α1-AR and GPR55 expression and their co-localization, expressed as fluorescence, in vitro in human andro-gen-insensitive PC-3 and androgen-sensitive LNCaP prostatic carcinoma cell lines, using the fluo-rescent ligands—Syto 62 (nuclear stain), BODIPY FL-Prazosin (QAPB; fluorescent quinazoline α1-AR ligand) and Tocriflour (T1117; a novel fluorescent diarylpyrazole cannabinoid/GPR55 ligand). Fluorescent ligand binding in untreated PC-3 cells and LNCaP cells and spheroids showed hetero-geneous expression of both α1-ARs and GPR55. A small proportion of cells had both α1-ARs and GPR55 in relatively equal numbers indicating a degree of co-localization. Co-localization of fluo-rescent ligand binding exhibited a stronger correlation in LNCaP (0.87) as compared to PC-3 (0.63) cells. Upregulation of α1-AR was observed in PC-3 cells following chronic doxazosin incubation. Robust T1117 binding, suggestive of GPR55 upregulation, was also observed in these cells. The presence of subtype-rich cells with a degree of co-localization between α1-ARs and GPR55 indicates a possibility for dimerisation or functional interaction and a new paradigm for functional synergism in which interactions may be either between cells or involve converging intracellular signaling processes.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Cite this paper

Patil, K. , McPherson, L. and Daly, C. (2015) Co-Localization of Alpha1-Adrenoceptors and GPR55: A Novel Prostate Cancer Paradigm?. Pharmacology & Pharmacy, 6, 212-220. doi: 10.4236/pp.2015.64023.

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