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Water Quality Assessment of a Tropical Mexican Lake Using Multivariate Statistical Techniques

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DOI: 10.4236/jep.2015.63022    3,302 Downloads   4,087 Views   Citations

ABSTRACT

Water quality of Mexican tropical lake Chapala was assessed through multivariate statistical techniques, cluster analysis (CA) and principal component analysis (PCA) at ten different monitoring sites for ten physicochemical variables and six metals. This study evaluated and interpreted complex water quality data sets and apportioned of pollution sources to get better information about water quality. From descriptive statistics results, the highest concentrations of metals occurred during the dry season, and this trend was explained by the fact that an unusual rainy event occurred during the month of February 2009 and brought metals into the lake by runoffs from nearby mountains. According to international criteria for water consumption by aquatic organisms [USEPA], only Zn concentration values were below these criteria whereas the values of Ni, Pb, Cd and Fe were above the corresponding values set in these criteria (Ni: 52 μg·L-1, Pb: 2.5 μg·L-1, Cd: 0.25 μg·L-1, and Fe: 1000 μg·L-1). The correlations were observed by PCA, which were used to classify the samples by CA, based on the PCA scores. Seven significant cluster groups of sampling locations—(sites 4 and 5), (sites 3 and 9), (site 7), (site 10), (sites 2 and 6), (site 8) and (site 1)— were detected on the basis of similarity of their water quality. The results revealed that the stress exerted on the lake caused by waste sources follows the order: domestic > agricultural > industrial.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Cite this paper

Badillo-Camacho, J. , Reynaga-Delgado, E. , Barcelo-Quintal, I. , Valle, P. , López-Chuken, U. , Orozco-Guareño, E. , AlvarezBobadilla, J. and Gomez-Salazar, S. (2015) Water Quality Assessment of a Tropical Mexican Lake Using Multivariate Statistical Techniques. Journal of Environmental Protection, 6, 215-224. doi: 10.4236/jep.2015.63022.

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