Share This Article:

Photosynthetic Capacities and Productivity of Indoor Hydroponically Grown Brassica alboglabra Bailey under Different Light Sources

Abstract Full-Text HTML XML Download Download as PDF (Size:1370KB) PP. 554-563
DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2015.64060    3,387 Downloads   4,140 Views   Citations

ABSTRACT

A major challenge for growing vegetables in an indoor vertical farming system will be supplying not only sufficient quantity but also quality of light. It has been reported that yield of crops is enhanced under appropriate combination of red and blue light compared with red light alone. This project aims to investigate the effects of different combinations of red and blue. Plants were cultured for a 12-h photoperiod at 210 μmol·m–2·s–1 photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD) under different combinations of red (R) and blue (B) light-emitting diodes (LED). The R:B-LED ratios are: 1) 100:0 (0B); 2) 92:8 (8B); 3) 84:16 (16B) and; 4) 76:24 (24B). All combined RB-LEDs significantly increased light-saturated photosynthetic CO2 assimilation rate (Asat), stomatal conductance (gs sat) and productivity compared with those under 0B. Results suggested that 16B was the most suitable combination of LEDs to achieve the highest productivity for B. alboglabra. To further substantiate these results, comparative studies were conducted under equal photoperiod and PPFD among 16B (RB-LED), white LED (RBW-LED) and high-pressure sodium (HPS) lamps. Shoot, root biomass, leaf number, leaf mass per area and Asat were higher in plants under HPS lamps and RB-LED, than under RBW-LED. However, gs sat was lower under RB-LED and RBW-LED, than under HPS lamps. Plants under RB-LED had higher electron transport rate and photochemical quenching but lower non-photochemical quenching than those under RBW-LED and HPS lamps. Thus, these results more conclusively affirmed that 16B was the most suitable light source to achieve the highest photosynthetic capacities. The findings of this study could also be used in vertical farming to achieve the highest productivity of vegetable crops such as B. alboglabra within the shortest growth cycle with reduced energy consumption.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Cite this paper

He, J. , Qin, L. , Liu, Y. and Choong, T. (2015) Photosynthetic Capacities and Productivity of Indoor Hydroponically Grown Brassica alboglabra Bailey under Different Light Sources. American Journal of Plant Sciences, 6, 554-563. doi: 10.4236/ajps.2015.64060.

References

[1] He, J. and Lee, S.K. (2013) Impact of Climate Change on Food Security and Proposed Solutions for the Modern City. Acta Horticulturae, 1004, 41-52.
[2] Berry, J.A. and Downton, W.J.S. (1982) Environmental Regulation of Photosynthesis. In: Govindjee, Ed., Photosynthesis (Vol. 2), Academic Press, New York, 294-306.
[3] Sager, J.C. and Wheeler, R.M. (1992) Application of Sunlight and Lamps for Plant Irradiance in Space Bases. Advanced Space Research, 12, 133-140.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0273-1177(92)90019-T
[4] Kim, H.H., Wheeler, R.M. and Sager, J.C. (2004) A Comparison of Growth and Photosynthetic Characteristics of Lettuce Grown under Red and Blue Light-Emitting Diodes (LEDs) with and without Supplemental Green LEDs. Acta Horticulturae, 659, 467-475.
[5] Pfeiffer, N.E. (1926) Microchemical and Morphological Studies of Effect of Light on Plants. Botanical Gazette, 81, 173-195.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/333584
[6] Cathey, H.M. and Campbell, L.E. (1980) Light and Lighting Systems for Horticultural Plants. Horticultural Reviews, 2, 491-537.
[7] Bula, R.J., Tibbitts, T.W., Morrow, R.C. and Dinauer, W.R. (1992) Commercial Involvement in the Development of Space-Based Plant Growing Technology. Advanced Space Research, 12, 5-10.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0273-1177(92)90002-F
[8] Massa, G.D., Kim, H.-H., Wheeler, R.M. and Mitchell, C.A. (2008) Plant Productivity in Response to LED Lighting. HortScience, 431, 1951-1956.
[9] Brown, C.S., Schuerger, A.C. and Sager, J.C. (1995) Growth and Photomorphogenesis of Pepper Plants under Red Light-Emitting Diodes with Supplemental Blue or Far-Red Lighting. Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science, 120, 808-813.
[10] Yorio, N.D., Goins, G.D., Kagie, H.R., Wheeler, R.M. and Sager, J.C. (2001) Improving Spinach, Radish and Lettuce Growth under Red Light-Emitting Diodes (LEDs) with Blue Light Supplementation. HortScience, 36, 380-383.
[11] Goins, G.D., Yorio, N.C., Sanwo, M.M. and Brown, C.S. (1997) Photomorphogenesis, Photosynthesis, and Seed Yield of Wheat Plants Grown under Red Light-Emitting Diodes (LEDs) with and without Supplemental Blue Lighting. Journal of Experimental Botany, 48, 1407-1413.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jxb/48.7.1407
[12] Hogewoning, S., Trouworst, G., Maljaars, H., Poorter, H., van Leperen, W. and Harbinson, J. (2010) Blue Light Dose-Response of Leaf Photosynthesis, Morphology, and Chemical Composition of Cucumis sativus Grown under Different Combinations of Red and Blue Light. Journal of Experimental Botany, 61, 3107-3117.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jxb/erq132
[13] Trouwborst, G., Oosterkamp, J., Hogewoning, S.W., Harbinson, J. and van Ieperen, W. (2010) The Responses of Light Interception, Photosynthesis and Fruit Yield of Cucumber to LED-Lighting within the Canopy. Physiologia Plantarum, 138, 289-300.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1399-3054.2009.01333.x
[14] Matsuda, R., Ohashi-Kaneko, K., Fujiwara, K. and Kurata, K. (2007) Analysis of the Relationship between Blue-Light Photon Flux Density and the Photosynthetic Properties of Spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) Leaves with Regard to the Acclimation of Photosynthesis to Growth Irradiance. Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, 53, 459-465.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1747-0765.2007.00150.x
[15] Hoenecke, M.E., Bula, R.J. and Tibbitts, T.W. (1992) Importance of “Blue” Photon Levels for Lettuce Seedlings Grown under Red-Light-Emitting Diodes. HortScience, 27, 427-430.
[16] Douglas, J.S. (1989) Advanced Guide to Hydroponics. Pelham Books/Stephen Greene Press, London.
[17] He, J., Tan, B.H.G. and Qin, L. (2011) Source-to-Sink Relationship between Green Leaves and Green Pseudobulbs of C3 Orchid in Regulation of Photosynthesis. Photosynthetica, 49, 209-218.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11099-011-0023-1
[18] Schreiber, U., Gademann, R., Ralph, P.J. and Larkum, A.W.D. (1997) Assessment of Photosynthetic Performance of Prochloron in Lissoclinum patella in Hospite by Chlorophyll Fluorescence Measurements. Plant and Cell Physiology, 38, 945-951.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/oxfordjournals.pcp.a029256
[19] Rascher, U., Liebig, M. and Lüttge, U. (2000) Evaluation of Instant Light-Response Curves of Chlorophyll Fluorescence Parameters Obtained with a Portable Chlorophyll Fluorometer on Site in the Field. Plant, Cell & Environment, 23, 1397-1405.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-3040.2000.00650.x
[20] Goins, C.D., Yorio, N.C., Sanwo-Lewandowski, M.M. and Brown, C.S. (1998) Life Cycle Experiments with Arabidopsis under Red Light-Emitting Diodes (LEDs). Life Support and Biosphere Science, 5, 143-149.
[21] Schuerger, A.C., Brown, C.S. and Stryjewski, E.C. (1997) Anatomical Features of Pepper Plants (Capsicum annuum L.) Grown under Red Light-Emitting Diodes Supplemented with Blue or Far-Red Light. Annals of Botany, 79, 273-282.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/anbo.1996.0341
[22] Gautier, H., Varlet-Grancher, C. and Baudry, N. (1997) Effects of Blue Light on the Vertical Colonization of Space by White Clover and Their Consequences for Dry Matter Distribution. Annals of Botany, 80, 665-671.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/anbo.1997.0504
[23] Saebo, A., Krekling, T. and Appelgren, M. (1995) Light Quality Affects Photosynthesis and Leaf Anatomy of Birch Plantlets in Vitro. Plant Cell, Tissue and Organ Culture, 41, 177-185.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00051588
[24] McCree, K.J. (1972) Action Spectrum, Absorptance and Quantum Yield of Photosynthesis in Crop Plants. Agricultural Meteorology, 9, 191-216.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0002-1571(71)90022-7
[25] Goto, E. (2003) Effects of Light Quality on Growth of Crop Plants under Artificial Lighting. Environment Control in Biology, 41, 121-132.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2525/ecb1963.41.121
[26] Furuyama, S., Ishigami, Y., Hikosaka, S. and Goto, E. (2014) Effects of Blue/Red Ratio and Light Intensity on Photomorphogenesis and Photosynthesis of Red Leaf Lettuce. Acta Horticulturae, 1037, 317-322.
[27] Li, Q. and Kubota, C. (2009) Effects of Supplemental Light Quality on Growth and Phytochemicals of Baby Leaf Lettuce. Environmental and Experimental Botany, 67, 59-64.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envexpbot.2009.06.011
[28] Ohashi-Kaneko, K., Takase, M., Kon, N., Fujiwara, K. and Kurata, K. (2007) Effect of Light Quality on Growth and Vegetable Quality in Leaf Lettuce, Spinach and Komatsuna. Environment Control in Biology, 45, 189-198.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2525/ecb.45.189
[29] Folta, F.M., Koss, L.L., McMorrow, R., Kim, H.-H., Kenitz, J.D., Wheeler, R. and Sager, J.C. (2005) Design and Fabrication of Adjustable Red-Green-Blue LED Light Arrays for Plant Research. BMC Plant Biology, 5, 17.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-2229-5-17
[30] Terashima, I., Fujita, T., Inoue, T., Chow, W.S. and Oguchi, R. (2009) Green Light Drives Leaf Photosynthesis More Efficiently than Red Light in Strong White: Revisiting the Enigmatic Question of Why Leaves Are Green. Plant and Cell Physiology, 50, 684-697.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/pcp/pcp034
[31] Farquhar, G.D. and Sharkey, T.D. (1982) Stomatal Conductance and Photosynthesis. Annual Review of Plant Physiology, 33, 317-345.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev.pp.33.060182.001533
[32] Parkhurst, D.F. (1994) Diffusion of CO2 and Other Gases inside Leaves. New Phytologists, 126, 449-479.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-8137.1994.tb04244.x
[33] He, J. and Lee, S.K. (2001) Relationship among Photosynthesis, Ribulose-1,5-Bisphosphate Carboxylase (Rubisco) and Water Relations of Subtropical Vegetable Chinese Broccoli Grown in the Tropics by Manipulation of Root-Zone Temperature. Environmental and Experimental Botany, 46, 119-128.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0098-8472(01)00089-2
[34] Sharkey, T.D. and Raschke, K. (1981) Effect of Light Quality on Stomatal Opening in Leaves of Xanthium strumarium L. Plant Physiology, 68, 1170-1174.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1104/pp.68.5.1170
[35] Savvides, A., Fanourakis, D. and van Ieperen, W. (2012) Co-Ordination of Hydraulic and Stomatal Conductances across Light Qualities in Cucumber Leaves. Journal of Experimental Botany, 63, 1135-1143.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jxb/err348
[36] He, J., Lee, S.K. and Dodd, I.C. (2001) Limitations to Photosynthesis of Lettuce Grown under Tropical Conditions: Alleviation by Root-Zone Cooling. Journal of Experimental Botany, 52, 1323-1330.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jexbot/52.359.1323
[37] He, J. and Lee, S.K. (2004) Photosynthetic Utilization of Radiant Energy by Temperate Lettuce Grown under Natural Tropical Condition with Manipulation of Root-Zone Temperature. Photosynthetica, 42, 457-463.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/B:PHOT.0000046166.29815.94
[38] Krause, G.H. and Weis, E. (1991) Chlorophyll Fluorescence and Photosynthesis: The Basics. Annual Review Plant Physiology and Plant Molecular Biology, 42, 313-349.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev.pp.42.060191.001525
[39] Schreiber, U. and Klughammer, C. (2013) Wavelength-Dependent photodamage to Chlorella Investigated with a New Type of Multi-Color PAM Chlorophyll Fluorometer. Photosynthesis Research, 114, 165-177.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11120-013-9801-x
[40] Hemming, S. (2011) Use of Natural and Artificial Light in Horticulture—Interaction of Plant and Technology. Acta Horticulturae, 907, 25-36.

  
comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2018 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.