Share This Article:

Eye Rubbing as a Possible Cause of Clinical Progressive Keratoconus in a Forme Fruste Keratoconic Family

Abstract Full-Text HTML XML Download Download as PDF (Size:870KB) PP. 19-22
DOI: 10.4236/ojoph.2015.51004    2,436 Downloads   2,828 Views  


We report a case of a 21-year-old male patient who underwent corneal cross-linking (CXL) due to bilateral progressive keratoconus. Topographical screening of his family members was performed for the detection of possible familial keratoconus and showed abnormal topographical patterns resembling to Forme Fruste Keratoconus (FFK) in all the members of his family. The reported keratoconic patient that underwent CXL was the only individual of this family that referred eye rubbing in his personal ocular history; ocular and medical history of the other family members was clear. Eye rubbing could be a possible adjuvant risk factor that contributes to conversion of FFK to clinical progressive keratoconus.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Cite this paper

Kymionis, G. , Tsoulnaras, K. , Blazaki, S. and Grentzelos, M. (2015) Eye Rubbing as a Possible Cause of Clinical Progressive Keratoconus in a Forme Fruste Keratoconic Family. Open Journal of Ophthalmology, 5, 19-22. doi: 10.4236/ojoph.2015.51004.


[1] Rabinowitz, Y.S. (1998) Keratoconus. Survey of Ophthalmology, 42, 297-319.
[2] Steele, T.M., Fabinyi, D.C., Couper, T.A. and Loughnan, M.S. (2008) Prevalence of Orbscan II Corneal Abnormalities in Relatives of Patients with Keratoconus. Clinical Experimental Ophthalmology, 36, 824-830.
[3] McMonnies, C.W. (2009) Mechanisms of Rubbing-Related Corneal Trauma in Keratoconus. Cornea, 28, 607-6015.
[4] Wollensak, G., Spoerl, E. and Seiler, T. (2003) Riboflavin/Ultraviolet-A-Induced Collagen Crosslinking for the Treatment of Keratoconus. American Journal of Ophthalmology, 135, 620-627.
[5] Saad, A. and Gatinel, D. (2010) Topographic and Tomographic Properties of Forme Fruste Keratoconus Corneas. Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, 51, 5546-5555.
[6] Amsler, M. (1946) KeratoconeClassiqueetKeratoconeFruste, Arguments Unitaires.Ophtalmologica. 111, 96-101.
[7] Nielsen, K., Hjortdal, J., Pihlmann, M. and Corydon, T.J. (2013) Update on the Keratoconus Genetics. Acta Ophthalmologica, 291, 106-113.
[8] Balasubramanian, S.A., Pye, D.C. and Willcox, M.D. (2013) Effects of Eye Rubbing on the Levelsof Protease, Protease Activity and Cytokines in Tears: Relevance in Keratoconus. Clinical and Experimental Optometry, 96, 214-218.

comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2018 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.