Share This Article:

Significance of Personal Exposure Assessment to Air Pollution in the Urban Areas of Egypt

DOI: 10.4236/ojap.2015.41001    3,598 Downloads   4,598 Views  

ABSTRACT

Air pollution, both indoor and outdoor, has been found to be related to serious adverse health effects. Accurate estimation of air pollution exposure has become very important to suggest proper air pollution control policies and to further assess the effectiveness of these policies. In many instances, personal exposures have been found to be greater than concentrations measured at fixed site monitoring stations. As people spend most of their time indoors particularly during harsh weather conditions, it is necessary to consider indoor air quality in exposure assessment studies. The current paper focuses on the importance of personal exposure assessment based on spatial and temporal activity patters both indoors and outdoors.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Cite this paper

Abdel-Salam, M. (2015) Significance of Personal Exposure Assessment to Air Pollution in the Urban Areas of Egypt. Open Journal of Air Pollution, 4, 1-6. doi: 10.4236/ojap.2015.41001.

References

[1] Zartarian, V.G., Ott, W.R. and Duan, N. (1997) A Quantitative Definition of Exposure and Related Concepts. Journal of Exposure Analysis and Environmental Epidemiology, 7, 411-438.
[2] Katsouyanni, K., Schwartz, J., Spix, C., Touloumi G., Zxirou, D., Zanobetti, A., Wojtyniak, B., Vonk, J.M., Tobias, A., Ponka, A., Medina, S., Bacharova, L. and Anderson, H.R. (1996) Short Term Effects of Air Pollution on Health: A European Approach Using Epidemiologic Time Series Data: The APHEA Protocol. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 50, S12-S18.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jech.50.Suppl_1.S12
[3] Schwartz, J., Spix, C., Touloumi G., Bacharova, L., Barumamdzadeh, T., le Tetre, A., Tierkarski, T., Ponce de Leon, A., Ponka, A., Rossi, G., Saez, M. and Schouten, J.P. (1996) Methodological Issues in Studies of Air Pollution and Daily Counts of Deaths or Hospital Admissions. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 50, S3-S11.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jech.50.Suppl_1.S3
[4] Atkinson, R.W., Anderson, H.R., Strachan, D.P., Bland, J.M., Bremner, S.A. and de Leon, A.P. (1999) Short Term Associations between Emergency Hospital Admissions for Respiratory and Cardiovascular Disease and Outdoor Pollution in London. Archives of Environmental Health, 54, 398-411.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00039899909603371
[5] Wallace, L.A. (1995) Human Exposure to Environmental Pollutants: A Decade of Experience. Clinical and Experimental Allergy, 25, 4-9. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2222.1995.tb00996.x
[6] Violante, F.S., Barbieri, A., Curti, S., Sanguinetti, G., Graziosi, F. and Mattioli, S. (2006) Urban Atmospheric Pollution: Personal Exposure versus Fixed Monitoring Station Measurements. Chemosphere, 64, 1722-1729.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2006.01.011
[7] Bahadori, T., Suh, H. and Koutrakis, P. (1999) Issues in Human Particulate Exposure Assessment: Relationship between Outdoor, Indoor and Personal Exposures. Human and Ecological Risk Assessment, 5, 459-470.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10807039.1999.10518871
[8] Watt, M., Godden, D., Cherrie, J. and Seaton, A. (1995) Individual Exposure to Particulate Air Pollution and Its Relevance to Thresholds for Health Effects. Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 52, 790-792.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/oem.52.12.790
[9] Dockery, D.W., Pope, C.A., Xu, X., Spengler, J.D., Ware, J.H., Fay, M.E., Ferris, B.G. and Speizer, F.E. (1993) An Association between Air Pollution and Mortality in Six U.S. Cities. New England Journal of Medicine, 329, 1753-1759. http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJM199312093292401
[10] Schwartz, J. (1994) Air Pollution and Daily Mortality: A Review and Meta Analysis. Environmental Research, 64, 36-52. http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/enrs.1994.1005
[11] WHO (2001) World Health Report. World Health Organization, Geneva.
[12] WHO (2002) World Health Report: Reducing Risks, Promoting Healthy Life. World Health Organization, Geneva.
[13] Pope, C.A. and Dockery, D.W. (2006) Health Effects of Fine Particulate Air Pollution: Lines that Connect. Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association, 56, 709-742.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10473289.2006.10464485
[14] Van Vliet, P., Knape, M., de Hartog, J., Janssen, N.A.H., Harssema, H. and Brunekreef, B. (1997) Air Pollution from Road Traffic and Chronic Respiratory Symptoms in Children Living near Motorways. Environmental Research, 74, 122-132. http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/enrs.1997.3757
[15] Ciccone, G., Forastiere, F., Agabiti, N., Biggeri, A., Bisanti, L., Chellini, E., Corbo, G., Dell’Orco, V., Dalmasso, P., Volante, T.F., Galassi, C., Piffer, S., Renzoni, E., Rusconi, F., Sestini, P. and Viegi, G. (1998) Road Traffic and Adverse Respiratory Effects in Children. Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 55, 771-778.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/oem.55.11.771
[16] Kramer, U., Koch, T., Ranft, U., Ring, J. and Behrendt, H. (2000) Traffic-Related Air Pollution Is Associated with Atopy in Children Living in Urban Areas. Epidemiology, 11, 64-70.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00001648-200001000-00014
[17] Schwartz, J. (1993) Air Pollution and Daily Mortality in Birmingham, Alabama. American Journal of Epidemiology, 137, 1136-1147.
[18] Verhoeff, A.P., Hoek, G., Schwartz, J. and van Wijuen, J.H. (1996) Air Pollution and Daily Mortality in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Epidemiology, 7, 225-230. http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00001648-199605000-00002
[19] Janssen, N.A.H., Fischer, P., Marra, M., Ameling, C. and Cassee, F.R. (2013) Short-Term Effects of PM2.5, PM10 and PM2.5-10 on Daily Mortality in the Netherlands. Science of the Total Environment, 464, 20-26.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2013.05.062
[20] Schwartz, J., Slater, D., Larson, T.V., Pierson, W.E. and Koenig, J.Q. (1993) Particulate Air Pollution and Hospital Emergency Room Visits for Asthma in Seattle. American Review of Respiratory Disease, 147, 826-831.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1164/ajrccm/147.4.826
[21] Dockery, D.W. and Pope, C.A. (1994) Acute Respiratory Effects of Particulate Air Pollution. Annual Review of Public Health, 15, 107-132. http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev.pu.15.050194.000543
[22] Schwartz, J. and Morris, R. (1995) Air Pollution and Hospital Admissions for Cardiovascular Disease in Detroit, Michigan. American Journal of Epidemiology, 142, 23-35.
[23] Jones, N.C., Thornton, C.A., Mark, D. and Harrison, R.M. (2000) Indoor/Outdoor Relationships of Particulate Matter in Domestic Homes with Roadside, Urban and Rural Locations. Atmospheric Environment, 34, 2603-2612.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1352-2310(99)00489-6
[24] Abdel-Salam, M.M. (2012) Indoor Particulate Matter in Different Residential Areas of Alexandria City, Egypt. Indoor & Built Environment, 21, 857-862. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1420326X11422262
[25] Abdel-Salam, M.M. (2013) Indoor Particulate Matter in Urban Residences of Alexandria, Egypt. Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association, 63, 956-962.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10962247.2013.801374
[26] Seaton, A., Soutar, A., Crawford, V., Elton, R., McNerlan, S., Cherrie, J., Watt, M., Agius, R. and Stout, R. (1999) Particulate Air Pollution and the Blood. Thorax, 54, 1027-1032.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/thx.54.11.1027
[27] Spengler, J.D., Treitman, R.D., Tosteson, T.D., Mage, D.T. and Soczek, M.L. (1985) Personal Exposures to Respirable Particulates and Implications for Air Pollution Epidemiology. Environmental Science and Technology, 19, 700-707.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/es00138a008
[28] Wallace, L. (1993) A Decade of Studies of Human Exposure: What Have We Learned. Risk Analysis, 13, 135-139.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1539-6924.1993.tb01059.x
[29] Chan, L.Y., Kwok, W.S. and Chan, C.Y. (2000) Human Exposure to Respirable Suspended Particulate and Airborne Lead in Different Roadside Microenvironments. Chemosphere, 41, 93-99.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0045-6535(99)00394-X
[30] Janssen, N.A.H., van Vliet, P.H.N., Aarts, F., Harssema, H. and Brunekreef, B. (2001) Assessment of Exposure to Traffic Related Air Pollution of Children Attending Schools near Motorways. Atmospheric Environment, 35, 3875-3884. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1352-2310(01)00144-3
[31] Rojas-Bracho, L., Suh, H.H., Oyola, B. and Koutrakis, P. (2002) Measurements of Children’s Exposures to Particles and Nitrogen Dioxide in Santiago, Chile. Science of the Total Environment, 287, 249-264.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0048-9697(01)00987-1
[32] Mukherjee, A.K., Bhattacharya, S.K., Ahmed, S., Roy, S.K., Roychowdhury, A. and Sen, S. (2003) Exposure of Drivers and Conductors to Noise, Heat, Dust and Volatile Organic Compounds in the State Transport Special Buses of Kolkata City. Transportation Research, D8, 11-19. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1361-9209(02)00015-9
[33] Gulliver, J. and Briggs, D.J. (2004) Personal Exposure to Particulate Air Pollution in Transport Microenvironments. Atmospheric Environment, 38, 1-8.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2003.09.036
[34] Kaur, S., Nieuwenhuijsen, M.J. and Colvile, R.N. (2005) Pedestrian Exposure to Air Pollution along a Major Road in Central London, UK. Atmospheric Environment, 39, 7307-7320. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2005.09.008
[35] Dons, E., Panis, L., Poppel, M., Theunis, J., Willems, H., Torfs, R. and Wets, G. (2011) Impact of Time-Activity Patterns on Personal Exposure to Black Carbon. Atmospheric Environment, 45, 3594-3602.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2011.03.064
[36] Steinle, S., Reis, S. and Sabel, C. (2013) Quantifying Human Exposure to Air Pollution—Moving from Static Monitoring to Spatio-Temporally Resolved Personal Exposure Assessment. Science of the Total Environment, 443, 184-193.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2012.10.098
[37] Loth, K. and Ashmore, M. (1994) Assessment of Personal Exposure to Air Pollution. Clean Air, 24, 114-122.
[38] Letz, R., Ryan, P.B. and Spengler, J.D. (1984) Estimated Distribution of Personal Exposure to Respirable Particles. Environmental Monitoring Assessment, 4, 351-359. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00394173
[39] Ashmore, M. and Dimitroulopoulou, C. (2009) Personal Exposure of Children to Air Pollution. Atmospheric Environment, 43, 128-141. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2008.09.024
[40] An, X., Hou, Q., Li, N. and Zhai, S. (2013) Assessment of Human Exposure Level to PM10 in China. Atmospheric Environment, 70, 376-386. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2013.01.017
[41] Wallace, L.A. (1989) Major Sources of Benzene Exposure. Environmental Health Perspectives, 82, 165-169.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.8982165
[42] Chan, C., Spengler, J., Ozkaynak, H. and Lefkopoulou, M. (1991) Commuter Exposures to VOCs in Boston, Massachusetts. Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association, 41, 1594-1600.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10473289.1991.10466955
[43] Steinemann, A. (2004) Human Exposure, Health Hazards, and Environmental Regulations. Environmental Impact Assessment Review, 24, 695-710. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.eiar.2004.06.002

  
comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2018 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.