Share This Article:

Capitalist Reform, the Dismantling of the Iron Rice Bowl and Land Expropriation in China: A Theory of Primitive Accumulation and State Power

Abstract Full-Text HTML XML Download Download as PDF (Size:2712KB) PP. 41-60
DOI: 10.4236/sm.2015.51006    3,546 Downloads   4,415 Views   Citations
Author(s)    Leave a comment

ABSTRACT

Chinese economic reforms since 1980 were accompanied by the systematic privatization and devolution of state-owned enterprises, the removal of the social welfare system in the form of the “iron rice bowl”, and the land expropriation of farmers. This paper uses Marx’ theory of primitive accumulation and Weber's theory of state power to argue that these socio-economic measures are needed in order to create a class of wage laborers, who are needed to fuel capitalist development in contemporary China. The central, provincial, and local states in China are playing a crucial role in enforcing the privatization of state-owned enterprises, the removal of the social welfare system and land expropriation.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Cite this paper

Liu, L. (2015) Capitalist Reform, the Dismantling of the Iron Rice Bowl and Land Expropriation in China: A Theory of Primitive Accumulation and State Power. Sociology Mind, 5, 41-60. doi: 10.4236/sm.2015.51006.

References

[1] Aronowitz, S., & DiFazio, W. (1994). The Jobless Future: Sci-Tech and the Dogma of Work. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
[2] Banister, J., Bloom, D. E., & Rosenberg, L. (2012). Population Aging and Economic Growth in China. In M. Aoki, & J. L. Wu (Eds.), The Chinese Economy: A New Transition (pp. 114-149). Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan.
[3] Birnbaum, N. (1953). Conflicting Interpretations of the Rise of Capitalism: Marx and Weber. The British Journal of Sociology, 4, 125-141.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/587207
[4] Bittman, M. (1986). A Bourgeois Marx? Max Weber’s Theory of Capitalist Society: Reflections on Utility, Rationality and Class Formation. Thesis Eleven, 15, 81-91.
[5] Blumenthal, D., & Hsiao, W. (2005). Privatization and Its Discontents—The Evolving Chinese Health Care System. New England Journal of Medicine, 353, 1165-1170.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMhpr051133
[6] Bourdieu, P. (1998). The State Nobility: Elite Schools in the Field of Power. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
[7] Brandt, L., & Rawski, T. G. (Eds.) (2008). China’s Great Economic Transformation. New York: Cambridge University Press.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511754234
http://kczx.xhu.edu.cn/G2S/eWebEditor/uploadfile/20120427135908_684449439144.pdf#page=25
[8] Breslin, S. (2007). China and the Global Political Economy. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1057/9780230223943
[9] Brynjolfsson, E., & McAfee, A. (2012). Race against Machine: How the Digital Revolution Is Accelerating Innovation, Driving Productivity, and Irreversibly Transforming Employment and the Economy. Lexington: Digital Frontier Press.
[10] Cai, F., & Wang, M. Y. (2006). Challenge Facing China’s Economic Growth in Its Aging but Not Affluent Era. China & World Economy, 14, 20-31.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1749-124X.2006.00035.x
[11] Cai, F., Park, A., & Zhao, Y. H. (2008). Chinese Labor Market in the Reform Era. In L. Brandt, & T. Rawski (Eds.), China’s Great Economic Transformation (pp. 167-214). New York: Cambridge University Press.
http://iple.cass.cn/upload/2012/06/d20120606093826741.pdf
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511754234.007
[12] Cai, M. (2012). Land-Locked Development: The Local Political Economy of Institutional Change in China. Ph.D. Dissertation, Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin-Madison.
[13] Cai, Y. S. (2003). Collective Ownership or Cadres’ Ownership? The Non-Agricultural Use of Farmland in China. The China Quarterly, 175, 662-680.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0305741003000890
[14] Cai, Y. S. (2008). Local Governments and the Suppression of Popular Resistance in China. The China Quarterly, 193, 24-42.
[15] Campbell, J. L., & Pedersen, O. K. (Eds.) (2001). The Rise of Neoliberalism and Institutional Analysis. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
[16] Chambers, J. D. (1953). Enclosure and Labour Supply in the Industrial Revolution. The Economic History Review, 5, 319- 343.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2591811
[17] Chan, A., & Siu, K. (2012). Chinese Migrant Workers: Factors Constraining the Emergence of Class Consciousness. In B. Carrillo, & D. S. G. Goodman (Eds.), China’s Peasants and Workers: Changing Class Identities (pp. 79-101). Glos: Edward Elgar Publishing.
http://dx.doi.org/10.4337/9781781005736.00012
[18] Chan, K. W., & Hu, Y. (2003). Urbanization in China in the 1990s: New Definition, Different Series, and Revised Trends. China Review, 3, 49-71.
http://courses.washington.edu/chinageo/Chan-Hu-urbanization.pdf
[19] Chan, K. W., & Zhang, L. (1999). The Hukou System and Rural-Urban Migration in China: Processes and Changes. The China Quarterly, 160, 818-855.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0305741000001351
[20] Chang, G. H., & Brada, J. C. (2006). The Paradox of China’s Growing Under-Urbanization. Economic Systems, 30, 24-40.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecosys.2005.07.002
[21] Chen, S. H., & Ravillion, M. (2008). China Is Poorer than We Thought, but No Less Successful in the Fight against Poverty. Policy Research Working Paper No. 4621, World Bank.
[22] Cheng, X. Q., & Degryse, H. (2010). The Impact of Bank and Non-Bank Financial Institutions on Local Economic Growth in China. Journal of Financial Services Research, 37, 179-199.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10693-009-0077-4
[23] Collins, R. (1975). Conflict Sociology: Toward an Explanatory Science. New York: Academic Press.
[24] Collins, R. (1980). Weber’s Last Theory of Capitalism: A Systematization. American Sociological Review, 45, 925-942.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2094910
[25] Collins, R. (1986). Weberian Sociological Theory. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511557682
[26] Collins, R. (1994). Four Sociological Traditions. New York: Oxford University Press.
[27] Collins, R. (2010). Technological Displacement and Capitalist Crises: Escapes and Dead Ends. Political Conceptology, 1, 23-34.
http://politconcept.sfedu.ru/2010.1/05.pdf
[28] Collins, R. (2013). The End of Middle-Class Work: No More Escapes. In G. Derleugian (Ed.), Does Capitalism Have a Future (pp. 37-70)? New York: Oxford University Press.
[29] Confucius (n.d.). The Analects of Confucius.
http://wengu.tartarie.com/wg/wengu.php?l=Lunyu&no=312
[30] Dahrendorf, R. (1959). Class and Class Conflict in Industrial Society. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
[31] Derleugian, G., Wallerstein, I., Collins, R., Mann, M., & Calhoun, C. (2013). Does Capitalism Have a Future? New York: Oxford University Press.
[32] Diamond, J. M. (1997). Guns, Germs, and Steel: The Fates of Human Societies. New York: W.W. Norton.
[33] Ding, C. R. (2007). Policy and Praxis of Land Acquisition in China. Land Use Policy, 24, 1-13.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.landusepol.2005.09.002
[34] Ding, D. Z., Goodall, K., & Warner, M. (2000). The End of the “Iron Rice-Bowl”: Whither Chinese Human Resource Management. International Journal of Human Resource Management, 11, 217-236.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/095851900339837
[35] Domhoff, G. W. (1990). The Power Elite and the State: How Policy Is Made in America. Poscataway, NJ: Transaction Books.
[36] Du, Y., Park, A., & Wang, S. G. (2005). Migration and Rural Poverty in China. Journal of Comparative Economics, 33, 688- 709.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jce.2005.09.001
[37] Duménil, G., & Lévy, D. (2001). Costs and Benefits of Neoliberalism. A Class Analysis. Review of International Political Economy, 8, 578-607.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09692290110077593
[38] Duménil, G., & Lévy, D. (2009). The Nature and Contradictions of Neoliberalism. Socialist Register, 38, 43-71.
[39] Duménil, G., & Lévy, D. (2011). The Crisis of Neoliberalism. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
[40] Economist (2011). Robots Don’t Complain. August 6, 2011.
http://www.economist.com/node/21525432
[41] Elfstrom, M., & Kuruvilla, S. (2012). The Changing Nature of Labor Unrest in China. Proceedings of the International Labor and Employment Relations Conference, Philadelphia, 2-5 July 2012, 1-44.
[42] Elvin, M. (1973). The Pattern of the Chinese Past: A Social and Economic Interpretation. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
[43] Engels, F. (1884). Origins of the Family, Private Property and the State. Marxists.org.
http://www.marxists.org/archive/marx/works/1884/origin-family/
[44] Epstein, G. A. (Ed.) (2005). Financialization and the World Economy. Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar Publishing.
[45] Frazier, M. W. (2002). The Making of the Chinese Industrial Working Place: State, Revolution and Labor Management. New York: Cambridge University Press.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511510076
[46] Fung, H. L. (2001). The Making and Melting of the “Iron Rice Bowl” in China 1949 to 1995. Social Policy & Administration, 35, 258-273.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1467-9515.00232
[47] Gates, H. (1987). Money for the Gods. Modern China, 13, 259-277.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/009770048701300301
[48] Giddens, A. (1970). Marx, Weber, and the Development of Capitalism. Sociology, 4, 289-310.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/003803857000400301
[49] Giles, J., Park, A., & Zhang, J. W. (2005). What Is China’s True Unemployment Rate? China Economic Review, 16, 149-170.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chieco.2004.11.002
[50] Gobel, C., & Ong, L. (2012). Social Unrest in China. London: Europe China Research and Advice Network.
[51] Goldstone, J. A. (1991). Revolution and Rebellion in the Early Modern World. Berkeley and Los Angeles, CA: University of California Press.
[52] Graham, E. M., & Wada, E. (2003). Foreign Direct Investment in China, In: P. Drysdale, Y. Huang, & M. Kawai (Eds.), Achieving High Growth: Experience of Transitional Economies in East Asia (pp. 112-134). London and Sydney: Routledge.
[53] Granovetter, M. (1985). Economic Action and Social Structure: The Problem of Embeddedness. American Journal of Sociology, 91, 481-510.
http://sociology.stanford.edu/people/documents/Embeddedness1985AJS.pdf
http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/228311
[54] Guo, X. (2001). Land Expropriation and Rural Conflicts in China. The China Quarterly, 166, 422-439.
http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0305-7410%28200106%290%3A166%3C422%3ALEARCI%3E2.0.CO%3B2-T
[55] Habermas, J. (1975). Legitimation Crisis. Boston, MA: Beacon Press.
[56] Hare, D. (1999). “Push” versus “Pull” Factors in Migration Outflows and Returns: Determinants of Migration Status and Spell Duration among China’s Rural Population. The Journal of Development Studies, 35, 45-72.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00220389908422573
[57] Harrell, S. (1987). The Concept of Fate in Chinese Folk Ideology. Modern China, 13, 90-109.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/009770048701300105
[58] Harvey, D. (2003). The New Imperialism. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
http://eatonak.org/IPE501/downloads/files/New%20Imperialism.pdf
[59] Harvey, D. (2005). A Brief History of Neoliberalism. New York: Oxford University Press.
http://www.sok.bz/web/media/video/ABriefHistoryNeoliberalism.pdf
[60] Harvey, D. (2010). The Enigma of Capital and the Crises of Capitalism. New York: Oxford University Press.
[61] Hasan, I., Wachtel, P., & Zhou, M. M. (2009). Institutional Development, Financial Deepening and Economic Growth: Evidence from China. Journal of Banking & Finance, 33, 157-170.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jbankfin.2007.11.016
[62] He, S. J., Liu, Y. T., Webster, C., & Wu, F. L. (2009). Property Rights Redistribution, Entitlement Failure and the Impoverishment of Landless Farmers in China. Urban Studies, 46, 1925-1949. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0042098009106015
[63] He, X. H. (2009). The Development of Entrepreneurship and Private Enterprise in the People’s Republic of China and Its Relevance to Transitional Economies. Journal of Developmental Entrepreneurship, 14, 39-58.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1142/S1084946709001132
[64] Hilferding, R. (1910). Finance Capital (Finanzkapital). Marxists.org.
https://www.marxists.org/archive/hilferding/1910/finkap/index.htm
[65] Hill, C. (1972). The World Turned Upside Down: Radical Ideas During the English Revolution. London: Temple Smith.
[66] Hobbes, T. (1969). Leviathan. Aldershot: Scolar Press.
[67] Hu, A. G. (2007). Economic and Social Transformation in China. Oxon: Routledge.
[68] Huang, Y. S. (2008). Capitalism with Chinese Characteristics. New York: Cambridge University Press.
http://www.langtoninfo.com/web_content/9780521898102_frontmatter.pdf
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511754210
[69] Hughes, N. C. (1998). Smashing the Iron Rice Bowl. Foreign Affairs, 77, 67-77.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/20048966
[70] Khan, A. R., & Riskin, C. (1998). Income and Inequality in China: Composition, Distribution and Growth of Household Income, 1988 to 1995. The China Quarterly, 154, 221-253.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0305741000002022
[71] Knight, J., & Song, L. N. (1999). The Rural-Urban Divide: Economic Disparities and Interactions in China. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198293309.001.0001
[72] Knight, J., Song, L. N., & Jia, H. B. (1999). Chinese Rural Migrants in Urban Enterprises: Three Perspectives. Journal of Development Studies, 35, 73-104.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00220389908422574
[73] Kraus, W. (1991). Private Business in China: Revival between Ideology and Pragmatism. Honolulu, HI: University of Hawaii Press.
[74] Krippner, G. R. (2005). The Financialization of the American Economy. Socio-Economic Review, 3, 173-208.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/SER/mwi008
[75] Lanier, J. (2013). Who Owns the Future? New York: Simon and Schuster.
[76] Lardy, N. R. (2002). Integrating China into the Global Economy. Washington DC: Brookings Institution Press.
[77] Lardy, N., & Borst, N. (2013). A Blueprint for Rebalancing the Chinese Economy. Peterson Institute for International Economics, Policy Brief, No. 13-02.
http://spaces.iie.com/publications/pb/pb13-2.pdf
[78] Lee, L. (2012). Decomposing Wage Differentials between Migrant Workers and Urban Workers in Urban China’s Labor Markets. China Economic Review, 23, 461-470.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chieco.2012.03.004
[79] Lenin, V. I. (1917). Imperialism: The Highest Stage of Capitalism (Империализмкаквысшаястадиякапита
лизма). Marxists.org.
http://www.marxists.org/archive/lenin/works/1916/imp-hsc/
[80] Lenski, G. E. (1966). Power and Privilege: A Theory of Social Stratification. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press.
[81] Leung, J. C. B. (1994). Dismantling the “Iron Rice Bowl”: Welfare Reforms in the People’s Republic of China. Journal of Social Policy, 23, 341-361.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0047279400021899
[82] Li, Q., Huang, J. K., Luo, R. F., & Liu, C. F. (2013). China’s Labor Transition and the Future of China’s Rural Wages and Employment. China & World Economy, 21, 4-24.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1749-124X.2013.12019.x
[83] Liang, Z., & Ma, Z. D. (2004). China’s Floating Population: New Evidence from the 2000 Census. Population and Development Review, 30, 467-488.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1728-4457.2004.00024.x
[84] Lichtenberg, E., & Ding, C. R. (2008). Assessing Farmland Protection Policy in China. Land Use Policy, 25, 59-68.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.landusepol.2006.01.005
[85] Lin, J. Y., Cai, F., & Li, Z. (1996). The China Miracle: Development Strategy and Economic Reform. Hong Kong: Chinese University Press.
http://www.cato.org/sites/cato.org/files/serials/files/cato-journal/1998/1/cj18n1-11.pdf
[86] Liu, L. (2013a). Does Marx Still Matter in the 21st Century? Mr. Liu’s Opinion, October 11.
[87] Liu, L. (2013b). Technology and Unemployment: The Future of the Labor Market and Jobs. Penn Political Review, November 11.
http://pennpoliticalreview.org/2013/11/technology-and-unemployment-the-future-of-the-labor-market-and-jobs/
[88] Liu, S. H., Li, X. B., & Zhang, M. (2003). Scenario Analysis on Urbanization and Rural-Urban Migration in China. Vienna: International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis.
http://webarchive.iiasa.ac.at/Admin/PUB/Documents/IR-03-036.pdf
[89] Liu, W. D., & Lou, L. M. (2004). A Review on the Land Expropriation and Its Management in China. Journal of Zhejiang University, 1, 63-68.
[90] Liu, Z. Q. (2005). Institution and Inequality: The Hukou System in China. Journal of Comparative Economics, 33, 133-157.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jce.2004.11.001
[91] Lu, C. Z. (2012). Poverty and Development in China: Alternative Approaches to Poverty Assessment. London: Routledge.
[92] Lu, X. B. (2000). Booty Socialism, Bureau-Preneurs, and the State in Transition: Organizational Corruption in China. Comparative Politics, 32, 273-294.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/422367
[93] Luxemburg, R. (1913). The Accumulation of Capital. Marxists.org.
http://www.marxists.org/archive/luxemburg/1913/accumulation-capital/
[94] Ma, T. P., Fok, H. Y., & Ko, W. S. (1997). China’s Public Policies under Reform. Beijing: Chinese Economic Publisher.
[95] Mann, M. (1986). The Sources of Social Power, Vol. I: A History of Power from the Beginning to 1760 AD. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511570896
[96] Mann, M. (1993). The Sources of Social Power: Vol. 2, The Rise of Classes and Nation States 1760-1914. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511570902
[97] Mann, M. (2012a). The Sources of Social Power: Vol. 3, Global Empires and Revolution, 1890-1945. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
[98] Mann, M. (2012b). The Sources of Social Power: Vol. 4, Globalizations, 1945-2011. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
[99] Mannheim, K. (1940). Man and Society in an Age of Reconstruction: Studies in Modern Social Structure. London: Routledge & Kegen Paul.
[100] Marx, K. (1846). The German Ideology. Marxists.org.
http://www.marxists.org/archive/marx/works/1845/german-ideology/
[101] Marx, K. (1848). Manifesto of the Communist Party. Marxists.org.
http://www.marxists.org/archive/marx/works/1848/communist-manifesto/
[102] Marx, K. (1850). Class Struggles in France. Marxists.org.
http://www.marxists.org/archive/marx/works/1850/class-struggles-france/index.htm
[103] Marx, K. (1852). The Eighteenth Brumaire of Louis Bonaparte. Marxists.org.
http://www.marxists.org/archive/marx/works/1852/18th-brumaire/
[104] Marx, K. (1867). Capital Vol. 1. Marxists.org.
http://www.marxists.org/archive/marx/works/1867-c1/
[105] Marx, K. (1871). The Civil War in France. Marxists.org.
http://www.marxists.org/archive/marx/works/1871/civil-war-france/index.htm
[106] Marx, K. (1875). Critique of the Gotha Program. Marxists.org.
http://www.marxists.org/archive/marx/works/1875/gotha/index.htm
[107] Marx, K. (1885). Capital Vol. 2. Marxists.org.
http://www.marxists.org/archive/marx/works/1885-c2/
[108] Marx, K. (1894). Capital Vol. 3. Marxists.org.
http://www.marxists.org/archive/marx/works/1894-c3/
[109] Mencius (n.d.) The Works of Mencius.
http://nothingistic.org/library/mencius/mencius07.html
[110] Merton, R. K. (1957). Social Theory and Social Structure. Glencoe, IL: Free Press.
[111] Meyer, M. W. (2011). Is It Capitalism? Management and Organization Review, 7, 5-18.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1740-8784.2011.00211.x
[112] Mills, C. W. (1956). The Power Elite. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
[113] Moore Jr., B. (1967). Social Origins of Dictatorship and Democracy. Boston, MA: Beacon Press.
[114] Naughton, B. (1995). Growing out of the Plan: Chinese Economic Reform, 1978-1993. New York: Cambridge University Press.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511664335
[115] Naughton, B. (2007). The Chinese Economy: Transitions and Growth. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
[116] Nee, V. (1991). Social Inequalities in Reforming State Socialism: Between Redistribution and Markets in China. American Sociological Review, 56, 267-282.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2096103
http://www.soc.cornell.edu/faculty/nee/pubs/socialinequalitiesinreformingstatesocialism.pdf
[117] Nee, V., & Opper, S. (2012). Capitalism from Below: Markets and Institutional Change in China. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
http://dx.doi.org/10.4159/harvard.9780674065390
[118] Nuyen, A. T. (2013). The “Mandate of Heaven”: Mencius and the Divine Command Theory of Political Legitimacy. Philosophy East and West, 63, 113-126.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1353/pew.2013.0014
[119] Oi, J. C. (1995). The Role of the Local State in China’s Transitional Economy. China Quarterly, 144, 1132-1150.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0305741000004768
[120] Oxfeld, E. (1993). Blood, Sweat, and Mahjong: Family and Enterprise in an Overseas Chinese Community. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
[121] Paden, R. (2002). Marx’s Critique of the Utopian Socialists. Utopian Studies, 13, 67-91.
[122] Parsons, T. (1937). The Structure of Social Action. Whitby, ON: McGraw-Hill.
[123] Perry, E. J. (1993). Shanghai on Strike: The Politics of Chinese Labor. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
[124] Perry, E. J. (1994). Shanghai’s Strike Wave of 1957. China Quarterly, 137, 1-27.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0305741000034020
[125] Perry, E. J., & Li, X. (1997). Proletarian Power: Shanghai in the Cultural Revolution. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
[126] Polanyi, K. (1944). The Great Transformation: Economic and Political Origins of Our Time. New York: Rinehart.
[127] Rifkin, J. (1995). The End of Work: The Decline of the Global Labor Force and the Dawn of the Post-Market Era. New York: Putnam.
[128] Rural Investigation Team, China Statistical Bureau (2003). Shidinongmin de kunnan, xintai he xuyaojiejue de wenti (The Difficulty, Thoughts and Unsolved Problems of Landless Farmers).
http://www.sannong.gov.cn.
[129] Rush, A. (2011). China’s Labour Market. Reserve Bank of Australia.
http://www.rba.gov.au/publications/bulletin/2011/sep/4.html
[130] Schumpeter, J. A. (1942). Socialism, Capitalism and Democracy. New York: Harper and Brothers.
[131] Seeborg, M. C., Jin, Z. H., & Zhu, Y. P. (2000). The New Rural-Urban Labor Mobility in China: Causes and Implications. Journal of Socio-Economics, 29, 39-56.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1053-5357(00)00052-4
[132] Shi, Y. Z. (2001). Technological Capabilities and International Production Strategy of Firms: The Case of Foreign Direct Investment in China. Journal of World Business, 36, 184-204.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1090-9516(01)00048-7
[133] Skocpol, T. (1979). States and Social Revolutions. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511815805
[134] Solinger, D. (2009). State’s Gains, Labor’s Losses: China, France, and Mexico Choose Global Liaisons, 1980-2000. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.
[135] Song, S. F., & Zhang, K. H. (2002). Urbanisation and City Size Distribution in China. Urban Studies, 39, 2317-2327.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0042098022000033890
[136] Stockhammer, E. (2010). Neoliberalism, Income Distribution and the Causes of the Crisis. Research on Money and Finance, London.
[137] Streeck, W. (2013). The Politics of Public Debt: Neoliberalism, Capitalist Development, and the Restructuring of the State. Max Planck-Institut fur Gesellschaftsforschung, Discussion Paper 13/7.
http://www.mpifg.de/pu/mpifg_dp/dp13-7.pdf
[138] Sweezy, P. M. (1942). Theory of Capitalist Development. New York: Monthly Review Press.
[139] Taylor, J. (2009). The Generalissimo: Chiang Kai-shek and the Struggle for Modern China. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
[140] Teiwes, F. C., & Sun, W. (1999). China’s Road to Disaster: Mao, Central Politicians, and Provincial Leaders in the Unfolding of the Great Leap Forward, 1955-1959. New York: ME Sharpe.
[141] Tucker, R. C. (Ed.) (1978). The Marx-Engels Reader. New York: W.W. Norton.
http://leftygazette.files.wordpress.com/2012/01/karl-marx-friedrich-engels-the-marx-engels-reader.pdf
[142] Useem, M. (1979). The Social Organization of the American Business Elite and Participation of Corporation Directors in the Governance of American Institutions. American Sociological Review, 44, 553-572.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2094587
[143] Wakefield, E. G. (1833). England and America, Volume 1. London: R. Bentley.
[144] Walder, A. G. (1989). Factory and Manager in an Era of Reform. China Quarterly, 118, 242-264.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S030574100001780X
[145] Walder, A. G. (1995). Local Government as Industrial Firms: An Organizational Analysis of China’s Transitional Economy. American Journal of Sociology, 101, 263-301.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/230725
[146] Wallerstein, I. (1974). The Modern World-System, I: Capitalist Agriculture and the Origins of the European World-Economy in the Sixteenth Century. San Diego, CA: Academic Press.
[147] Wallerstein, I. (1980). The Modern World-System, II: Mercantilism and the Consolidation of the European World-Economy, 1600-1750. New York: Academic Press.
[148] Wallerstein, I. (1989). The Modern World-System, Vol. III: The Second Great Expansion of the Capitalist World-Economy, 1730-1840’s. San Diego, CA: Academic Press.
[149] Wallerstein, I. (2011). The Modern World-System, Vol. IV: Centrist Liberalism Triumphant, 1789-1914. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
[150] Wallerstein, I. (2013). Structural Crisis, or Why Capitalists May No Longer Find Capitalism Rewarding. In G. Derleugian (Ed.), Does Capitalism Have a Future (pp. 9-36)? New York: Oxford University Press.
[151] Ward, B. (1980). The Chinese Approach to Economic Development. In R. Dernberger (Ed.), China’s Development Experience in Comparative Perspective (pp. 91-119). Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
http://dx.doi.org/10.4159/harvard.9780674367388.c5
[152] Webb, D. (2000). Marx, Marxism and Utopia. Aldershot, UK: Ashgate Pub.
[153] Weber, M. (1946). From Max Weber: Essays in Sociology. New York: Oxford University Press.
[154] Weber, M. (1948). The Theory of Social and Economic Organization. New York: Oxford University Press.
[155] Weber, M. (1978). Economy and Society: An Outline of Interpretive Sociology. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
[156] Weber, M. (1981). General Economic History. Brunswick: Transaction Books.
[157] Wong, K., Fu, D., Li, C. Y., & Song, H. X. (2007). Rural Migrant Workers in Urban China: Living a Marginalised Life. International Journal of Social Welfare, 16, 32-40.
[158] Wong, L. (2001). Welfare Policy Reform. In L. Wong, & N. Flynn (Eds.), The Market in Chinese Social Policy (38-62). Basingstoke: Palgrave.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1057/9781403919939
[159] Wright, E. O. (1997). Class Counts: Comparative Studies in Class Analysis. New York: Cambridge University Press.
http://www.ssc.wisc.edu/~wright/Published%20writing/Class-Counts-chapter-1.pdf
[160] Wu, H. X. (1994). Rural to Urban Migration in the People’s Republic of China. China Quarterly, 139, 669-698.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0305741000043095
[161] Wu, H. X., & Zhou, L. (1996). Rural-to-Urban Migration in China. Asian-Pacific Economic Literature, 10, 54-67.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8411.1996.tb00016.x
[162] Xue, J. J., & Zhong, W. (2003). Unemployment, Poverty and Income Disparity. Asian Economic Journal, 17, 383-405.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8381.2003.00192.x
[163] Yan, S. (2004). Corruption and Market in Contemporary China. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
[164] Yang, D. L. (2004). Remaking the Chinese Leviathan: Market Transition and the Politics of Governance in China. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
[165] Yang, D. T. (1999). Urban-Biased Policies and Rising Income Inequality in China. American Economic Review, 89, 306-310. http://dx.doi.org/10.1257/aer.89.2.306
[166] Yang, D. T., Chen, V. W., & Monarch, R. (2010). Rising Wages: Has China Lost Its Global Labor Advantage? Pacific Economic Review, 15, 482-504.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-0106.2009.00465.x
[167] Yao, Y., & Yueh, L. (2009). Law, Finance, and Economic Growth in China: An Introduction. World Development, 37, 753- 762.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.worlddev.2008.07.009
[168] Yip, B. S. W. (2006). Privatisation. In C. Tubilewicz (Ed.), Critical Issues in Contemporary China (pp. 49-78). Oxon, UK: Routledge.
[169] Zhang, H. F. (2010). The Hukou System’s Constraints on Migrant Workers’ Job Mobility in Chinese Cities. China Economic Review, 21, 51-64.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chieco.2009.10.002
[170] Zhang, K. H. (2005). Why Does So Much FDI from Hong Kong and Taiwan Go to Mainland China? China Economic Review, 16, 293-307.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chieco.2005.02.004
[171] Zhang, K. H., & Song, S. F. (2003). Rural-Urban Migration and Urbanization in China: Evidence from Time-Series and Cross-Section Analyses. China Economic Review, 14, 386-400.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chieco.2003.09.018
[172] Zhang, X. H., & Yuk, H. P. (1998). Determinants of Hong Kong Manufacturing Investment in China: A Survey. Marketing Intelligence & Planning, 16, 260-267.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/02634509810224446
[173] Zhao, X. (2006). Analysis of Income Gap between Urban and Rural Residents in our Country. Cooperative Economy and Technology and Sciences, 6, 12-13.
[174] Zhao, Y. H. (1999a). Leaving the Countryside: Rural-to-Urban Migration Decisions in China. The American Economic Review, 89, 281-286.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1257/aer.89.2.281
[175] Zhao, Y. H. (1999b). Labor Migration and Earnings Differences: The Case of Rural China. Economic Development and Cultural Change, 47, 767-782.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/452431
[176] Zhao, Y. J., & Webster, C. (2011). Land Dispossession and Enrichment in China’s Suburban Villages. Urban Studies, 48, 529-551.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0042098010390238
[177] Zweig, D., & Chen, Z. M. (Eds.) (2007). China’s Reforms and International Political Economy, Volume 27. Oxon: Rout-ledge.

  
comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2018 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.