Share This Article:

Leaching Potential of Diuron and Linuron in Gaza Soils

Abstract Full-Text HTML XML Download Download as PDF (Size:3762KB) PP. 4040-4049
DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2014.526422    2,864 Downloads   3,178 Views   Citations

ABSTRACT

This study investigated the leaching potential of diuron and linuron in different soil types in Gaza Strip, Palestine under laboratory and field conditions. Leaching potential was evaluated by tin columns and bioassay technique using Molokhia as test plant. The responses of the test plant were regressed versus concentrations of the herbicide to estimate linear regression equation and the regression coefficient. The obtained results indicate strong positive association between Molokhia and concentrations of diuron or linuron; accordingly it was used in the bioassay and estimation of the concentrations of the tested herbicides in the leaching depth. Leaching potential was very low in North Gaza and Kkan Younis soil, whereas in the Meddle zone soil was very large. Leaching potential under laboratory conditions was larger that under field conditions. The bioestimated concentrations in soil layer under field conditions were sever folds of magnitude lower than those under laboratory conditions. The interesting outcome of this study is that leaching potential is dependent on soil clay fraction, soil organic matter, and soil pH. These results provided answers to the questions raised by farmers in Gaza Strip.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Cite this paper

El-Nahhal, Y. , Abadsa, M. and Affifi, S. (2014) Leaching Potential of Diuron and Linuron in Gaza Soils. American Journal of Plant Sciences, 5, 4040-4049. doi: 10.4236/ajps.2014.526422.

References

[1] El-Nahhal, Y., Nir, S., Polubesova, T., Margulies, L. and Rubin, B. (1998) Leaching, Phytotoxicity and Weed Control of New Formulations of Alachlor. Journal of Agricultural Food Chemistry, 46, 3305-3313. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jf971062k
[2] El-Nahhal, Y. (2004) Contamination and Safety Status of Plant Food in Arab Countries. Applied Science, 4, 411-417. http://dx.doi.org/10.3923/jas.2004.411.417
[3] PCBS Palestinian Central Bureau of Statistics (2009) Household Environmental Survey, Marine Finding.
[4] Safi, J.M., El-Nahhal, Y., Soliman, S.A. and El-Sebae, A.H. (1993) Mutagenic and Carcinogenic Pesticides Used in the Agricultural Environment of Gaza Strip. The Science of the Total Environment, 132, 371-380. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0048-9697(93)90145-V
[5] Shomar, B., Yahya, A. and Müller, G. (2006) Occurrence of Pesticides in the Groundwater and the Topsoil of the Gaza Strip. Water Air Soil Pollution, 171, 237-251. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11270-005-9038-1
[6] Afifi, S., Alslaibi, T.M. and Moghaier, Y.K. (2011) Assessment of Groundwater Quality Due to the Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Leachate. Environmental Science and Technology Journal, 3, 419-436.
[7] Bauer, E.S., Meyer, H.D., Stahlschmidt-Allner, P. and Sauerwein, H. (1998) Application of an Androgen Receptor Assay for the Characterisation of the Androgenic or Antiandrogenic Activity of Various Phenylurea Herbicides and Their Derivatives. Analyst, 123, 2485-2487.
[8] Thurman, E.M., Goolsby, D.A., Aga, D.S., Pomes, M.L. and Meyer, M.T. (1996) Occurrence of Alachlor and Its Sulfonated Metabolite in Rivers and Reservoirs of the Midwestern United States: The Importance of Sulfonation in the Transport of Chloroacetanilide Herbicides. Environmental Science Technology, 30, 569-574. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/es950341q
[9] Ritter, W.F., Chirnside, A.M. and Scarborough, R.W. (1996) Movement and Degradation of Triazines, Alachlor, and Metolachlor in Sandy Soils. Environmental Science and Health, Part A, 31, 2699-2721
[10] Sannino, A. (1998) Determination of Phenylurea Herbicide Residues in Vegetables by Liquid Chromatography after Gel Permeation Chromatography and Florisil Cartridge Cleanup. AOAC International, 81, 1048-1053.
[11] Caux, P.Y., Kent, R.A., Fan, G.T. and Grande, C. (1998) Canadian Water Guidelines for Linuron. Environmental Toxicology and Water Quality, 13, 1-41.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1098-2256(1998)13:1<1::AID-TOX1>3.0.CO;2-B
[12] Boxall, A.B.A., Comber, S.D., Conrad, A.U., Howcroft, J. and Zaman, N. (2000) Inputs, Monitoring and Fate Modelling of Antifouling Biocides in UK Estuaries. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 40, 898-905. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0025-326X(00)00021-7
[13] Ferrer, I. and Barcelo, D. (1999) Simultaneous Determination of Antifouling Herbicides in Marina Water Samples by On-Line Solid-Phase Extraction Followed by Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectroscopy. Chromatography A, 854, 197-206. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0021-9673(99)00506-3
[14] Martinez, K., Ferrer, I. and Barcelo, D. (2000) Part-per-Trillion Level Determinations of Antifouling Pesticides and Their Byproducts in Seawater Samples by Solid-Phase Extraction Followed by High-Perfomance Liquid Chromato- graphy Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometry. Chromatography A, 879, 27-37. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0021-9673(00)00307-1
[15] Lamoree, M.H., Swart, C.P., van der Horst, A. and van Hattum, B. (2002) Determination of Diuron and the Antifouling Paint Biocide Irgarol 1051 in Dutch Marinas and Coastal Waters. Chromatography A, 970, 183-190. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0021-9673(02)00878-6
[16] Dahl, B. and Blanck, H. (1996) Toxic Effects of the Antifouling Agent Irgarol 1051 on Periphyton Communities in Coastal Water Microcosms. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 32, 342-350.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0025-326X(96)84828-4
[17] Tauler, R., de Azevedo, D.A., Lacorte, S., Cespedes, R., Viana, P. and Barcelo, D. (2001) Organic Pollutants in Surface Waters from Portugal Using Chemometric Interpretation. Environmental Technology, 9, 1043-1054. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09593332208618211
[18] de Almeida Azevedo, D., Lacorte, S., Vinhas, T., Viana, P. and Barcelo, D. (2000) Monitoring of Priority Pesticides and Other Organic Pollutants in River Water from Portugal by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry and Liquid Chromatography-Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometry. Chromatography A, 879, 13-26. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0021-9673(00)00372-1
[19] Giacomazzi, S. and Cochet, N. (2004) Environmental Impact of Diuron Transformation: A Review. Chemosphere, 56, 1021-1032. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2004.04.061
[20] Lapworth, D.J. and Gooddy, D.C. (2006) Source and Persistence of Pesticides in a Semiconfined Chalk Aquifer of Southeast England. Environmental Pollution, 144, 1031-1044.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2005.12.055
[21] El Imache, A., Dahchour, A., Elamrani, B., Dousset, S., Pozzonni, F. and Guzzella, L. (2009) Leaching of Diuron, Linuron and Their Main Metabolites in Undisturbed Field Lysimeters. Environmental Science and Health, Part B, 44, 31-37.
[22] Sørensen, S.R., Simonsen, A. and Aamand, J. (2009) Constitutive Mineralization of Low Concentrations of the Herbicide Linuron by a Variovorax sp. Strain. FEMS Microbiology Letters, 292, 291-296.
[23] Okamura, H., Aoyama, I., Ono, Y. and Nishida, T. (2003) Antifouling Herbicides in the Coastal Waters of Western Japan. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 47, 59-67. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0025-326X(02)00418-6
[24] Smith, C.N., Payne, W.R., Pope, J.D., Winkie, J.H. and Parrish, R.S. (1999) Residues and Transfer of Triazine Herbicides in Ground Waters of Intensively Exploited Arable Land in Wielkopolska Province of Poland. Chemosphere, 38, 875-889. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0045-6535(98)00226-4
[25] Sapozhnikova, Y., Wirth, E., Schiff, K., Brown, J. and Fulton, M. (2007) Antifouling Pesticides in the Coastal Waters of Southern California. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 54, 1962-1989.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.marpolbul.2007.09.026
[26] Wang, W. and Freemark, K. (1995) The Use of Plants for Environmental Monitoring and Assessment. Ecotoxicology Environment, 30, 289-301. http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/eesa.1995.1033
[27] DaSilva, A., Garretson, C., Troiano, J., Ritenour, G. and Krauter, C. (2003) Relating Simazine Performance to Irrigation Management. Weed Technology, 17, 330-337.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1614/0890-037X(2003)017[0330:RSPTIM]2.0.CO;2
[28] El-Nahhal, Y., Abadsa, M. and Affifi, S. (2013) Adsorption of Diuron and Linuron in Gaza Soils. American Journal of Analytical Chemistry, 4, 94-99. http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/ajac.2013.47A013
[29] El-Nahhal, Y., Lagaly, G. and Rabinovitz, O. (2005) Organo-Clay Formulations of Acetochlor: Effect of High Salt. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 53, 1620-1624. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jf040383a
[30] Safi, J., Awad, Y. and El-Nahhal, Y. (2014) Bioremediation of Diuron in Soil and by Cyanobacterial Mat. American Journal of Plant Sciences, 5, 1081-1089. http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/ajps.2014.58120
[31] Bergström, L.F., Bramble Jr., F.Q., Aronsson, P., Brücher, J. and Norwood, G.I. (1996) Leaching of [Phenyl(U)- 14C]Diuron in Scandinavian Soils Using Field Lysimeters. DuPont Report No. AMR 4584, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences and E. I. du Pont de Nemours & Co Inc, Wilmington.
[32] Futch, S.H. and Singh, M. (1999) Herbicide Mobility Using Soil Leaching Columns. Bulletin of Environmental and Contaminant Toxicology, 62, 520-529. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s001289900907
[33] Guzzella, L., Capri, E., Di Corcia, A., Caracciolo, A.B. and Giuliano, G. (2006) Fate of Diuron and Linuron in a Field Lysimeters Experiment. Environmental Quality, 35, 312-323.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2134/jeq2004.0025
[34] APVMA, Australian Pesticides and Veterinary Medicines Authority (2011) Diuron Environment Assessment. Annual Report.
[35] El-Nahhal, Y., Nir, S., Margulies, L. and Rubin, B. (1999) Reduction of Photodegradation and Volatilization of Herbicides in Organo-Clay Formulations. Applied Clay Science, 14, 105-119.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0169-1317(98)00053-2
[36] El-Nahhal, Y., Undabeytia, T., Polubesova, T., Mishael, Y.G., Nir, S. and Rubin, B. (2001) Organo-Clay Formulations of Pesticides: Reduced Leaching and Photodegradation. Applied Clay Science, 18, 309-326. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0169-1317(01)00028-X

  
comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2018 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.