Share This Article:

Delineation of Protection Zones for the Main Discharge Area of the Gran Sasso Aquifer (Central Italy) through an Integrated Geomorphological and Chronological Approach

Abstract Full-Text HTML Download Download as PDF (Size:5509KB) PP. 1816-1832
DOI: 10.4236/jwarp.2014.619161    2,340 Downloads   2,821 Views   Citations

ABSTRACT

The paper proposes a study for the delineation of protection zones in the main discharge area of the Gran Sasso aquifer (Central Italy). At this aim, starting from a detailed geological and hydrogeological reconstruction, the study was divided into the following phases: 1) development of a conceptual model of water flow in the study area; 2) creation of a 3D numerical model in order to simulate the groundwater flow in saturated conditions, both at the basin and at fine-scale; 3) flow path analysis through deterministic and stochastic approaches; 4) assessment of the aquifer vulnerability based on a geomorphological analysis of the catchment area. Conceptual and numerical models were then used to delineate protection zones for wells and springs with chronological criterion and geomorphological-structural criterion (based on the EPIK method). The results show that with a chronological approach protection zones are located along the main flow directions, corresponding to the areas surrounding wells and springs with high hydraulic conductivity values (faults and thrusts) within the satured zone. On the contrary, the geomorphological method has found some important protection zones also quite far from wells and springs, in areas characterized by quick infiltration processes. The protection zones delineated with the stochastic method were finally intersected by the vulnerability map obtained with the EPIK method, to take into account both filtration and infiltration processes. The results show the local vulnerability of the groundwater to the pollution, with protection zones extending 1 to 5 km towards northeast from springs and wells.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Cite this paper

Biava, F. , Consonni, M. , Francani, V. , Gattinoni, P. and Scesi, L. (2014) Delineation of Protection Zones for the Main Discharge Area of the Gran Sasso Aquifer (Central Italy) through an Integrated Geomorphological and Chronological Approach. Journal of Water Resource and Protection, 6, 1816-1832. doi: 10.4236/jwarp.2014.619161.

References

[1] Kacaroglu, F. (1999) Review of Groundwater Pollution and Protection in Karst Areas. Water, Air and Soil Pollution, 113, 337-356.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1005014532330
[2] Scesi, L. and Gattinoni, P. (2009) Water Circulation in Rocks. Springer, London.
[3] Knochemus, L.A. and Robinson. J.L. (1997) Descriptions of Anisotropy and Heterogeneity and Their Effect on Ground-Water Flow and Areas of Contribution to Public Supply Wells in a Karst Carbonate Aquifer System. US Geological Survey, Water Supply Paper 2475.
[4] Doerfliger, N., Jeannin, P.Y. and Zwahlen, F. (1999) Water Vulnerability Assessment in Karst Environments: A New Method of Defining Protection Areas Using a Multi-Attribute Approach and GIS Tools (EPIK Method). Environmental Geology, 39, 165-176.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s002540050446
[5] United States Government (1974) USA Safe Drinking Water Act, Amendments 1986, 1996. Government Printing Office, Washington DC.
[6] EU (2000) EU Directive 2000/60/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of the 23 October 2000 on Institution of a Scheme for Communitarian Action for Water.
[7] EU (2006) EU Directive 2006/118/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of the 12 December 2006 on the Protection of Groundwater against Pollution and Deterioration.
[8] Italian Government (2006) Italian Republic Decree 152/06 Norme in Materia Ambientale [Environment Matter Norms], GU 88(95), Rome.
[9] Vezzani, L. and Ghisetti, F. (1998) Carta Geologica Dell’Abruzzo, a Scala 1:100,000 [Geological Map of Abruzzo, Scale 1:100,000]. S.EL.CA., Florence.
[10] Scozzafava, M. and Tallini, M. (2001) Net Infiltration in the Gran Sasso Massif of the Central Italy Using the Thornthwaite Water Budget and Curve-Number Method. Hydrogeology Journal, 9, 461-475.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s100400100151
[11] Monjoie, A. (1975) Hydrogéologie du Massif du Gran Sasso (Appenin Central) [Hydrogeology of the Gran Saso Massif (Central Appennine)]. Extratit de la collection des Publications de la Faculté del Sciences Appliquées de l’Université de Liège, No. 53.
[12] Petitta, M. and Tallini, M. (2002) Idrodinamica Sotterranea del Massiccio del Gran Sasso (Abruzzo): Nuove Indagini Idrologiche, Idrogeologiche e Idrochimiche (1994-2001) [Groundwater Hydrodinamic of the Gran Sasso Massif (Abruzzo): New Hydrological, Hydrogeological and Hydrodinamic Surveys]. Società Geologica Italiana, 121, 343-363.
[13] Barbieri, M., Boschetti, T., Petitta, M. and Tallini, M. (2005) Stable Isotopes (2H, 18O and 87Sr/86Sr) and Hydrochemistry Monitoring for Groundwater Hydrodynamics Analysis in a Karst Aquifer (Gran Sasso, Central Italy). Applied Geochemistry, 20, 2063-2081.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apgeochem.2005.07.008
[14] Mazziotti Di Celso, G., Spizzico, M. and Tallini, M. (2005) Studio Idrochimico delle Acque Sorgive dell’Acquifero Carsico del Gran Sasso (Italia Centrale) per un Affinamento del Modello Idrochimico Concettuale [Hydrochemical Study of the Karst Gran Sasso Aquifer (Central Italy) in Order to Improve the Concepual Hydrochemical Model]. Giornale di Geologia Applicata, 2, 420-428.
[15] Adinolfi Falcone, R., Falgiani, A., Parisse, B., Petitta, M., Spizzico, M. and Tallini, M. (2008) Chemical and Hysotopic (δ18O‰, δ2H‰, δ13C‰, 222Rn) Multi-Tracing for Groundwater Conceptual Model of Carbonate Aquifer (Gran Sasso INFN Underground Laboratory—Central Italy). Journal of Hydrology, 357, 368-388.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhydrol.2008.05.016
[16] Boni, C., Pianelli, A., Pierdominici, S. and Riusi, M. (2002) Le Grandi Sorgenti del Fiume Tirino (Abruzzo) (The Large Spings of the Tirino River). Memorie delle Società Geologica Italiana, 121, 411-431.
[17] ISPRA (2006) Carta Geologica d’Italia—Foglio n. 360—Torre de Passeri, Scala 1:50,000 (Geological Map of Italy— Sheet n. 360, Scale 1:50,000). CARG Project.
[18] ISPRA (2006) Carta Geologica d’Italia—Foglio n. 369—Sulmona, Scala 1:50.000 (Geological Map of Italy—Sheet n. 369, Scale 1:50,000). CARG Project.
[19] Bear, J. (1972) Dynamics of Fluids in Porous Media. Elsevier, New York.
[20] Bear, J. and Berkowitz, B. (1987) Groundwater Flow and Pollution in Fractured Rock Aquifers. In: Nowak, P., Ed., Development in Hydraulic Engineering, Elsevier, New York, 175-238.
[21] Harbaugh, A.W., Banta, E.R., Hill, M.C. and McDonald, M.G. (2000) MODFLOW-2000, the US Geological Survey Modular Ground-Water Model—User Guide to Modularization Concepts and the Ground-Water Flow Process. US Geological Survey, Open-File Report 00-92.
[22] Bradbury, K.R., Muldoon, M.A., Zaporozec, A. and Levy, J. (1991) Delineation of Wellhead Protection Areas in Fractured Rocks. Technical Guide Document, US EPA, Washington DC.
[23] Robinson, N. and Barker, J. (2000) Delineating Groundwater Protection Zones in Fractured Rock: An Example Using Tracer Testing in Sandstone. Tracer and Modeling in Hydrogeology, 262, 91-96.
[24] Zwalhen, F., Ed. (2003) Vulnerability and Risk Mapping for the Protection of Carbonate (Karst) Aquifers. Final Rep COST620.
[25] Civita, M.V. (2008) An Improve Method for Delineating Source Protection Zones for Kasrt Springs Based on Analysis of Recession Curve Data. Hydrogeology Journal, 16, 855-869.
[26] Pochon, A., Tripet, J.P., Kozel, R., Meylan, B., Sinreich, M. and Zwahlen, F. (2008) Groundwater Protection in Fractured Media: A Vulnerability-Based Approach for Delineating Protection Zones in Switzerland. Hydrogeology Journal, 16, 1267-1281.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10040-008-0323-0
[27] Kavouri, K., Plagnes, V., Tremoulet, J., Dorflinger, N., Rejiba, F. and Marchet, P. (2011) PaPRIKa: A Method for Estimating Karts Resource and Source Vulnerability—Application to the Ouysse Karst System (Southwest France). Hydrogeology Journal, 19, 339-353.
[28] WPO (1998) Water Protection Ordinance of 28 October 1998 (814.201). UNECE, Geneve.

  
comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2019 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.