Share This Article:

Genotypic Effect of Rootstock and Scion on Grafting Success and Growth of Kola (Cola nitida) Seedlings

Abstract Full-Text HTML XML Download Download as PDF (Size:2526KB) PP. 3873-3879
DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2014.526405    3,633 Downloads   4,161 Views   Citations

ABSTRACT

Kola (Cola nitida) is an important economic cash crop for many West and Central African countries. It has several medicinal uses in the pharmaceutical industries and also plays a major role in traditional marriages among Islamic communities across West and Central Africa. The crop is extensively cultivated in Nigeria and Ghana. However, it exhibit signs of total and partial sterility as well as self incompatibility when propagated from seeds in most cases. Therefore, grafting is seen as a method of choice in addressing the problem stated above. Though grafting accounts for some degree of success, there is the need to assess genotypic and physiological factors that account for high or low grafting success. Genetic and physiological factors (such as rootstock age) affecting grafting success and growth in kola (C. nitida) were investigated in two separate experiments. In experiment I720 kola seedlings were raised from unselected kola nuts and sown at two monthly intervals. Four groups of seedlings (180/group) i.e. 6, 8, 10 and 12 months old were thus produced. Three different scions (A1, A12 and JB1) measuring (5-10 cm) were grafted onto the four age groups of rootstocks, namely, 6, 8, 10 and 12 months. Experiment II consisted of 540 seedlings raised from three main crosses (JX1/9 × JX1/11 * B1/142 × B1/151, JX1/9 × JX1/11 * B2/177 × B2/156 and JX1/9 × JX1/11 * GX1/46 × GX1/53). Grafting was done after six months using the same set of scions as described in experiment I. Experimental design used was 3 × 4 and 3 × 3 factorial designs in completely randomised design with three replicates for experiment I and II respectively. The fixed effects were the different genotype and age of rootstock at grafting whilst the response variable was the percentage of successful grafting two months as well as growth at six monthly intervals. Results from the study showed that grafting onto 6 months old stocks gave the highest percentage success and growth of grafts followed by 8, 10 and 12 months old rootstock in that order in both trial years. The study revealed also a significant rootstock and scion interaction (P < 0.05). We conclude that successful grafting in kola depends on rootstock genotype such as JX1/9 × JX1/11 * GX1/46 × GX1/53 and has been proven suitable for use in future kola propagation studies. Nonetheless, suitable rootstock with high grafting success does not translate into vigorous scion growth.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Cite this paper

Dadzie, A. , Akpertey, A. , Yeboah, J. , Opoku, S. , Ofori, A. , Lowor, S. , Ackyeampong, R. , Yeboah, P. , Asamoah, M. and Amoah, F. (2014) Genotypic Effect of Rootstock and Scion on Grafting Success and Growth of Kola (Cola nitida) Seedlings. American Journal of Plant Sciences, 5, 3873-3879. doi: 10.4236/ajps.2014.526405.

References

[1] Onomo, P.F., Niemenak, N. and Ndoumou, D.O. (2006) Isoenzyme Variability of Three Cola (Cola Acuminate (Pal de Beauv, Schott and Endlicher), Cola nitida (Vent) Schott and Endlicher) and Cola anomala (Schott and Endlicher) Germplasm in Cameroon. Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences, 3, 391-397.
[2] Adebola, P.O. (2003) Genetic Characterization and Biosystematic Studies in the Genus Colaschott and Endlicher. Ph.D. Thesis, Submitted to the University of Ibadan, Ibadan, 203.
[3] F.A.O. (2009) Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. http://faostat.fao.org
[4] Osei-Bonsu, K. and Afrifa, A. (1988) The Germination of Kola Nuts (Cola nitida Ventenant) Schott and Endlicher. Ghana Journal of Agricultural Science, 20-23, 33-38.
[5] Amoah, F.M., Osei-Bonsu, K., Akrofi, A.Y. and Abdul-Karimu, A. (2004) Vegetative Propagation of Kola. Ghana Journal of Agricultural Science, 38, 43-53.
[6] Dadzie, M.A., Akpertey, A., Anim Kwapong, G.J., Safo, J.E., Assuah, M.K. and Amoah, F.M. (2013) Vegetative Propagation of Kola. CRIG Progress Report 2012-2013 and Work Plan 2013-2014, 266-268.
[7] Nanda, K.K. and Tandon, R. (1967) Mechanism of Auxin Action on Rooting of Cutting. Proceedings of International Symposium on Plant Growth substances, Calcuta University, Kolkata, 250.
[8] Nanda, K.K., Purohit, A.N., Bala, A. and Anad, V.K. (1968) Seasonal Rooting Response of Stem Cuttings of Some Forest Tree Species to Auxin. Indian Forester, 94, 154-162.
[9] Wang, Y.Q. (2011) Plant Grafting and Its Application in Biological Research. Chinese Science Bulletin, 33, 3511-3517. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11434-011-4816-1
[10] Hatton, R.G. (1927) Rootstock for Pears. Regport of East Mailing Research Station A, 18, 75-86.
[11] Bitters, W.P. (1969) Citrus Rootstocks for Dwarfing. California Agriculture, 4, 5-14.
[12] Moore, R. (1983) Physiological Aspects of Graft Formation. In: Moore, R., Ed., Vegetative Compatibility Responses in Plants, Baylor University Press, Waco, 89-105.
[13] McCully, M.E. (1983) Structural Aspects of Graft Development. In: Moore, R., Ed., Vegetative Compatibility Responses in Plants, Baylor University Press, Waco, 71-78.
[14] Moore, R. and Walker, D.B. (1981) Studies for Vegetative Compatibility-Incompatibility in Higher Plants. A Structural Study of a Compatible Autograft in Sedum telephoides (Crassulceae). American Journal of Botany, 68, 820-830. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2443188
[15] Barnett, J.R. and Weatherhead, I. (1989) The Effect of Scion Water Potential on Graft Success in Sitka Spruce (Picea sitchensis). Annals of Botany, 64, 9-12.
[16] Mergen, F. (1955) Grafting Slash Pine in the Field and in the Greenhouse. Journal of Forestry, 53, 836-842.
[17] Vazifeshenas, M., Khayyat, M., Jamalian, S. and Samadzadeh, A. (2009) Effects of Different Scion—Rootstock Combinations on Vigor, Tree Size, Yield and Fruit Quality of Three Iranian Cultivars of Pomegranate. Technical Paper, 64, 343-349.
[18] Kamboj, S.J. and Quinlan, J.D. (1997) The Apple Rootstock and Its Influence on Endogenous Hormones. Acta Horticulturae, 463, 143-152.
[19] Son, L. and Kuden, A. (2003) Effects of Seedling and GF-31 Rootstocks on Yield and Fruit Quality of Some Table Apricot Cultivars Grown in Mersin. Turkish Journal of Agriculture and Forestry, 27, 261-267.
[20] Kurlus, R. (2008) Rootstock Effects on Growth, Yield and Fruit Quality of Two Sweet Cherry Cultivars in Western Poland. Acta Horticulturae, 795, 293-298.

  
comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2018 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.