Share This Article:

Relative Competitiveness of Nimblewill (Muhlenbergia schreberi) with Tall Fescues and Kentucky Bluegrass

Abstract Full-Text HTML XML Download Download as PDF (Size:2620KB) PP. 3777-3787
DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2014.526395    3,544 Downloads   3,856 Views   Citations

ABSTRACT

Nimblewill (Muhlenbergia schreberi) is a warm-season perennial grass (weed) native to the United States and Canada with low palatability. This species is dominant in many horse pastures in which bluegrass (Poa pratensis) is the primary forage. Tall fescues infected with endophyte fungae gives tall fescue plants greater competitividade ability and enviromental stress tolerance than their noninfected counterparts. The purpose of this study was to compare the relative competitiveness of nimblewill with bluegrass and tall fescues (Lolium arundinaceum) with or without endophytic fungi (strain AR584) through experiments using a replacement series design. Replacement series experiments were conducted in pots to evaluate the growth of species in a pure stand and in a mix stand with variables rates. Species competitiveness was evaluated based on the relative yield and relative yield total (and competitiveness index) of the dry weight of shoots from species grown together. Nimblewill was found to be more competitive than bluegrass, and all tall fescues were more competitive than nimblewill. Our results demonstrated that the presence of endophytes in three different tall fescues did not alter the competitiveness of these fescues with nimblewill, but the tall fescue Kentucky 31 was more competitive between tall fescues. Based on our finding, we concluded that fescues are recommended, especially without the endophytic fungi to suppress nimblewill in implantation of pastures to horses.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Cite this paper

Moraes, P. , Witt, W. , Phillips, T. , Rossi, P. and Panozzo, L. (2014) Relative Competitiveness of Nimblewill (Muhlenbergia schreberi) with Tall Fescues and Kentucky Bluegrass. American Journal of Plant Sciences, 5, 3777-3787. doi: 10.4236/ajps.2014.526395.

References

[1] Bacon, C.W. and Siegel, M.R. (1988) Endophyte Parasitism of Tall Fescue. Journal of Production Agriculture, 1, 45-55. http://dx.doi.org/10.2134/jpa1988.0045
[2] Smith, A.E. (1989) Herbicides for Killing Tall Fescue (Festuca arundinacea) Infected with Fescue Endophyte (Acremonium coenophialum). Weed Technology, 3, 485-489.
[3] Willis, J.B., Beam, J.B., Whitney, L.B., Shawn, D.A. and Mcerroy, J.S. (2007) Selective Nimblewill (Muhlenbergia schreberi) Control in Cool-Season Turfgrass. Weed Technology, 1, 886-889. http://dx.doi.org/10.1614/WT-07-016.1
[4] Baskin, J.M. and Baskin, C.C. (1985) Dormancy Breaking and Germination Requirements of Nimblewill (Muhlenbergia schereberi Gmel.) Seeds. Journal Range Manage, 38, 313-315.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/3899742
[5] Lodge, G.M., Boschma, S.P. and Harden, S. (2009) Replacement Serie Studies of Competition between Tropical Perennial and Annual Grasses and Perennial Grass Mixtures in Northern New South Wales. Crop and Pasture Science, 60, 526-531. http://dx.doi.org/10.1071/CP08374
[6] Crotser, M.P. and Witt, W.W. (2000) Effect of Glycine max Canopy Characteristic, G. max Interference, and Weed-Free Period on Solanum ptycanthum Growth. Weed Science, 48, 20-26. http://dx.doi.org/10.1614/0043-1745(2000)048[0020:EOGMCC]2.0.CO;2
[7] Radosevich, S.R. (1987) Methods to Study Interactions among Crops and Weeds. Weed Technology, 1, 190-198.
[8] Marks, S., Clay, K. and Cheplick, G.P. (1991) Effects of Fungal Endophytes on Interspecific and Intraespecific Competition in the Grass Festuca arundinacea and Lolium perenne. Journal Applied Ecology, 28, 194-204. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2404125
[9] Ren, A.-Z., Goa, Y.-B., Wang, W., Wang, J.-L. and Zhao, N.-X. (2009) Influence of Nitrogen Fertilizer and Endophyte Infection on Ecophysioloical Parameters and Mineral Element Content of Perennial Ryegrass. Journal of Integrative Plant Biology, 51, 75-83.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1744-7909.2008.00721.x
[10] Malinowsky, D.P. and Belesky, D.P. (2000) Adaptation of Endophyte-Infected Cool Season Grasses to Environmental Stress: Mechanisms of Drought and Mineral Stress Tolerance. Crop Science, 40, 923-940. http://dx.doi.org/10.2135/cropsci2000.404923x
[11] Richmond, D.S., Grewal, P.S. and Cardina, J. (2003) Competition between Lolium perenne and Digitaria sanguinalis: Ecological Consequences for Harbouring an Endosymbiotic Fungus. Journal of Vegetation Science, 14, 835-840.
[12] Hoffman, M.L. and Buhler, D.D. (2002) Utilizing Sorghum as a Functional Model of Crop Weed Competition. I. Establishing a Competitive Hierarchy. Weed Science, 50, 466-472.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1614/0043-1745(2002)050[0466:USAAFM]2.0.CO;2
[13] Estorninos, L.E., Gealy, D.R. and Talbert, R.E. (2002) Growth Response of Rice (Oryza sativa) and Red Rice (O. sativa) in a Replacement Series Study. Weed Technology, 16, 401-406.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1614/0890-037X(2002)016[0401:GROROS]2.0.CO;2
[14] Cousens, R. and O’neill, M. (1993) Density Dependence of Replacement Series Experiments. Oikos, 66, 347-352. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/3544824
[15] Bianchi, M.A., Fleck, N.G. and Lamego, F.P. (2006) Proportion among Soybean and Competitor Plants and the Relations of Mutual Interference. Ciência Rural, 36, 1380-1387.
[16] Delwiche, L.D. and Slaughter, S.J. (2003) The Little SAS Book: A Primer. SAS Institute, Cary, 268 p.
[17] Fleming, G.F., Young, F.L. and Ogg, A.G. (1998) Competitive Relationships among Winter Wheat (Triticum aestivium) Jointed Goatgrass (Aegilops cylindrical), and Downy Brome (Brome tectorum). Weed Science, 36, 479-486.
[18] Hill, M.J. and Gleeson, A.C. (1991) Competition between Clare and Seaton Park, and Clare and Daliak Subterranean Clovers in Replacement Series Mixtures in the Field. Australian Journal Agronomy Research, 42, 161-173. http://dx.doi.org/10.1071/AR9910161
[19] Tuor, F.A. and Froud-Willians, R.J. (2002) Interactions between Purple Nutsedge, Maize and Soybean. International Journal Pest Management, 48, 65-71.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09670870110094369
[20] Elmore, C.L., Gibeault, V.A. and Cudney, D.W. (1997) Invasion Resistance of Tall Fescue (Festuca arundinaceae) (sic) and Perennial Ryegrass (Lolium perene) to Kikuyugrass (Pennisetum clandestinum). Weed Technology, 11, 24-29.
[21] Juska, F.V., Tyson, J. and Harrison, C.M. (1955) The Competitive Relationship of Merion Kentucky Bluegrass as Influenced by Various Mixtures, Cutting Heights, and Levels of Nitrogen. Agronomy Journal, 47, 513-518. http://dx.doi.org/10.2134/agronj1955.00021962004700110006x
[22] Peters, E.J. and Mohammed-Zam, A.H.B. (1981) Allelopathic Effects of Tall Fescue Genotypes. Agronomy Journal, 75, 56-58.
[23] Luu, K.T., Matches, A.G. and Peters, E.J. (1982) Allelopathic Effects of Tall Fescue on Birdsfoot Trefoil as Influenced by N Fertilization and Seasonal Changes. Agronomy Journal, 74, 805-808. http://dx.doi.org/10.2134/agronj1982.00021962007400050009x
[24] Coblentz, W.K., Coffey, K.P., Smith, T.F., Hubbell, D.S., Scarbrough, D.A., Humphry, J.B., Mcginley, B.C., Turner, J.E., Jennings, J.A., West, C.P., Popp, M.P., Hellwig, D.H., Kreider, D.L. and Rosenkrans, C.F. (2006) Using Orchardgrass and Endophyte-Free Fescue versus Endophyte-Infected Fescue Overseeded on Bermudagrass for Cow Herbs: I. Four Years Summary of Forage Caracteristics. Crop Science, 46, 1919-1928. http://dx.doi.org/10.2135/cropsci2005.11-0443
[25] Wandscheer, A.C.D., Rizzardi, M.A. and Reichert, M. (2013) Competitive Ability of Corn in Coexistence with Goosegrass. Planta Daninha, 31, 281-289.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0100-83582013000200005

  
comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2018 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.