Share This Article:

A Microwave-Irradiated Streptococcus agalactiae Vaccine Provides Partial Protection against Experimental Challenge in Nile Tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus

Abstract Full-Text HTML XML Download Download as PDF (Size:2539KB) PP. 184-189
DOI: 10.4236/wjv.2014.44021    5,282 Downloads   5,748 Views   Citations

ABSTRACT

Microwave irradiation, as opposed to formalin exposure, has not routinely been used in the preparation of killed vaccines despite the advantages of decreased chemical toxicity, ability to kill cells quickly, ease of completion requiring only a standard microwave, and potential increased protein conservation during irradiation. We evaluated the potential of microwave irradiation versus formalin fixation of bacteria to improve Streptococcus agalactiae vaccine efficacy in 5 gr fish by intraperitoneal (IP) injection and bath immersion (BI). There was no significant difference in the cumulative percent mortality (CPM) post-challenge between fish administered microwave-killed cells (MKC) or formalin killed cells (FKC) within the BI (p < 0.2026) or IP (p < 0.1372) trials. The CPM in fish sham-vaccinated with tryptic soy broth (TSB) was significantly higher than both the FKC and MKC CPM in the IP trial and the FKC CPM (p < 0.0019) in the BI trial. Serum obtained from fish prior to vaccination exhibited minimal anti-S. agalactiae antibody activity. Thirty days after vaccination and just prior to challenge, the optical density (OD) levels of the FKC and MKC groups in the IP trials were significantly higher (p < 0.0001) than that of the TSB group. None of the groups in the BI trial exhibited significantly different OD levels post vaccination. Fourteen days after the challenge, the OD levels of all groups in both trials increased significantly above their pre-challenge levels. Both the FKC and MKC IP groups (p < 0.0001) and only the FKC BI group (p < 0.0351) had significantly increased OD level above that of the corresponding post-challenge TSB group. These results indicate that the FKC vaccine provides marginally greater protection and increased antibody concentrations than the MKC vaccine by BI and the MKC vaccine may become a non-chemical alternative to FKC in vaccination.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Cite this paper

Pasnik, D. , Evans, J. and Klesius, P. (2014) A Microwave-Irradiated Streptococcus agalactiae Vaccine Provides Partial Protection against Experimental Challenge in Nile Tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus. World Journal of Vaccines, 4, 184-189. doi: 10.4236/wjv.2014.44021.

References

[1] Evans, J.J., Klesius, P.H. and Shoemaker, C.A. (2006) An Overview: Streptococcus in Warm-Water Fish. Aquaculture Health International, 7, 10-14.
[2] Plumb, J.A., Schachte, J.H., Gaines, J.L., Peltier, W. and Carroll, B. (1974) Streptococcus sp. from Marine Fishes along the Alabama and Northwest Florida Coast of the Gulf of Mexico. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society, 103, 358-361.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1577/1548-8659(1974)103<358:SSFMFA>2.0.CO;2
[3] Baya, A.M., Lupiani, B., Hetrick, F.M., Roberson, B.S., Lukacovic, R., May, E. and Poukish, C. (1990) Association of Streptococcus sp. with Fish Mortalities in the Chesapeake Bay and Its Tributaries. Journal of Fish Diseases, 13, 251-253.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2761.1990.tb00781.x
[4] Eldar, A., Shapiro, O., Bejerano, Y. and Bercovier, H. (1995) Vaccination with Whole-Cell Vaccine and Bacterial Protein Extracts Protects Tilapia against Streptococcus difficile Meningoencephalitis. Vaccine, 13, 867-870.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0264-410X(94)00067-W
[5] Evans, J.J., Klesius, P.H., Glibert, P.M., Shoemaker, C.A., Al Sarawi, M.A., Landsberg, J., Duremdez, R., Al Marzouk, A. and Al Zenki, S. (2002) Characterization of Beta-Haemolytic Group B Streptococcus agalactiae in Cultured Seabream, Sparusauratus L., and Wild Mullet, Liza klunzingeri (Day), in Kuwait. Journal of Fish Diseases, 25, 505-513.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2761.2002.00392.x
[6] Salvador, R., Muller, E.E., de Freitas, J.C., Leonhadt, J.H., Pretto-Giordano, L.G. and Dias, J.A. (2005) Isolation and Characterization of Streptococcus spp. Group B in Nile Tilapias (Oreochromis niloticus) Reared in Hapas Nets and Earth Nurseries in the Northern Region of Parana State, Brazil. Ciencia Rural Santa Maria, 35, 1374-1378.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0103-84782005000600023
[7] Suanyuk, N., Kong, F., Ko, D., Gilbert, G. and Supamattaya, K. (2008) Occurrence of Rare Genotypes of Streptococcus agalactiae in Cultured Red Tilapia Oreochromis sp. and Nile Tilapia O. niloticus in Thailand—Relationship to Human Isolates? Aquaculture, 284, 35-40.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aquaculture.2008.07.034
[8] Lu, M.X., Li, J., Ye, X., Deng, G.C., Jiang, X.Y., Tian, Y.Y. and Lai, C.L. (2010) Identification and Characterizations of Streptococcus agalactiae Isolated from Tilapia Cultured in Guangdong and Hainan Provinces. Microbiology, 37, 766-774.
[9] Vandamme, P., Devriese, L.A., Pot, B., Kersters, K. and Melin, P. (1997) Streptococcus difficile Is a Nonhemolytic Group B, Type Ib Streptococcus. International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology, 47, 81-85.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1099/00207713-47-1-81
[10] Kawamura, Y., Itoh, Y., Mishima, N., Ohkusu, K., Kasai, H. and Ezaki, T. (2005) High Genetic Similarity of Streptococcus agalactiae and Streptococcus difficilis: S. difficilis Eldar et al. 1995 is a Later Synonym of S. agalactiae Lehmann and Neumann 1896 (Approved Lists 1980). International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology, 55, 961-965.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1099/ijs.0.63403-0
[11] Evans, J.J., Klesius, P.H. and Shoemaker, C.A. (2004) Efficacy of Streptococcus agalactiae (Group B) Vaccine in Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) by Intraperitoneal and Bath Immersion Administration. Vaccine, 22, 3769-3773.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2004.03.012
[12] Pretto-Giordano, L.G., Muller, E.E., Klesius, P. and da Silva, V.G. (2010) Efficacy of an Experimentally Inactivated Streptococcus agalactiae Vaccine in Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) Reared in Brazil. Aquaculture Research, 41, 1539-1544.
[13] Conder, G.A. and Williams, J.F. (1983) Immunization with Infective Larvae of Strongyloides ratti (Nematoda) Exposed to Microwave Radiation. Journal of Parasitology, 69, 83-87.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/3281280
[14] Craciun, G., Martin, D., Togoe, I., Tudor, L., Manaila, E., Ighigeanu, D. and Matei, C. (2009) Vaccine Preparation by Radiation Processing. Journal of Microwave Power and Electromagnetic Energy, 43, 65-70.
[15] Patterson, M.K. and Bulard, R. (1981) Fixation of Cells in Tissue Culture by Microwave Irradiation. Journal of Tissue Culture Methods, 6, 1-3.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01665895
[16] Husson-van Vliet, J. (1991) Microwave Radiation: A Useful Fixation Method for Viral Vaccine Quantitation. Journal of Virological Methods, 32, 139-148.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0166-0934(91)90044-Z
[17] Pasnik, D.J., Evans, J.J., Panangala, V.S., Klesius, P.H., Shelby, R.A. and Shoemaker, C.A. (2005) Antigenicity of Streptococcus agalactiae Extracellular Products and Vaccine Efficacy. Journal of Fish Diseases, 28, 205-212.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2761.2005.00619.x
[18] Ali, S.M., El-Zawawy, L.A., El-Said, D. and Gaafar, M.R. (2007) Immunization against Trichinellosis Using Microwaved Larvae of Trichinella spiralis. Journal of the Egyptian Society of Parasitology, 37, 121-133.
[19] Nasri, K., Daghfous, D. and Landoulsi, A. (2013) Effects of Microwave (2.45 GHz) Irradiation on Some Biological Characters of Salmonella typhimurium. Comptes Rendus Biologies, 336, 194-202.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.crvi.2013.04.003

  
comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2019 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.