Share This Article:

Cocaine Alters the Daily Activity Patterns of Adult SD Female Rats

Abstract Full-Text HTML XML Download Download as PDF (Size:2884KB) PP. 523-534
DOI: 10.4236/jbbs.2014.411051    2,246 Downloads   2,551 Views   Citations

ABSTRACT

The effects of chronic cocaine administration on the locomotor rhythmic patterns of adult female Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were recorded using an open-field testing assay. The animals were divided into four groups, control (saline), 3.0 mg/kg, 7.5 mg/kg, and 15.0 mg/kg i.p. cocaine group respectively. On experimental day (ED 1), all animals were treated with saline. On ED 2 to ED 7, either saline or cocaine (3.0, 7.5, or 15.0 mg/kg i.p.) was given followed by three days of no treatment (ED 8 to ED 10). On ED 11, rats were treated as they were on ED 2 to ED 7, i.e. either saline, 3.0, 7.5, or 15.0 mg/kg i.p. cocaine. The locomotor activities of rats were recorded for 23 hours daily, allowing one hour for the animal handling and injections, using open field cages with 16 infrared beams of motion detectors. Any breakages of these beams due to the movement of the animals were recorded and compiled by a computer and analyzed. It was observed that all three doses of repeated cocaine administration (3.0 mg/kg, 7.5 mg/kg, and 15.0 mg/kg i.p. cocaine) significantly alter the locomotor rhythmic activity patterns of the adult female SD rats, which suggest that repeated cocaine exposure modulates body homeostasis.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Cite this paper

Lee, M. and Dafny, N. (2014) Cocaine Alters the Daily Activity Patterns of Adult SD Female Rats. Journal of Behavioral and Brain Science, 4, 523-534. doi: 10.4236/jbbs.2014.411051.

References

[1] Haile, C.N., Kosten, T.R. and Kosten, T.A. (2009) Pharmacogenetic Treatments for Drug Addiction: Cocaine, Amphetamine and Methamphetamine. The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, 35, 161-77.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00952990902825447
[2] Nikaido, T., Akiyama, M., Moriya, T. and Shibata, S. (2001) Sensitized Increase of Period Gene Expression in the Mouse Caudate/Putamen Caused by Repeated Injection of Methamphetamine. Molecular Pharmacology, 59, 894-900.
[3] Lynch, W.J. (2008) Acquisition and Maintenance of Cocaine Self-Administration in Adolescent Rats: Effects of Sex and Gonadal Hormones. Psychopharmacology (Berl), 197, 237-246.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00213-007-1028-0
[4] McClung, C.A., Sidiropoulou, K., Vitaterna, M., Takahashi, J.S., White, F.J., Cooper, D.C. and Nestler, E.J. (2005) Regulation of Dopaminergic Transmission and Cocaine Reward by the Clock Gene. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 102, 9377-9381.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0503584102
[5] Giorgetti, M. and Zhdanova, I.V. (2000) Chronic Cocaine Treatment Induces Dysregulation in the Circadian Pattern of Rats’ Feeding Behavior. Brain Research, 877, 170-175.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0006-8993(00)02671-8
[6] La Fleur, S.E., Kalsbeek, A., Wortel, J. and Buijs, R.M. (1999) A Suprachiasmatic Nucleus Generated Rhythm in Basal Glucose Concentrations. Journal of Neuroendocrinology, 11, 643-652.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2826.1999.00373.x
[7] Lee, M.J., Yang, P.B., Wilcox, V.T., Burau, K.D., Swann, A.C. and Dafny, N. (2009) Does Repetitive Ritalin Injection Produce Long-Term Effects on SD Female Adolescent Rats? Neuropharmacology, 57, 201-207.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuropharm.2009.06.008
[8] Reppert, S.M. and Weaver, D.R. (2002) Coordination of Circadian Timing in Mammals. Nature, 418, 935-941.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nature00965
[9] Manev, H. and Uz, T. (2006) Clock Genes: Influencing and Being Influenced by Psychoactive Drugs. Trends in Pharmacological Sciences, 27, 186-189.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tips.2006.02.003
[10] Schibler, U. and Sassone-Corsi, P. (2002) A Web of Circadian Pacemakers. Cell, 111, 919-922.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0092-8674(02)01225-4
[11] Nakahata, Y., Akashi, M., Trcka, D., Yasuda, A. and Takumi, T. (2006) The in Vitro Real-Time Oscillation Monitoring System Identifies Potential Entrainment Factors for Circadian Clocks. BMC Molecular Biology, 7, 5.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-2199-7-5
[12] Johnson, C.H., Golden, S.S. and Kondo, T. (1998) Adaptive Significance of Circadian Programs in Cyanobacteria. Trends in Microbiology, 6, 407-410.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0966-842X(98)01356-0
[13] Chou, T.C., Scammell, T.E., Gooley, J.J., Gaus, S.E., Saper, C.B. and Lu, J. (2003) Critical Role of Dorsomedial Hypothalamic Nucleus in a Wide Range of Behavioral Circadian Rhythms. The Journal of Neuroscience, 23, 10691-10702.
[14] Okamura, H., Yamaguchi, S. and Yagita, K. (2002) Molecular Machinery of the Circadian Clock in Mammals. Cell and Tissue Research, 309, 47-56.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00441-002-0572-5
[15] Gallego, M. and Virshup, D.M. (2007) Post-Translational Modifications Regulate the Ticking of the Circadian Clock. Nature Reviews Molecular Cell Biology, 8, 139-148.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nrm2106
[16] Lowrey, P.L. and Takahashi, J.S. (2004) Mammalian Circadian Biology: Elucidating Genome-Wide Levels of Temporal Organization. Annual Review of Genomics and Human Genetics, 5, 407-441.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev.genom.5.061903.175925
[17] Iijima, M., Nikaido, T., Akiyama, M., Moriya, T. and Shibata, S. (2002) Methamphetamine-Induced, Suprachiasmatic Nucleus-Independent Circadian Rhythms of Activity and mPer Gene Expression in the Striatum of the Mouse. European Journal of Neuroscience, 16, 921-929.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1460-9568.2002.02140.x
[18] Askenasy, E.P., Taber, K.H., Yang, P.B. and Dafny, N. (2007) Methylphenidate (Ritalin): Behavioral Studies in the Rat. International Journal of Neuroscience, 117, 757-794.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00207450600910176
[19] Dafny, N. and Yang, P.B. (2006) The Role of Age, Genotype, Sex, and Route of Acute and Chronic Administration of Methylphenidate: A Review of Its Locomotor Effects. Brain Research Bulletin, 68, 393-405.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brainresbull.2005.10.005
[20] Algahim, M.F., Yang, P.B., Wilcox, V.T., Burau, K.D., Swann, A.C. and Dafny, N. (2009) Prolonged Methylphenidate Treatment Alters the Behavioral Diurnal Activity Pattern of Adult Male Sprague-Dawley Rats. Pharmacology, Biochemistry and Behavior, 92, 93-99.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pbb.2008.10.021
[21] Chelaru. M.I., Yang, P.B., and Dafny, N. (2012) Sex Difference in the Behavioral Response to Methylphenidate in Three Adolescent Rat Strains (WKY, SHR, SD). Behavioural Brain Research, 228, 8-17.
[22] Wilson, R.C., Vacek, T., Lanier, D.L. and Dewsbury, D.A. (1976) Open-Field Behavior in Muroid Rodents. Behavioral Biology, 17, 495-506.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0091-6773(76)90901-9
[23] Gaytan, O., Ghelani, D., Martin, S., Swann, A. and Dafny, N. (1997) Methylphenidate: Diurnal Effects on Locomotor and Stereotypic Behavior in the Rat. Brain Research, 777, 1-12.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0006-8993(97)00880-9
[24] Gaytan, O., Lewis, C., Swann, A. and Dafny, N. (1999) Diurnal Differences in Amphetamine Sensitization. European Journal of Pharmacology, 374, 1-9.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0014-2999(99)00243-5
[25] Gaytan, O., Yang, P., Swann, A. and Dafny, N. (2000) Diurnal Differences in Sensitization to Methylphenidate. Brain Research, 864, 24-39.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0006-8993(00)02117-X
[26] Yang, P.B., Amini, B., Swann, A.C. and Dafny, N. (2003) Strain Differences in the Behavioral Responses of Male Rats to Chronically Administered Methylphenidate. Brain Research, 971, 139-152.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0006-8993(02)04240-3
[27] Yang, P.B., Swann, A.C. and Dafny, N. (2006) Acute and Chronic Methylphenidate Dose-Response Assessment on Three Adolescent Male Rat Strains. Brain Research Bulletin, 71, 301-310.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brainresbull.2006.09.019
[28] Dafny, N. and Terkel, J. (1990) Hypothalamic Neuronal Activity Associated with Onset of Pseudo Pregnancy in the Rat. Neuroendocrinology, 51, 459-467.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000125375
[29] Bingham, C., Arbogas, A. and Guillaume, B. (1982) Influential Statistical Methods for Estimating and Comparing Cosine Parameters. Chronobiologia, 9, 397-439.
[30] Robinson, T.E. and Becker, J.B. (1986) Enduring Changes in Brain and Behavior Produced by Chronic Amphetamine Administration: A Review and Evaluation of Animal Models of Amphetamine Psychosis. Brain Research, 396, 157-198.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0165-0173(86)90002-0
[31] Vanderschuren, L.J. and Kalivas, P.W. (2000) Alterations in Dopaminergic and Glutamatergic Transmission in the Induction and Expression of Behavioral Sensitization: A Critical Review of Preclinical Studies. Psychopharmacology, 151, 99-120.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s002130000493
[32] King, L.N., Dafny, N., Yang, P.B. and Swann, A.C. (2009) Does a Rat’s Exposure to Cocaine during Adolescence Affect Its Response to Cocaine in Adulthood? International Journal of Neuroscience, 119, 879-907.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00207450701591016
[33] Mattson, B.J., Koya, E., Simmons, D.E., Mitchell, T.B., Berkow, A., Crombag, H.S. and Hope, B.T. (2008) Context-Specific Sensitization of Cocaine-Induced Locomotor Activity and Associated Neuronal Ensembles in Rat Nucleus Accumbens. European Journal of Neuroscience, 27, 202-212.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1460-9568.2007.05984.x
[34] Valjent, E., Bertran-Gonzalez, J., Aubier, B., Greengard, P., Hervé, D. and Girault, J.A. (2010) Mechanisms of Locomotor Sensitization to Drugs of Abuse in a Two-Injection Protocol. Neuropsychopharmacology, 35, 401-415.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/npp.2009.143
[35] Kuhar, M.J., Ritz, M.C. and Boja, J.W. (1991) The Dopamine Hypothesis of the Reinforcing Properties of Cocaine. Trends in Neurosciences, 14, 299-302.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0166-2236(91)90141-G
[36] Chen, J.C., Chen, P.C. and Chiang, Y.C. (2009) Molecular Mechanisms of Psychostimulant Addiction. Chang Gung Medical Journal, 32, 148-154.
[37] Drago, J., Gerfen, C.R., Westphal, H. and Steiner, H. (1996) D1 Dopamine Receptor-Deficient Mouse: Cocaine-Induced Regulation of Immediate-Early Gene and Substance P Expression in the Striatum. Neuroscience, 74, 813-823.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0306-4522(96)00145-5
[38] Hyman, S.E. and Malenka, R.C. (2001) Addiction and the Brain: The Neurobiology of Compulsion and Its Persistence. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 2, 695-703. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/35094560
[39] Neisewander, J.L., Fuchs, R.A., O’Dell, L.E. and Khroyan, T.V. (1998) Effects of SCH23390 on Dopamine D1 Receptor Occupancy and Locomotion Produced by Intraaccumbens Cocaine Infusion. Synapse, 30, 194-204.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1098-2396(199810)30:2<194::AID-SYN9>3.0.CO;2-7
[40] Nestler, E.J. (2004) Molecular Mechanisms of Drug Addiction. Neuropharmacology, 47, 24-32.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuropharm.2004.06.031
[41] Nishi, A., Bibb, J.A., Snyder, G.L., Higashi, H., Nairn, A.C. and Greengard, P. (2000) Amplification of Dopaminergic Signaling by a Positive Feedback Loop. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 97, 12840-12845.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.220410397
[42] Abarca, C., Albrecht, U. and Spanagel, R. (2002) Cocaine sensitization and reward are under the influence of circadian genes and rhythm. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 99, 9026-9030.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.142039099
[43] Uz, T., Ahmed, R., Akhisaroglu, M., Kurtuncu, M., Imbesi, M., Dirim Arslan, A. and Manev, H. (2005) Effect of Fluoxetine and Cocaine on the Expression of Clock Genes in the Mouse Hippocampus and Striatum. Neuroscience, 134, 1309-1316.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroscience.2005.05.003
[44] Perreau-Lenz, S. and Spanagel, R. (2008) The Effects of Drugs of Abuse on Clock Genes. Drug News & Perspectives, 21, 211-217.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1358/dnp.2008.21.4.1213350
[45] Sleipness, E.P., Sorg, B.A. and Jansen, H.T. (2005) Time of Day Alters Long-Term Sensitization to Ocaine in Rats. Brain Research, 1065, 132-137.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brainres.2005.10.017
[46] Imbesi, M., Yildiz, S., Dirim Arslan, A., Sharma, R., Manev, H. and Uz, T. (2009) Dopamine Receptor-Mediated Regulation of Neuronal “Clock” Gene Expression. Neuroscience, 158, 537-544.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroscience.2008.10.044
[47] Yuferov, V., Butelman, E.R. and Kreek, M.J. (2005) Biological Clock: Biological Clocks May Modulate Drug Addiction. European Journal of Human Genetics, 13, 1101-1103.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/sj.ejhg.5201483
[48] Weber, M., Lauterburg, T., Tobler, I. and Burgunder, J.M. (2004) Circadian Patterns of Neurotransmitter Related Gene Expression in Motor Regions of the Rat Brain. Neuroscience Letters, 358, 17-20.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neulet.2003.12.053
[49] Schade, R., Vick, K., Ott, T., Sohr, R., Pfister, C., Bellach, J., Golor, G. and Lemmer, B. (1995) Circadian Rhythms of Dopamine and Cholecystokinin in Nucleus Accumbens and Striatum of Rats—Influence on Dopaminergic Stimulation. Chronobiology International, 12, 87-99.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/07420529509064504
[50] Jones, C.G., Yang, P.B., Wilcox, V.T., Barau, K.D. and Dafny, N. (2014) Acute and Chronic Psychostimulant Treatment Modulate the Diurnal Rhythm Activity Pattern of WKY Female Adolescent Rats. Journal of Neural Transmission, 121, 457-468.
[51] Sleipness, E.P., Sorg, B.A. and Jansen, H.T. (2007) Diurnal Differences in Dopamine Transporter and Tyrosine Hydroxylase Levels in Rat Brain: Dependence on the Suprachiasmatic Nucleus. Brain Research, 1129, 34-42.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brainres.2006.10.063
[52] Akhisaroglu, M., Kurtuncu, M., Manev, H. and Uz, T. (2005) Diurnal Rhythms in Quinpirole-Induced Locomotor Behaviors and Striatal D2/D3 Receptor Levels in Mice. Pharmacology, Biochemistry and Behavior, 80, 371-377.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pbb.2004.11.016
[53] Camp, D.M. and Robinson, T.E. (1988) Susceptibility to Sensitization. II. The Influence of Gonadal Hormones on Enduring Changes in Brain Monoamines and Behavior Produced by the Repeated Administration of D-Amphetamine or Restraint Stress. Behavioural Brain Research, 30, 69-88.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0166-4328(88)90009-5
[54] Becker, J.B. and Hu, M. (2008) Sex Differences in Drug Abuse. Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology, 29, 36-47.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.yfrne.2007.07.003
[55] Zhao, W. and Becker, J.B. (2009) Sensitization Enhances Acquisition of Cocaine Self-Administration in Female Rats: Estradiol Further Enhances Cocaine Intake after Acquisition. Hormones and Behavior, 58, 8-12.
[56] Becker, J.B., Molenda, H. and Hummer, D.L. (2001) Gender Differences in the Behavioral Response to Cocaine and Amphetamine. Implications for Mechanisms Mediating Gender Differences in Drug Abuse. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 937, 172-187.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1749-6632.2001.tb03564.x
[57] Griffin, M.L., Weiss, R.D., Mirin, S.M. and Lange, U. (1989) A Comparison of Male and Female Cocaine Abusers. Archives of General Psychiatry, 46, 122-126.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/archpsyc.1989.01810020024005
[58] Brecht, M.L., O’Brien, A., von Mayrhauser, C. and Anglin, M.D. (2004) Methamphetamine Use Behaviors and Gender Differences. Addictive Behaviors, 29, 89-106.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0306-4603(03)00082-0
[59] Hernandez-Avila, C.A., Rounsaville, B.J. and Kranzler, H.R. (2004) Opioid-, Cannabis- and Alcohol-Dependent Women Show More Rapid Progression to Substance Abuse Treatment. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 74, 265-272.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2004.02.001

  
comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2018 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.