Share This Article:

Regional Characteristics of Temperature Anomalies in Pakistan with Emphasis on Spatial Distribution at Decadal Scale: A Case Study of August (1950s-2000s)

Abstract Full-Text HTML XML Download Download as PDF (Size:3114KB) PP. 721-726
DOI: 10.4236/acs.2014.44065    3,266 Downloads   3,723 Views   Citations

ABSTRACT

In this paper the month of August was assessed from 1950s-2000s based on the temperature data from 53 stations that covers almost all Pakistan. The temperature coefficient has been calculated by making use of linear regression. The results have been mapped that show considerable variability of temperature at decadal scale in different areas of Pakistan. The rugged terrains especially and rest of Pakistan generally reflect significant temperature variability in the decades of 1950s, 1960s, 1970s, 1980s, 1990s and 2000s as well. This change in temperature varies from region to region and decade to decade in Pakistan. The temperature anomalies achieved in the country are complicated at local level and did not follow the simple perception that winter months are warming and summer months are cooling. In this study, a geographical approach has been adopted to explain the spatial-temporal dynamics of temperature variation over the study period in Pakistan with emphasis on regional detail.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Cite this paper

Ahmad, I. , Ambreen, R. , Sultan, S. , Sun, Z. and Nawaz, M. (2014) Regional Characteristics of Temperature Anomalies in Pakistan with Emphasis on Spatial Distribution at Decadal Scale: A Case Study of August (1950s-2000s). Atmospheric and Climate Sciences, 4, 721-726. doi: 10.4236/acs.2014.44065.

References

[1] Christensen, J.H., Hewitson, B., Busuioc., A, Chen, A., Gao, X., Held, I., Jones, R., Kolli, R.K, Kwon, W.-T., Laprise, R., Magaña, R.V., Mearns, L., Menéndez, C.G., Räisänen, J., Rinke, A., Sarr, A. and Whetton, P. (2007) Regional Climate Projections. In: Solomon, S., Qin, D., Manning, M., Chen, Z., Marquis, M., Averyt, K.B., Tignor, M. and Miller, H.L., Eds., Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, USA.
[2] Cruz, R.V., Harasawa, H., Lal, M., Wu, S., Anokhin, Y., Punsalmaa, B., Honda, Y., Jafari, M., Li, C. and Huu, N.N. (2007) Asia. Climate Change 2007: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability. In: Parry, M.L., Canziani, O.F., Palutikof, J.P., van der Linden, P.J. and Hanson, C.E., Eds., Contribution of Working Group II to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, 469-506.
[3] Lal, M., Harasawa, H., Murdiyarso, D., Adger, W.N., Adhikary, S., Ando, M., Anokhin, Y., Cruz, R.V., et al. (2001) Asia. Climate Change 2001: Impacts, Adaptation, and Vulnerability. In: McCarthy, J.J., Canziani, O.F., Leary, N.A., Dokken, D.J. and White, K.S.., Eds., Contribution of Working Group II to the Third Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 533-590.
[4] Barlow, M., Cullen, H. and Lyon, B. (2002) Drought in Central and Southwest Asia: La Niña, the Warm Pool, and Indian Ocean Precipitation. Journal of Climate, 15, 697-700.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/1520-0442(2002)015<0697:DICASA>2.0.CO;2
[5] UNFCCC, Climate Change (2007) Impacts, Vulnerabilities and Adaptation in Developing Countries.
http://unfccc.int/resource/docs/publications/impacts
[6] Pachauri, R.K. (2009) Regional Conference on “Climate Change: Challenges and Opportunities for South Asia”, 13-14 January 2009, Islamabad.
[7] Pakistan Meteorological Department (PMD) (2009) Climate Change Indicators of Pakistan. Technical Report No. PMD 22/2009, PMD, Islamabad. http://www.pakmet.com.pk
[8] Easterling, D.R., Evans, J.L., Groisman, P.Y., Karl, T.R., Kunkel, K.E. and Ambenje, P. (2000) Observed Variability and Trends in Extreme Climate Events: A Brief Review. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 81, 417-425.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/1520-0477(2000)081<0417:OVATIE>2.3.CO;2
[9] Mahrt, L. (2006) Variation of Surface Air Temperature in Complex Terrain. Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology, 45, 1481-1493. http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/JAM2419.1
[10] David, B., Petra, M., Klein, S.C. and Arms, A.S. (2009) Variability of Surface Air Temperature over Gently Sloped Terrain. Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology, 48, 1117-1141. (Online Publication)
[11] Buhairi, M. (2010) Analysis of Monthly, Seasonal and Annual Air Temperature Variability and Trends in Taiz City - Republic of Yemen. Journal of Environmental Protection, 1, 401-409.
http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/jep.2010.14046
[12] Griggs, D.J. and Noguer, M. (2002) Climate Change 2001: The Scientific Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Third Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Weather, 57, 267-269. http://dx.doi.org/10.1256/004316502320517344
[13] Nordhaus, W.D. (2007) A Review of the “Stern Review on the Economics of Climate Change”. Journal of Economic Literature, 45, 686-702. http://dx.doi.org/10.1257/jel.45.3.686
[14] Hansen, J. and Lebedeff, S. (1987) Global Trends of Measured Surface Air Temperature. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres (1984-2012), 92, 345-372.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/JD092iD11p13345
[15] Liu, X. and Chen, B. (2000) Climatic Warming in the Tibetan Plateau during Recent Decades. International Journal of Climatology, 20, 1729-1742.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/1097-0088(20001130)20:14<1729::AID-JOC556>3.0.CO;2-Y
[16] Magnuson, J., et al. (2000) Historical Trends in Lake and River Ice Cover in the Northern Hemisphere. Science, 289, 1743-1746. http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.289.5485.1743
[17] Ahmad, I., Zhaobo, S, Deng, W. and Ambreen, R. (2010) Trend Analysis of January Temperature in Pakistan over the Period of 1961-2006: Geographical Perspective. Pakistan Journal of Meteorology, 13, 11-22.
[18] Rasul, G., Qin, D. and Chaudhry, Q.Z. (2008) Global Warming and Melting Glaciers along Southern Slopes of HKH Ranges. Pakistan Journal of Meteorology, 1, 63-76.
[19] Singh, N., and Sontakke, N.A. (1996) Climate Variability over Pakistan and its relationship to variations over the Indian region. In: Abrol, Y.P., et al., Eds., Climate Variability and Agriculture, Narosa Publishing House, New Delhi, 67-95.
[20] Chaudhry, Q.Z. and Rasul, G. (2004) Climatic Classification of Pakistan. Science Vision, 9, No. 1-2 (Jul-Dec, 2003) and No. 3-4 (Jan-Jun, 2004), 59-66.
[21] Khan, T.M.A., Khan, F.A. and Jilani, R. (2008) Sea Surface Temperature Variability along Pakistan Coast and Its Relation to El Niño-Southern Oscillation. Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences, 4, 67-72.
[22] Afzaal, M., Athar, H.M. and Chaudhry, Q.Z. (2009) Interdecadal Oscillations and the Warming Trend in the Area-Weighted Annual Mean Temperature of Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Meteorology, 6, 13-19.
[23] Islam, S., Rehman, N. and Sheikh, M.M. (2009) Future Change in the Frequency of Warm and Cold Spells over Pakistan Simulated by the PRECIS Regional Climate Model, Climate Change. Springer Science + Business Media B.V. 2009, Published Online.

  
comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2019 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.