Share This Article:

Mineral Concentrations and Rumen Degradability of Biodegraded Enterolobium cyclocarpum (Jacq) and Pterocarpus santalinoides (L’Her) with Aspergillus niger

Abstract Full-Text HTML XML Download Download as PDF (Size:2585KB) PP. 1089-1096
DOI: 10.4236/as.2014.512118    2,596 Downloads   3,118 Views   Citations

ABSTRACT

The effects of solid state fermentation on the mineral concentrations and in sacco degradation characteristics of dry matter in two multipurpose tree leaves was investigated. Biodegraded Enterolobium cyclocarpum (EC) and Pterocarpus santalinoides (PS) leaves were previously inoculated with Aspergillus niger and incubated at 30°C for five incubation periods (0, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days). After each incubation period, samples were oven dried at 60°C, allowed to cool and ground for mineral analysis and in sacco dry matter degradability. Three fistulated West African Dwarf (WAD) rams (Ovis aries) were then used for the dry matter degradability. Five grams of each sample was emptied into nylon bag (Polymon, Switzeland) with pore size of 4 μ and effective size of 5 cm × 18 cm and incubated in the rumen of the fistulated animals for 6, 12, 24, 48, 72, and 96 h. The results showed that the mineral contents of biodegraded EC samples were affected by incubation period. Mean values of Ca, Cu, K, Na, and Zn were significantly increased (0.05), while mean values of Fe, Mg, and Mn were first reduced before significantly increasing (0.05). However, the composition of P showed significant reduction (0.05) up to day 28 where no change was observed. Mineral concentrations in biodegraded PS were also affected by incubation periods. Values of Ca, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, and Zn were significantly increased (0.05). However values of Cu, and Fe only increased after day 14, while the value of P was reduced significantly over the different incubation periods. Potential degradability (PD) for biodegraded EC was highest at day 0 (50.79%) but not significantly different from potential degradability of longer incubation periods to day 28 (48.68%). PS had higher PD than EC. In spite of high PD values, PS comparatively degraded faster than EC. Effective degradability (ED) for EC was highest for day28 (36.71%) and not significantly different from days 21 (34.83%) and 7 (35.29%) but significantly different from days 0 (31.32%) and 14 (31.75%) respectively. However, the ED for PS was highest for day 0 (31.39) samples and significantly differed from other incubation periods, further increase in period only showed lower but similar ED values for days 7 (27.52%), 14 (26.76%), 21 (27.42%) and 28 (26.86%) respectively. In this study, the continued reduction in P concentrations in both biodegraded EC and PS suggest that Aspergillus niger has preferential demand for P and in sacco degradation showed increase in PD and ED values for fungal biodegraded EC and reduction in PS, suggesting improved quality of EC.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Cite this paper

Ayuk, A. , Okon, B. , Iyayi, E. and Ayuk, J. (2014) Mineral Concentrations and Rumen Degradability of Biodegraded Enterolobium cyclocarpum (Jacq) and Pterocarpus santalinoides (L’Her) with Aspergillus niger. Agricultural Sciences, 5, 1089-1096. doi: 10.4236/as.2014.512118.

References

[1] Jetama, T., Abdullah, N., Hallim, R.A., Jalaludin, S. and Ho, Y.W. (2000) Effects of Energy and Protein Supplementation on Microbial-Synthesis and Allanton Excretion in Sheep Fed Guinea Grass. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 84, 167-181.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0377-8401(00)00119-X
[2] Amira, C., Louisa, G., Lyas, B., Samir, M., Mohamed, L.A., Morère, L.M. and Hacène, B. (2014) Effects of Secondary Compounds from Cactus and Acacias Trees on Rumen Microbial Profile Changes Performed by Real-Time PCR. International Journal of Advanced Research, 2, 660-671.
[3] Azim, A., Ghazanfar, S., Latif, A. and Nadeem, M.A. (2011) Nutritional Evaluation of Some Top Fodder Tree Leaves and Shrubs of District Chakwal, Pakistan in Relation to Ruminant Requirements. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition, 10, 54-59.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3923/pjn.2011.54.59
[4] Arigbede, O.M., Tan, Z.L., Anele, U.Y., Sun, Z.H., Tang, S. X., Han, X.F., Zhou, C.S and Zeng, B. (2012) Effects of Age and Species on Agronomic Performance, Chemical Composition and in Vitro Gas Production of Some Tropical Multipurpose Tree Species. The Journal of Agricultural Science, 150, 725 737.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0021859612000184
[5] Aganga, A.A and Tshwenyane, S.O. (2003) Feeding Values and Anti-Nutritive Factors of Forage Tree Legumes. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition, 2, 170-177.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3923/pjn.2003.170.177
[6] Aremu, A.T. and Onadeko, S.A. (2008) Nutritional Ecology of African Buffalo (Syncerus caffer nanus). International Journal of Agricultural Research, 3, 281-286.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3923/ijar.2008.281.286
[7] Belachew, Z., Yisehak, K., Taye, T. and Janssens, G.P.J. (2013) Chemical Composition and in Sacco Ruminal Degradation of Tropical Trees Rich in Condensed Tannins. Czechoslovakia Journal of Animal Science, 58, 176-192.
[8] Babayemi, O.J. (2006) Antinutritional Factors, Nutritive Value and in Vitro Gas Production of Folliage and Fruit of Enterolobium cyclocarpum. World Journal of Zoology, 1, 113-117.
[9] Nair, V. and Duvjak, Z. (1991) Phytic Acid Content Reduction in Canola Meal by Various Microorganisms in a Solid State Fermentation Process. Acta Biotechnology, 11, 211-218.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/abio.370110306
[10] Belewu, M.A. (2008) Replacement of Fungus Treated Jatropha curcas Kernel Meal in the Diet of Rat. Green Farming Journal, 2, 154-157.
[11] Idowu, O.J., Arigbede, O.M., Dele, P.A., Olanite, J.A., Adelusi, O.O., Ojo, V.O.A. and Sunmola, A.S. (2013) Nutrient Intake, Performance and Nitrogen Balance of West African Dwarf Sheep Fed Graded Levels of Toasted Enterolobium cyclocarpum Seeds as Supplement for Panicum maximum. Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences, 16, 1806-1810.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3923/pjbs.2013.1806.1810
[12] Ayuk, A.A., Iyayi, E.A., Okon, B.I. and Ayuk, J.O. (2014) Growth Performance of West African Dwarf (WAD) Sheep Fed Biodegraded Enterolobium cyclocarpum Based Diets. Agricultural Sciences, 5, 710-715.
http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/as.2014.58074
[13] Pouli, J.R., Jung, G.A. and Reid, R.L. (1991) Effects of Nitrogen and Sulphuron Digestion and Nutritive Quality of Warm-Season Grass Hays for Cattle and Sheep. Journal of Animal Science, 69, 843-852.
[14] Underwood, E.J. and Suttle, N.F. (1999) The Mineral Nutrition of Livestock. 3rd Edition, CABI Publishing, Wallingford, Oxon, 283-292.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1079/9780851991283.0283
[15] Khan, M.M.H. and Chaudhry, A.S. (2011) A Comparative Study of Low and High Quality Forages for Chemical Composition and in Vitro Degradability. The Journal of Animal & Plant Sciences, 21, 715-723.
[16] McDowell, L.R., Conrad, J.H. and Hembry, F.G. (1993) Mineral for Grazing Ruminants in Tropical Regions. University of Florida, Gainesville.
[17] Charray, J., Humbert, J.M. and Levif, J. (1992) Manual of Sheep Production in the Humid Tropics of Africa. CAB International Wallingford, Oxon.
[18] Ghazanfar, S., Latif, A., Mirza, I.H. and Nadeem, M.A. (2011) Macro-Minerals Concentrations of Major Fodder Tree Leaves and Shrubs of District Chakwal, Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition, 10, 480-484.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3923/pjn.2011.480.484
[19] Ørskov, E.R. and McDonald, I. (1979) The Estimation of Protein Digestibility in the Rumen from Incubation Measurements Weighted According to Rate of Passage. Journal of Agricultural Science, 92, 499-503.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0021859600063048
[20] Arigbede, O.M., Bamikole, M.A., Olanite, J.A., Jolaosho, A.E. and Onafide, S.O. (2002) Seasonal Degradability of Dry Matter, Organic Matter and Crude Protein in Some Multipurpose Tree Species by West African Dwarf Goats. Proceedings of the 27th Annual Conference of Nigerian Society of Animal Production, Akure, 17-21 March 2002.
[21] Ayuk, A.A., Iyayi, E.A., Okon, B.I., Ayuk, J.O. and Jang, E. (2014) Biodegradation of Antinutritional Factors in Whole Leaves of Enterolobium cyclocarpum by Aspergillus niger Using Solid State Fermentation. Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 6, 188-196.
[22] Association of Official Analytical Chemists: AOAC (1990) Methods of Analysis. 15th Editon, Washington DC.
[23] SAS (1988) SAS/STAT User’s Guide, Release 6.03. Statistical Analytical Systems Institute, Cary.
[24] National Research Council (2001) Nutrient Requirements of Dairy Cattle. Seventh Revised Edition. National Academy Press, Washington DC.
[25] Rahim, I., Sultan, J.I., Sharif, M. and Bilal, M.Q. (2013) Chemical Composition, Mineral Profile, Palatabiltiy and in Vitro Digestibility of Shrubs. Journal of Animal and Plant Sciences, 23, 45-49.
[26] McDowell, L., Conrad, J.H. and Ellis, G.L. (1984) Mineral Deficiencies and Imbalances and Their Diagnosis. In: Gilchrist, F.M.C. and Mackie, R.I., Eds., Herbivore Nutrition in Subtropics and Tropics, Graighall, South Africa, The Science Press, Johannesburg, 67-88.
[27] National Research Council (1985) Nutrient Requirements of Sheep. 6th Revised Edition, National Academy Press, Washington DC.
[28] Rogosic, J., Pfister, J.A., Provenza, F.D. and Grbesa, D. (2006) Sheep and Goat Preference for and Nutritional Value of Mediterranean Maquis Shrubs. Small Ruminant Research, 64, 169-179.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.smallrumres.2005.04.017
[29] Saha, S.C. and Gupta, B.N. (1987) Tree Leaves as Feed for Dairy Cattle in India. India Dairyman, 39, 489-492.
[30] Leng, R.A. (1990) Factors Affecting Utilization of Poor Quality Forages by Ruminants Particularly under Tropical Conditions. Nutrition Research Reviews, 3, 277-303.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1079/NRR19900016
[31] Ahmad, K., Ashraf, M., Khan, Z. and Valeem, E.E. (2008) Evaluation of Macro-Mineral Concentrations of Forages in Relation to Ruminant’s Requirements: A Case Study in Soon Valley, Punjab, Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Botany, 40, 295-299.
[32] Karunananda, K. and Varga, G.A. (1996) Colonization of Rice Straw by White Rot Fungi (Cyanthus stercoreous): Effect on Ruminal Fermentation Pattern, Nitrogen Metabolism, and Fiber Utilization during Continous Culture. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 61, 1-16.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0377-8401(96)00958-3
[33] Preston, I.R. and Leng, R.A. (1987) Matching Ruminant Production Systems with Available Resources in the Tropics and Subtropcis. Penambul Books, Armidale.
[34] Breves, G. and Schröder, B. (1991) Comparative Aspects of Gastrointestinal Phosphorus Metabolism. Nutrition Research Reviews, 4, 125-140.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1079/NRR19910011
[35] Siaw, D.E.K.A., Osuji, P.O. and Nsahlai, I.V. (1993) Evaluation of Multipurpose Tree Germplasm: The Use of Gas Production and Rumen Degradation Characteristics. Journal of Agricultural Science, 130, 319-330.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0021859600076486
[36] Larbi, A., Kurdi, I.O., Said, A.N. and Hassan, J. (1994) In Situ Rumen Evaluation of Erythrina Provenances. Journal of Animal Science, 77, 167.
[37] Migongo-Barke, W. (1992) Rumen Dry Matter Digestive Efficiency of Camels, Cattles, Sheep and Goats in the Semi Arid Environment in Eastern Africa. In: Stares, J.W.S., Said, A.N. and Kategile, Eds., The Complementarities of Feed Resources for Animal Production in Africa, Proceedings of the Joint Feed Resources Network Workshop Gaborone, Botswana, 4-8 March 1991, 27-35.
[38] Larbi, A., Smith, J.W., Raji, A.M., Kurdi, I.O., Adekunle, I.D. and Ladipo, D.O. (1997) Seasonal Dynamics in Dry Matter Degradation of Browse Cattle, Sheep, and Goats. Small Ruminants Research, 25, 129-140.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0921-4488(96)00971-6
[39] Larbi, A., Smith, J.W., Kurdi, I.O., Adekunle, I.O., Raji, A.M. and Ladipo, D.O. (1998) Chemical Composition, Rumen Degradation and Gas Production Characteristics of Some Multipurpose Fodder Tree Shrubs during Wet and Dry Seasons in the Humid Tropics. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 72, 81-96.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0377-8401(97)00170-3
[40] Perera, A.N.F., Perera, E.R.K. and Gunansena (1996) Nutritive Value and Degradation Characteristics of Calliandra calothyrsus Provenances. In: Evans, D.D., Ed., International Workshop on the Genus Calliandra, Winrock International, Monilton.
[41] Dzowela, B.H., Hove, L., Topps, J.H. and Mafongoya, P.L. (1995) Nutritional and Anti Nutritional Characters and Rumen Degradability of Dry Matter and Nitrogen for Some Multipurpose Tree Species with Potential for Agroforestry in Zimbabwe. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 55, 207-214.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0377-8401(95)00803-U
[42] Oji, U.I., Larbi, A. and Akele, S.A. (2002) Nutritional Potentials of Common Shrubs of the Niger Delta as Ruminant Feed. Proceedings of the 27th Annual Conference of the Nigerian Society of Animal Production, Akure, 17-21 March 2002.
[43] Ngodigha, E.M. and Anyanwu, N.J. (2009) Fodder Potential Ranking of Selected Multi-Purpose Trees and Shrubs through Degradation Studies with Rumen Fistulated N’dama Steers. Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances, 8, 1233-1236.
[44] Smith, J.W., Larbi, M.A., Jabbar, M.A. and Akinlade, J. (1995) Rumen Degradation in Sheep, Goats and Cattle and Voluntary Intake by Sheep of Four Browse Species. Agroforestry Systems, 32, 277-286.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00711715
[45] Han, Y.W. (1978) Microbial Utilization of Straw (a Review). Advances in Applied Microbiology, 23, 119-153.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0065-2164(08)70066-2
[46] Karunananda, K., Varga, G.A., Akin, D.E. and Royse, D.J. (1995) Botanical Fractions of Rice Straw Colonized by White Rot Fungi: Changes in Chemical Composition and Structure. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 55, 179-199.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0377-8401(95)00805-W
[47] Wood, T.M., McCrae, S.I., Wilson, I.A., Bhat, K.M. and Gow, L.A. (1988) Aerobic and Anaerobic Fungal Celluloses, with Special Reference to Their Mode of Attack on Crystalline Cellulose. In: Hubert, J.P., Begun and Millet, Eds., Biochemistry and Cellulose Degradation, Academic Press, New York, 207-217.
[48] Cheng, K.J., Stewart, C.S., Dinsdale, D. and Costerton, J.W. (1984) Electron Microscopy of Bacteria Involved in the Digestion of Plant Cell Walls. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 10, 93-120.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0377-8401(84)90002-6
[49] Kibbon, A. and Ørskov, E.R. (1993) The Use of Degradability Characteristics of Browse Plants to Predict Intake and Digestibility by Goats. Animal Science, 57, 247-251.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0003356100006851

  
comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2018 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.