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Acquired Coronary Cameral Fistula Due to Post Stent Balloon Dilatation: Dual Coronary Artery Perforations into the Left Ventricle—What Is the Right Treatment?

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DOI: 10.4236/wjcd.2014.411066    3,439 Downloads   4,117 Views   Citations

ABSTRACT

A fifty-year-old female with recent history of LAD stent placement for instent restenosis, presented with chest pain and ventricular fibrillatory arrest. Angiography revealed total occlusion of her LAD stent. She underwent IVUS study, balloon angioplasty and stent placements. Post balloon dilatation of the under-deployed distal stent resulted in dual coronary artery perforations with extravasation of contrast into the LV cavity, a Type 4 Ellis coronary artery perforation (CAP). No extravasation was noted into the pericardium. Immediately a covered stent was deployed which completely sealed both perforation sites with resultant TIMI grade 3 flow. Under-deployment of stents is a common occurrence and is underappreciated. It can happen due to various reasons. Not many options exist at that time but to use a high pressure balloon and post dilate the stent. One rare complication is CAP due to post stent dilatation, with incidence reported as 0.1% to 3.0% of PCI procedures. Among the various type of CAP, Ellis Type 4 is of the least frequent however no studies have looked at its exact incidence rate. Prompt recognition and quick intervention are essential to good patient outcome. We chose to deploy a covered stent over the perforation with interim balloon tamponading. Deployment of the stent successfully sealed both the CAPs. Remarkably the patient remained stable and did not complain of chest pain throughout the procedure. The patient did well; she was discharged on dual antiplatelet therapy and is continuing to do well. We report a rare case of 2 distal LAD perforations that drained into the LV (an Ellis Type 4 CAP) caused by post stent dilatation that were successfully treated with a single covered stent. We report successful management of this case along with review of literature about management and dilemmas encountered is such instances.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Cite this paper

Murthy, A. , Singh, A. and Driesman, M. (2014) Acquired Coronary Cameral Fistula Due to Post Stent Balloon Dilatation: Dual Coronary Artery Perforations into the Left Ventricle—What Is the Right Treatment?. World Journal of Cardiovascular Diseases, 4, 548-555. doi: 10.4236/wjcd.2014.411066.

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