Share This Article:

Study of Heavy Metal Uptake by the Crops Grown by Using Urban Wastewater of Mysore City, India

Abstract Full-Text HTML Download Download as PDF (Size:3624KB) PP. 1169-1182
DOI: 10.4236/jep.2014.512114    2,598 Downloads   3,087 Views   Citations

ABSTRACT

In the 21st century the fresh water scarcity increased very rapidly due to the urbanization and industrialization process. In these conditions the urban wastewater plays an important role in the water usage criteria. In this aspect, in all the major cities, wastewater treatment plants have been constructed to treat the urban wastewater in view of decreasing the water scarcity. The presence of nutrients in the wastewater is considered as beneficial to agricultural practices. The contaminants present in the wastewater pose health risks directly to agricultural workers and indirectly to the consumers as the long term application of the wastewater may result in the accumulation of toxic elements in soil and in plants. In this way the heavy metals will circulate among the food chain and food web to cause adverse effects on human health as well as on soil health. In the present study an attempt has been made to study the characteristics of urban wastewater at wastewater treatment plant of Mysore city. And also heavy metal behavior was studied with the analysis of heavy metals in wastewater, Biosolid and receiving soil along with the plants which indicates the uptake of heavy metals.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Cite this paper

Abhilash, M. , Srikantaswamy, S. , Kumar, D. and Kiran, B. (2014) Study of Heavy Metal Uptake by the Crops Grown by Using Urban Wastewater of Mysore City, India. Journal of Environmental Protection, 5, 1169-1182. doi: 10.4236/jep.2014.512114.

References

[1] United Nation’s World Water Development Report (2003) UN World Water Development Report: Water for People, Water for Life. UNESCO and Berghahn Books, Paris, New York, Oxford.
[2] Marshall, F. and Sharma, R. (2006) Waste Water Irrigation and Heavy Metal Contamination in Peri-Urban India. Geophysical Research Abstracts, 8, Article ID: 09058.
[3] Soulie, M. and Tremea, L. (1991) Technologie pour le traitement et la reutilisation des eaux usees dans le bassin mediterraneen. Proceedings of the 3rd Meeting of the Regional Agency for Environment, Provence, 171-255.
[4] AATSE—Australian Academy of Technological Sciences and Engineering (2004) Water Recycling in Australia. AATSE, Victoria.
[5] Jimenez, B. and Asano, T. (2008) Water Reclamation and Reuse around the World. In: Jimenez, B. and Asano, T., Eds., Water Reuse: An International Survey of Current Practice, Issues and Needs, IWA Publishing, London, 648.
[6] Keraita, B.N., Jimenez, B. and Drechsel, P. (2008) Extent and Implications of Agricultural Reuse of Untreated, Partly Treated and Diluted Wastewater in Developing Countries. CAB Reviews: Perspectives in Agriculture, Veterinary Science, Nutrition and Natural Resources, L3, 1-15.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1079/PAVSNNR20083058
[7] Bai, S., Srikantaswamy, S. and Shivakumar, D. (2010) Urban Wastewater Characteristic and Its Management in Urban Areas—A Case Study of Mysore City, Karnataka, India. Journal of Water Resource and Protection, 2, 717-726.
http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/jwarp.2010.28082
[8] Pescod, M.B. (1992) Wastewater Treatment and Use in Agriculture. Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), Irrigation and Drainage Paper, 73.
[9] Mikkelsen, R. and Camberato, J. (1995) Potassium, Sulfur, Lime and Micronutrient Fertilizers. In: Rechcigl, J., Ed., Soil Amendments and Environment Quality, Lewis Publishing, Boca Raton, 109-137.
[10] Asano, T., Burto, F.L., Leveren, H.L., Suchihashi, R. and Tchobanoglous, G. (2003) Wastewater Engineering Treatment and Reuse. 4th Edition, McGraw Hill, New York.
[11] Rattan, R.K., Datta, S.P., Chhonkar, P.K., Suribabu, K. and Singh, A.K. (2005) Long-Term Impact of Irrigation with Sewage Effluent on Heavy Metal Content in Soils, Crops and Groundwater—A Case Study. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, 109, 310-322.
[12] Oliveira, F.C. and Mattiazzo, M.E. (2001) Metais pesadosem Latossolo tratado com lodo de esgoto e emplantas de cana-de-acúcar. Scientia Agricola, 58, 581-593.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0103-90162001000300022
[13] Obrador, A., Rico, M.I., Mingot, J.I. and Alvarez, J.M. (1997) Metal Mobility and Potential Bioavailability in Organic Matter-Rich Soil-Sludge Mixtures: Effect of Soil Type and Contact Time. Science of the Total Environment, 206, 117-126.
[14] Wang, C., Li, X.C., Ma, H.T., Qian, J. and Zhai, J.B. (2003) Distribution of Extractable Fractions of Heavy Metals in Sluges during the Waste Treatment Process. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 137, 1277-1283.
[15] Turkdogan, M.K., Kilicel, F., Kara, K., Tuncer, I. and Uygan, I. (2003) Heavy Metals in Soil, Vegetables and Fruits in the Endemic Upper Gastrointestinal Cancer Region of Turkey. Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology, 13, 175-179.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1382-6689(02)00156-4
[16] Oliveira, A., Bocio, A., Trevilato, T.M.B., Takayanagui, A.M.M., Domingo, J.L. and Segura-Munoz, S.I. (2007) Heavy Metals in Untreated/Treated Urban Effluent and Sludge from a Biological Wastewater Treatment Plant. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 14, 483-489.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1065/espr2006.10.355
[17] Lopez-Mosquera, M.E., Moiron, C. and Carral, E. (2000) Use of Dairy-Industry Sludge as Fertilizer for Grasslands in Northwest Spain: Heavy Metal Level in the Soil and Plant. Resources, Conservation and Recycling, 30, 95-109.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0921-3449(00)00058-6

  
comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2018 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.