Share This Article:

Hydro-Geochemical Characteristics of Groundwater Beneath the Gaza Strip

Abstract Full-Text HTML Download Download as PDF (Size:679KB) PP. 341-348
DOI: 10.4236/jwarp.2011.35043    5,589 Downloads   10,639 Views   Citations

ABSTRACT

The main objective of the current research is to investigate the deterioration of groundwater quality due to the over-pumping in the coastal area of the Gaza Strip. One hundred and two (102) samples from 44 municipal water wells in the Gaza Strip were collected and analyzed for major cations like, Ca2+ and Mg2+ by Titration, Na+ and K+ by Flame photometer; anions like, Cl- and HCO3- by Titration, NO3- by spectrophotometer and SO42- by turbidity meter. The groundwater in the region mainly consists of NaCl, CaHCO3-and NaHCO3-. The saline load of groundwater is in first place controlled by chloride, sodium and calcium concentrations. The spatial changes of ionic ratios of rCa2+/(rHCO3- +? rSO42-) and the relationship between sodium and chloride in the coastal area indicate that the aquifer experienced sea-water intrusion.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Cite this paper

M. Al-Khatib and H. Al-Najar, "Hydro-Geochemical Characteristics of Groundwater Beneath the Gaza Strip," Journal of Water Resource and Protection, Vol. 3 No. 5, 2011, pp. 341-348. doi: 10.4236/jwarp.2011.35043.

References

[1] Palestinian Central Bureau of Statistics, “Summary Statistics (1997-2015),” Gaza Strip, 2006.
[2] Ministry of Planning, Palestinian National Authority, “Re- gional Plan of Gaza Governorates 2005 - 2015,” 2006.
[3] Ministry of Agriculture, “Input-Output Gross Margin and Profit Per Dunum in the Gaza Strip,” 2003.
[4] United Nations Environment Programme, “Environmental Assessment of the Gaza Strip, Following the Escalation of Hospitalities in December 2008 – January 2009,” Renouf Publishing Co. Ltd., Ottawa, 2009.
[5] B. Shomar, “Groundwater Contaminations and Health Perspectives in the Developing World Case Study: Gaza Strip,” Environmental Geochemistry and Health, Vol. 33, No. 2, 2010, pp. 189-202. doi:10.1007/s10653-010-9332-8
[6] Palestinian Water Authority, “Summary of Palestininan Hydrologic Data 2000-Volume 2: Gaza,” Report, Palestine, 2000.
[7] H. Al-Najar, “Urban Agriculture and Eco-Sanitation: The Strategic Potential toward Poverty Alleviation in the Gaza Strip,” Royal Institution of Chartered Surveyors Research, Vol. 7, No. 7, 2007, pp. 9-22.
[8] S. M. Hamdan, U. Troeger and A. Nassar, “Stormwater Availability in the Gaza Strip, Palestine,” International Journal of Environment and Health, Vol. 1, No. 4, 2007, pp. 580-594. doi:10.1504/IJENVH.2007.018582
[9] A. R. Khalaf, H. M. Al-Najar and J. T. Hamad, “Assessment of Rainwater Run off Due to the Proposed Regional Plan in the Gaza Governorates,” Journal of Applied Sciences, Vol. 6, No. 13, 2006, pp. 2693-2704. doi:10.3923/jas.2006.2693.2704
[10] H. Al-Najar and A. J. Adeloye, “The Effect of Urban Expansion on Groundwater as a Reneable Resource in the Gaza Strip,” Royal Institution of Chartered Surveyors Research, Vol. 5, No. 8, 2005, pp. 7-21
[11] A. Hilles and H. Al-Najar, “Brackish Water Desalination is the Merely Potable Water Potential in the Gaza Strip: Prospective and Limitations,” Journal of Environmental Science and Technology, Vol. 4 No. 2, 2011, pp. 158- 171. doi:10.3923/jest.2011.158.171
[12] Q. Khalid, et al., “Optima Extraction of Groundwater in the Gaza Coastal Aquifer,” Journal of Water Resource and Protection, Vol. 1, No. 4, 2009, pp. 249-259.
[13] A. Shaheeda, “The Hydrochemical Characteristics of Groundwater in the Incomati Estuary,” Master’s Thesis, University of the Western Cape, 2007.
[14] A.-S. Mohammed and H. Al-Najar, “Disinfiction Process of Water Supply System in the Gaza Strip Between Real Practice and WHO Limitations,” Research Journal of Environmental Sciences, Vol. 5, No. 5, 2011, pp. 414-423. doi:10.3923/rjes.2011.414.423
[15] A. Nassar, K. Tubail and S. Afifi, “Attitutes of Farmers toward Sludge Use in Gaza Strip,” International Journal of Environmental Technology and Management, Vol. 10, No. 1, 2009, pp. 89-101. doi:10.1504/IJETM.2009.021580
[16] R. Revelle, “Criteria for Recognition of Sea Water in Ground Water,” Transactions of American Geophysical Union, Vol. 22, 1941, pp. 593-597.
[17] C. A. J. Appelo and D. Postma, “Geochemistry, Groundwater and Pollution,” A.A. Balkema Publishers, Rotterdam, 1996.
[18] K. A. Qahman and Y. Zhou, “Monitoring of Seawater Intrusion in the Gaza Strip, Palestine,” 1st International Conference of Saltwater Intrusion and Coastal Aquifers Monitoring, Modeling and Management, Essaouira, 23- 25 April 2001, pp. 1-23.
[19] Metcalf and Eddy, “The Gaza Coastal Aquifer Management Plan – Task 3 Appendix A,” USAID, Contract No. 294-C-99-00038-00, 2000.
[20] Q. Ziad. “A Hydro Geological, Hydrochemical and Environmental Study in Wadi Al Arroub Drainage Basin, South West Bank, Palestine,” Freiberg On-line Geosciences, Vol. 9, 2003, pp. 1-211.
[21] A. Vengosh, W. Kloppmann, A. Marei, Y. Livshitz, A. Gutierrez, M. Banna, C. Guerrot, I. Pankratov and H. Rana, “Sources of Salinity and Boron in Gaza Strip: Natural Contaminant Flow in the Southern Mediterranean Coastal Aquifer,” Water Resources Research, Vol. 41, 2005, pp. 1-20. doi:10.1029/2004WR003344
[22] Palestinian Water Authority, “Agricultural and Municipal Water Demand in Gaza Governorates for Year 2005,” Report, 2005.

  
comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2019 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.