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Male Breast Cancer Clinical Features, Risk Factors, and Current Diagnostic and Therapeutic Approaches

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DOI: 10.4236/ijcm.2014.517138    3,128 Downloads   4,291 Views   Citations

ABSTRACT

Objective: To review presentation, diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of male breast cancer. Method: A systematic review of the English language literature between 1990 and 2013 was conducted to identify studies relevant to the objective. Searches were carried out on the database PubMed, by using the title term “male breast cancer”. Results: The majority of male patients present with a painless, firm, subareolar lump. Experience of male breast imaging is good but limited. However, there is no definitive therapeutic algorithm. Men are often treated with mastectomy instead of breast conserving surgery and mostly tamoxifen is used as an adjuvant therapy. The most important prognostic factors are tumor size and lymph node status in the armpit. Conclusion: More increased awareness and further research are needed to improve the diagnosis and treatment of this disease.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Cite this paper

Darkeh, M. and Azavedo, E. (2014) Male Breast Cancer Clinical Features, Risk Factors, and Current Diagnostic and Therapeutic Approaches. International Journal of Clinical Medicine, 5, 1068-1086. doi: 10.4236/ijcm.2014.517138.

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