Share This Article:
Review Paper

Cancer and Infectious Causes

Abstract Full-Text HTML XML Download Download as PDF (Size:2685KB) PP. 161-177
DOI: 10.4236/ojmm.2014.43019    3,344 Downloads   5,233 Views   Citations

ABSTRACT

Various kinds of organisms, including viruses, bacteria, trematodes and fungi are known carcinogens that cause cancer. Infectious identification related to cancer may lead to better treatment for both the prevention and targeting of cancer therapy. Although nearly 20% of all cancers are caused by an infection of a microbe, the amount of evidence and information regarding the mechanisms associated with oncogenesis varies dramatically from one organism to the next. This review cannot be exhaustive because we are not aware of all infections worldwide in addition to their potential mechanisms for oncogenesis. More research is required for all of the species mentioned in this review.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Cite this paper

Smith, A. , Oertle, J. and Prato, D. (2014) Cancer and Infectious Causes. Open Journal of Medical Microbiology, 4, 161-177. doi: 10.4236/ojmm.2014.43019.

References

[1] Jones, P.A. and Baylin, S.B. (2007) The Epigenomics of Cancer. Cell, 128, 683-692.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2007.01.029
[2] Hoang, H., Akihiro, T. and Norifumi, K. (2014) Role of Hepatitis B Virus DNA Integration in Human Hepatocarcinogenesis. World Journal Gastroenterology, 20, 6236-6243.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3748/wjg.v20.i20.6236
[3] Kinoshita, N. and Gelboin, H.V. (1978) Beta-Glucuronidase Catalyzed Hydrolysis of Benzoapyrene-3-Glucuronide and Binding of DNA. Science, 199, 307-309.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.619459
[4] Haller, K., Stubenrauch, F. and Pfister, H. (1995) Differentiation-Dependent Transcription of the Epidermodysplasia Verruciformis-Associated Human Papillomavirus Type 5 in Benign Lesions. Virology, 214, 245-255.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/viro.1995.0028
[5] McLaughlin-Drubin, M.E. and Munger, K. (2009) Oncogenic Activities of Human Papillomaviruses. Virus Research, 143, 195-208.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.virusres.2009.06.008
[6] Young, L.S. and Rickinson, A.B. (2004) Epstein-Barr Virus: 40 Years on. Nature Review Cancer, 4, 757-768.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nrc1452
[7] Knipe, D.M., Howley, P.M., Cohen, J.I., Griffith, D.E., Lamb, R.A., Martin, M.A., Racaniello, V. and Roizman, B. (2013) Fields Virology. 6th Edition, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia, 1898-1959.
[8] Rickinson, A.B. (2014) Co-Infections, Inflammation, and Oncogenesis: Future Directions for EBV Research. Seminars in Cancer Biology, 26, 99-115.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.semcancer.2014.04.004
[9] Rickinson, A.B. and Moss, D.J. (1997) Human Cytotoxic T Lymphocyte Responses to Epstein-Barr Virus Infection. Annual Review Immunology, 15, 405-431.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev.immunol.15.1.405
[10] Soni, V., Cahir-McFarland, E. and Kieff, E. (2007) LMP1 TRAFficking Activates Growth and Survival Pathways. Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology, 597, 173-187.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-0-387-70630-6_14
[11] Portis, T., Ikeda, M. and Longnecker, R. (2004) Epstein-Barr Virus LMP2A: Regulating Cellular Ubiquitination Processes for Maintenance of Viral Latency? Trends in Immunology, 25, 422-426.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.it.2004.05.009
[12] Maruo, S., Zhao, B., Johannsen, E., Kieff, E., Zou, J. and Takada, K. (2011) Epstein-Barr Virus Nuclear Antigens 3C and 3A Maintain Lymphoblastoid Cell Growth by Repressing p16INK4A and p14ARF Expression. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 108, 1919-1924.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1019599108
[13] Skalska, L., White, R.E., Parker, G.A., Sinclair, A.J., Paschos, K. and Allday, M.J. (2013) Induction of p16INK4a Is the Major Barrier to Proliferation When Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) Transforms Primary B-cells into Lymphoblastoid Cell Lines. PLoS Pathogens, 9, e1003187.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1003187
[14] Perz, J.F., Armstrong, G.L., Farrington, L.A., Hutin, Y.J. and Bell, B.P. (2006) The Contributions of Hepatitis B Virus and Hepatitis C Virus Infections to Cirrhosis and Primary Liver Cancer Worldwide. Journal of Hepatology, 45, 529-538.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhep.2006.05.013
[15] Center, M.M. and Jemal, A. (2011) International Trends in Liver Cancer Incidence Rates. Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers & Prevention, 20, 2362-2368.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-11-0643
[16] Hassan, M.M., Hwang, L.Y., Hatten, C.J., Swaim, M., Li, D., Abbruzzese, J.L., Beasley, P. and Patt, Y.Z. (2002) Risk Factors for Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Synergism of Alcohol with Viral Hepatitis and Diabetes Mellitus. Hepatology, 36, 1206-1213.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/jhep.2002.36780
[17] Sun, C.A., Wu, D.M., Lin, C.C., Lu, S.N., You, S.L., Wang, L.Y., Wu, M.H. and Chen, C.J. (2003) Incidence and Cofactors of Hepatitis C Virusrelated Hepatocellular Carcinoma: A Prospective Study of 12,008 Men in Taiwan. American Journal of Epidemiology, 157, 674-682.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/aje/kwg041
[18] Llovet, J.M., Burroughs, A. and Bruix, J. (2003) Hepatocellular Carcinoma. The Lancet, 362, 1907-1917.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(03)14964-1
[19] Schuch, A., Hoh, A. and Thimme, R. (2014) The Role of Natural Killer Cells and CD8+ T Cells in Hepatitis B Virus Infections. Frontiers in Immunology, 5, 258.
[20] Zucman-Rossi, J. and Laurent-Puig, P. (2007) Genetic Diversity of Hepatocellular Carcinomas and Its Potential Impact on Targeted Therapies. Pharmacogenomics, 8, 997-1003.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2217/14622416.8.8.997
[21] Lavanchy, D. (2009) The Global Burden of Hepatitis C. Liver International, 29, 74-81.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1478-3231.2008.01934.x
[22] Lauer, G.M. and Walker, B.D. (2001) Hepatitis C Virus Infection. The New England Journal of Medicine, 345, 41-52.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJM200107053450107
[23] El-Serag, H.B. (2012) Epidemiology of Viral Hepatitis and Hepatocellular Carcinoma. Gastroenterology, 142, 1264-1273.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.gastro.2011.12.061
[24] Corado, J., Toro, F., Rivera, H., Bianco, N.E., Deibis, L. and De Sanctis, J.B. (1997) Impairment of Natural Killer (NK) Cytotoxic Activity in Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Infection. Clinical & Experimental Immunology, 109, 451-457.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2249.1997.4581355.x
[25] Abdel-Hakeem, M.S. and Shoukry, N.H. (2014) Protective Immunity against Hepatitis C: Many Shades of Gray. Frontiers in Immunology, 5, 274.
[26] Elchuri, S., Oberley, T.D., Qi ,W., Eisenstein, R.S., Roberts, L.J., Van Remmen, H., et al. (2005) CuZnSOD Deficiency Leads to Persistent and Widespread Oxidative Damage and Hepatocarcinogenesis Later in Life. Oncogene, 24, 367-380.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/sj.onc.1208207
[27] Xu, Z., Chen, L., Leung, L., Yen, T.S., Lee, C. and Chan, J.Y. (2005) Liver-Specific Inactivation of the Nrf1 Gene in Adult Mouse Leads to Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis and Hepatic Neoplasia. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science the United States of America, 102, 4120-4125.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0500660102
[28] Lim, S.O., Gu, J.M., Kim, M.S., Kim, H.S., Park, Y.N., Park, C.K., et al. (2008) Epigenetic Changes Induced by Reactive Oxygen Species in Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Methylation of the E-Cadherin Promoter. Gastroenterology, 135, 2128-2140.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.gastro.2008.07.027
[29] Min, J.Y., Lim, S.O. and Jung, G. (2011) Downregulation of Catalase by Reactive Oxygen Species via Hypermethylation of CpG Island II on the Catalase Promoter. FEBS Letters, 584, 2427-2432.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.febslet.2010.04.048
[30] Llovet, J.M., Chen, Y., Wurmbach, E., Roayaie, S., Fiel, M.I., Schwartz, M., et al. (2006) A Molecular Signature to Discriminate Dysplastic Nodules from Early Hepatocellular Carcinoma in HCV Cirrhosis. Gastroenterology, 131, 1758-1767.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.gastro.2006.09.014
[31] Forbes, S.A., Tang, G., Bindal, N., Bamford, S., Dawson, E., Cole, C., et al. (2010) COSMIC (the Catalogue of Somatic Mutations in Cancer): A Resource to Investigate Acquired Mutations in Human Cancer. Nucleic Acids Research, 38, D652-D657.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/nar/gkp995
[32] Revest, M., Minjolle, S., Veyer, D., Lagathu, G., Michelet, C. and Colimon, R. (2011) Detection of HHV-6 in over a Thousand Samples: New Types of Infection Revealed by an Analysis of Positive Results. Journal of Clinical Virology, 51, 20-24.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcv.2011.02.001
[33] Yao, K., Crawford, J.R., Komaroff, A.L., Ablashi, D.V. and Jacobson, S. (2010) Review Part 2: Human Herpesvirus-6 in Central Nervous System Diseases. Journal of Medical Virology, 82, 1669-1678.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmv.21861
[34] Ablashi, D.V., Devin, C.L., Yoshikawa, T., Lautenschlager, I., Luppi, M., Kühl, U. and Komaroff, A.L. (2010) Review Part 3: Human Herpesvirus-6 in Multiple Non-Neurological Diseases. Journal of Medical Virology, 82, 1903-1910.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmv.21860
[35] Chan, P.K., Ng, H.K. and Cheng, A.F. (1999) Detection of Human Herpesviruses 6 and 7 Genomic Sequences in Brain Tumours. Journal of Clinical Pathology, 52, 620-623.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jcp.52.8.620
[36] Crawford, J.R., Santi, M.R., Thorarinsdottir, H.K., Cornelison, R., Rushing, E.J., Zhang, H., Yao, K., Jacobson S. and Macdonald, T.J. (2009) Detection of Human Herpesvirus-6 Variants in Pediatric Brain Tumors: Association of Viral Antigen in Low Grade Gliomas. Journal of Clinical Virology, 46, 37-42.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcv.2009.05.011
[37] Doniger, J., Muralidhar, S. and Rosenthal, L.J. (1999) Human Cytomegalovirus and Human Herpesvirus 6 Genes That Transform and Transactivate. Clinical Microbiology Review, 12, 367-382.
[38] Knox, K.K. and Carrigan, D.R. (1996) Active HHV-6 Infection in the Lymph Nodes of HIV-Infected Patients: In vitro Evidence That HHV-6 Can Break HIV Latency. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome Human Retrovirology, 11, 370-378.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1386-6532(06)70004-X
[39] Lusso, P. (2006) HHV-6 and the Immune System: Mechanism of Immunomodulation and Viral Escape. Journal of Clinical Virology, 37, S4-S10.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1386-6532(06)70004-X
[40] Moore, P.S. and Chang, Y. (1995) Detection of Herpesvirus-Like DNA Sequences in Kaposi’s Sarcoma Lesions from Persons with and without HIV Infection. The New England Journal of Medicine, 332, 1181-1185.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJM199505043321801
[41] Boshoff, C., Whitby, D., Hatziionnou, T., Fisher, C., van der Walt, J., Hatzakis, A., Weiss, R. and Schulz, T. (1995) Kaposi’s-Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus in HIV-Negative Kaposi’s Sarcoma. The Lancet, 345, 1043-1044.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(95)90780-7
[42] Schalling, M., Ekman, M., Kaaya, E.E., Linde, A. and Biberfeld, P. (1995) A Role for a New Herpes Virus KSHV in Different Forms of Kaposi’s Sarcoma. Nature Medicine, 1, 707-708.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nm0795-707
[43] Chang, Y., Cesarman, E., Pessin, M.S., Lee, F., Culpepper, J., Knowles, D.M. and Moore, P.S. (1994) Identification of Herpesvirus-Like DNA Sequences in AIDS-Associated Kaposi’s Sarcoma. Science, 266, 1865-1869.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.7997879
[44] Ganem, D. (2006) KSHV Infection and the Pathogenesis of Kaposi’s Sarcoma. Annual Review of Pathology, 1, 273- 296.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev.pathol.1.110304.100133
[45] Liang, C., Lee, J.C. and Jung, J.U. (2008) Immune Evasion in Kaposi’s Sarcoma-Associated Herpes Virus Associated Oncogenesis. Seminars in Cancer Biology, 18, 423-436.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.semcancer.2008.09.003
[46] Friedman-Kien, A.E. (1981) Disseminated Kaposi’s Sarcoma Syndrome in Young Homosexual Men. Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology, 5, 468-471.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0190-9622(81)80010-2
[47] Neipel, F. and Fleckenstein, B. (1999) The Role of HHV-8 in Kaposi’s Sarcoma. Seminars in Cancer Biology, 9, 151-164.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/scbi.1999.0129
[48] Walboomers, J.M., Jacobs, M.V., Manos, M.M., Bosch, F.X., Kummer, J.A., Shah, K.V., et al. (1999) Human Papillomavirus Is a Necessary Cause of Invasive Cervical Cancer Worldwide. Journal of Pathology, 189, 12-19.
[49] Pandey, S., Mishra, M. and Chandrawati, C. (2012) Human Papillomavirus Screening in North Indian Women. Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention, 13, 2643-2646.
http://dx.doi.org/10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.6.2643
[50] Hausen, H. (2002) Papillomaviruses and Cancer: From Basic Studies to Clinical Application. National Reviews Cancer, 2, 342-350.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nrc798
[51] Pandey, S., Mittal, R.D., Srivastava, M., Srivastava, K. and Mittal, B. (2010) Cyclooxygenase-2 Gene Polymorphisms and Risk of Cervical Cancer in North Indian Population. International Journal of Gynaecological Cancer, 20, 625-630.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/IGC.0b013e3181c63f79
[52] Munoz, N., Bosch, F.X., de Sanjosé, S., Herrero, R., Castellsagué, X., Shah, K.V., et al. (2003) Epidemiologic Classification of human Papillomavirus Types Associated with Cervical Cancer. The New England Journal of Medicine, 348, 518-527.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa021641
[53] Bosh, F.X. and de Sanjosé, S. (2003) Chapter 1: Human Papillomavirus and Cervical Cancer—Burden and Assessment of Causality. Journal of National Cancer Institute, Monographs, 2003, 3-13.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/oxfordjournals.jncimonographs.a003479
[54] Sutlu, T. and Alici, E. (2009) Natural Killer Cell-Based Immunotherapy in Cancer: Current Insights and Future Prospects. Journal International Medicine, 266, 154-181.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2796.2009.02121.x
[55] Munn, D.H., Sharma, M.D., Hou, D., Baban, B., Lee, J.R., Antonia, S.J., Messina, J.L., Chandler, P., Koni, P.A. and Mellor, A.L. (2004) Expression of Indoleamine 2,3-Dioxygenase by Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cells in Tumor-Draining Lymph Nodes. Journal of Clinical Investigation, 114, 280-290.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1172/JCI200421583
[56] Sharma, M.D., Baban, B., Chandler, P., Hou, D.Y., Singh, N., Yagita, H., Azuma, M., Blazar, B.R., Mellor, A.L. and Munn, D.H. (2007) Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cells from Mouse Tumor-Draining Lymph Nodes Directly Activate Mature Tregs via Indoleamine 2,3-Dioxygenase. Journal of Clinical Investigation, 117, 2570-2582.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1172/JCI31911
[57] Pinto, A.P., Degen, M., Villa, L.L. and Cibas, E.S. (2012) Immunomarkers in Gynecologic Cytology: The Search for the Ideal “Biomolecular Papanicolaou Test”. Acta Cytologica, 56, 109-121.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000335065
[58] Stanley, M. (2003) Genital Human Papillomavirus Infection—Current and Prospective Therapies. Journal of National Cancer Institute, Monographs, 2003, 117-124.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/oxfordjournals.jncimonographs.a003473
[59] Nasioutziki, M., Daniilidis, A., Dinas, K., Kyrgiou, M., Valasoulis, G., Loufopoulos, P.D., Paraskevaidis, E., Loufopoulos, A. and Karakitsos, P. (2011) The Evaluation of p16INK4a Immune Expression/Immunostaining and Human Papillomavirus DNA Test in Cervical Liquid-Based Cytological Samples. International Journal of Gynecological Cancer, 21, 79-85.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/IGC.0b013e3182009eea
[60] Lee, J.W., Choi, C.H., Choi, J.J., Park, Y.A., Kim, S.J., Hwang, S.Y., Kim, W.Y., Lee, J.H., Kim, B.G. and Bae, D.S. (2008) Altered MicroRNA Expression in Cervical Carcinomas. Clinical Cancer Research, 14, 2535-2542.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-07-1231
[61] Poiesz, B.J., Ruscetti, F.W., Gazdar, A.F., Bunn, P.A., Minna, J.D. and Gallo, R.C. (1980) Detection and Isolation of Type C Retrovirus Particles from Fresh and Cultured Lymphocytes of a Patient with Cutaneous T-Cell Lymphoma. Proceedings of the National Academy Science of the United States of America, 77, 7415-7419.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.77.12.7415
[62] Uchiyama, T., Yodoi, J., Sagawa, K., Takatsuki, K. and Uchino, H. (1977) Adult T-Cell Leukemia: Clinical and Hematologic Features of 16 Cases. Blood, 50, 481-492.
[63] Yamaguchi, K., Nishimura, H., Kawano, F., Kohrogi, H., Jono, M., Miyamoto, Y., et al. (1983) A Proposal for Smoldering Adult T-Cell Leukemia—Diversity in Clinical Pictures of Adult T-Cell Leukemia. Japanese Journal of Clinical Oncology, 13, 189-199.
[64] Yamaguchi, K. and Takatsuki, K. (1993) 10 Adult T Cell Leukaemia-Lymphoma. Baillière’s Clinical Haematology, 6, 899-915.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0950-3536(05)80183-0
[65] Peloponese, J.M., Yeung, M.L. and Jeang, K.T. (2006) Modulation of Nuclear Factor-κB by Human T Cell Leukemia Virus Type 1 Tax Protein: Implications for Oncogenesis and Inflammation. Immunology Research, 34, 1-12.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1385/IR:34:1:1
[66] Kasai, T. and Jeang, K.T. (2004) Two Discrete Events, Human T-Cell Leukemia Virus Type I Tax Oncoprotein Expression and a Separate Stress Stimulus, Are Required for Induction of Apoptosis in T-Cells. Retrovirology, 1, 7.
[67] Kuo, Y.L. and Giam, C.Z. (2006) Activation of the Anaphase Promoting Complex by HTLV-1 Tax Leads to Senescence. The EMBO Journal, 25, 1741-1752.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/carcin/bgi274
[68] Tabakin-Fix, Y., Azran, I., Schavinky-Khrapunsky, Y., Levy, O. and Aboud, M. (2006) Functional Inactivation of p53 by Human T-Cell Leukemia Virus Type 1 Tax Protein: Mechanisms and Clinical Implications. Carcinogenesis, 27, 673-681.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/carcin/bgi274
[69] Proietti, F.A., Carneiro-Proietti, A.B., Catalan-Soares, B.C. and Murphy, E.L. (2005) Global Epidemiology of HTLV-I Infection and Associated Diseases. Oncogene, 24, 6058-6068.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/sj.onc.1208968
[70] Asquith, B. and Bangham, C.R. (2008) How Does HTLV-I Persist Despite a Strong Cell-Mediated Immune Response? Trends in Immunology, 29, 4-11.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.it.2007.09.006
[71] Feng, H., Shuda, M., Chang, Y. and Moore, P.S. (2008) Clonal Integration of a Polyomavirus in Human Merkel Cell Carcinoma. Science, 319, 1096-1100.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.1152586
[72] Amber, K., McLeod, M.P. and Nouri, K. (2013) The Merkel Cell Polyomavirus and Its Involvementin Merkel Cell Carcinoma. Dermatologic Surgery, 39, 232-238.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/dsu.12079
[73] Hourdequin, K.C., Lefferts, J.A., Brennick, J.B., Ernstoff, M.S., Tsongalis, G.J. and Pipas, J.M. (2013) Merkel Cell Polyomavirus and Extrapulmonary Small Cell Carcinoma. Oncology Letters, 6, 1049-1052.
[74] Tolstov, Y.L., Knauer, A., Chen, J.G., Kensler, T.W., Kingsley, L.A., Moore, P.S., et al. (2011) Asymptomatic Primary Merkel Cell Polyomavirus Infection among Adults. Emerging Infectious Disease, 17, 1371-1380.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1708.110079
[75] Engels, E.A., Frisch, M., Goedert, J.J., Biggar, R.J. and Miller, R.W. (2002) Merkel Cell Carcinoma and HIV Infection. The Lancet, 359, 497-498.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(02)07668-7
[76] Robak, E., Biernat, W., Krykowski, E., Jeziorski, A. and Robak, T. (2005) Merkel Cell Carcinoma in Apatient with B-Cell Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia Treated with Cladribine Andrituximab. Leukemia & Lymphoma, 46, 909-914.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10428190500057759
[77] Wooff, J.C., Trites, J.R., Walsh, N.M. and Bullock, M.J. (2010) Complete Spontaneous Regression of Metastatic Merkel Cell Carcinoma: A Case Report and Review of the Literature. American Journal of Dermatopathology, 32, 614-617.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/DAD.0b013e3181cd3158
[78] Harms, P.W., Patel, R.M., Verhaegen, M.E., Giordano, T.J., Nash, K.T., Johnson, C.N., et al. (2013) Distinct Gene Expression Profiles of Viral-and Nonviral-Associated Merkel Cell Carcinomarevealed by Transcriptome Analysis. Journal of Investigative Dermatology, 133, 936-945.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/jid.2012.445
[79] Popp, S., Waltering, S., Herbst, C., Moll, I. and Boukamp, P. (2002) UV-B-Type Mutations and Chromosomal Imbalances Indicate Common Pathways for the Development of Merkel and Skin Squamous Cell Carcinomas. International Journal of Cancer, 99, 352-360.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ijc.10321
[80] Burgdorfer, W., Barbour, A.G., Hayes, S.F., Benach, J.L., Grunwaldt, E. and Davis, J.P. (1982) Lyme Disease—A Tick-Borne Spirochetosis? Science, 216, 1317-1319.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.7043737
[81] Hovmark, A., Asbrink, E. and Olsson, I. (1986) The Spirochetal Etiology of Lymphadenosis Benigna Cutis Solitara. Acta Dermato Venereologica, 66, 479-484.
[82] Mitchell, P.D., Reed, K.D., Vandermause, M.F. and Melinski, J.W. (1993) Isolation of Borrelia burgdorferi from Skin Biopsy Specimens of Patients with Erythema Migrans. American Journal Clinical Pathology, 99, 104-107.
[83] Ashbrink, E. and Hovmark, H. (1985) Successful Cultivation of Spirochetes from Skin Lesions of Patients with Erythema Chronicum Migrans Afzelius and Acrodermatitis Chronica Atrophicans. Acta Pathologica Microbiologica Immunologica, 93, 161-163.
[84] Goos, M. (1971) Acrodermatitis Chronica Atrophicans and Malignant Lymphoma. Acta Dermato Venereolgica, 51, 457-459.
[85] Garbe, C., Stein, H., Dienemann, D. and Orfanos, C.E. (1991) Borrelia burgdorferi—Associated Cutaneous B Cell Lymphoma: Clinical and Immunohistologic Characterization of Four Cases. Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology, 24, 584-590.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0190-9622(91)70088-J
[86] Rijlaarsdam, J.U., Van der Putte, S.C.J., Berti, E., Kerl, H., Rieger, E., Toonstra, J., et al. (1993) Cutaneous Immunocytomas: A Clinicopathological Study of 26 Cases. Histopathology, 23, 117-125.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2559.1993.tb00469.x
[87] Kutting, B., Bonsmann, G., Metze, D., Luger, T.A. and Cerroni, L. (1997) Borrelia burgdorferi—Associated Primary Cutaneous B-Cell Lymphoma: Complete Clearing of Skin Lesions after Antibiotic Pulse Therapy or Intralesional Injection of Interferon Alfa-2a. Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology, 36, 311-314.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0190-9622(97)80405-7
[88] Cerroni, L., Zochling, N., Putz, B. and Kerl, H. (1997) Infection by Borrelia burgdorferi and Cutaneous B-Cell Lymphoma. Journal of Cutaneous Pathology, 24, 457-461.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0560.1997.tb01318.x
[89] Roggero, E., Zucca, E., Mainetti, C., Bertoni, F., Valsangiacomo, C., Pedrinis, E., et al. (2000) Eradication of Borrelia burgdorferi Infection in Primary Marginal Zone B-Cell Lymphoma of the Skin. Human Pathology, 31, 263-268.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0046-8177(00)80233-6
[90] Hirschfeld, M., Kirschning, C.J., Schwandner, R., Wesche, H., Weis, J.H., Wooten, R.M., et al. (1999) Cutting Edge: Inflammatory Signaling by Borrelia burgdorferi Lipoproteins Is Mediated by Toll-Like Receptor 2. Journal of Immunology, 163, 2382-2386.
[91] Grayston, J.T. (1994) Chlamydia pneumoniae (TWAR) Infections in Children. Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal, 13, 675-684.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00006454-199408000-00001
[92] Everett, K.D.E., Bush, R.M. and Andersen, A.A. (1999) Emended Description of the Order Chlamydiales, Proposal of Parachlamydiaceae fam. nov. and Simkaniaceae fam. nov., Each Containing One Monotypic Genus, Revised Taxonomy of the Family Chlamydiaceae, Including a New Genus and Five New Species, and Standards for the Identification of Organisms. International Journal of Systematic Evolutionary Microbiology, 49, 415-440.
[93] Thom, D.H. and Grayston, J.T. (1991) Infections with Chlamydia pneumoniae Strain TWAR. Clinics of Chest Medicine, 12, 245-256.
[94] Wolf, K. and Fields, K.A.C. (2013) Chlamydia pneumoniae Impairs the Innate Immune Response in Infected Epithelial Cells by Targeting TRAF3. Journal of Immunology, 190, 1695-1701.
http://dx.doi.org/10.4049/jimmunol.1202443
[95] Laurila, A.L., Anttila, T., Laara, E., Bloigu, A., Virtamo, J., Albanes, D., et al. (1997) Serological Evidence of an Association between Chlamydia pneumoniae Infection and Lung Cancer. International Journal of Cancer, 74, 31-34.
[96] Preston-Martin, S., Pike, M.C., Ross, R.K., Jones, P.A. and Henderson, B.E. (1990) Increased Cell Division as a Cause of Human Cancer. Cancer Research, 50, 7415-7421.
[97] von Hertzen, L.C. (1998) Chlamydia pneumoniae and Its Role in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease. Annals of Medicine, 30, 27-37.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/07853899808999382
[98] Koyi, H., Brandén, E., Gnarpe, J., Gnarpe, H, Arnholm, B. and Hillerdal, G. (1999) Chlamydia pneumoniae May Be Associated with Lung Cancer. Preliminary Report on a Seroepidemiological Study. APMIS, 107, 828-832.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1699-0463.1999.tb01478.x
[99] Blaser, M.J. and Atherton, J.C. (2004) Helicobacter pylori Persistence: Biology and Disease. Journal Clinical Investigation, 113, 321-333.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1172/JCI20925
[100] Parsonnet, J., Friedman, G.D., Orentreich, N. and Vogelman, H. (1997) Risk for Gastric Cancer in People with CagA Positive or CagA Negative Helicobacter pylori Infection. Gut, 40, 297-301.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/gut.40.3.297
[101] Taylor, D.N. and Blaser, M.J. (1991) The Epidemiology of Helicobacter pvlori Infections. Epidemiology Review, 13, 42-59.
[102] Akopyanz, N., Bukanov, N.O., Westblom, T.U., Kresovich, S. and Berg, D.E. (1992) DNA Diversity among Clinical Isolates of Helicobacler-pvlori Detected by PCR-Based RAPD Fingerprinting. Nucleic Acids Research, 20, 5137-5142.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/nar/20.19.5137
[103] Fujimoto, S., Marshall, B. and Blaser, M.J. (1994) PCR-Based Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism Typing of Helicobacter pvlori. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 32, 331-334.
[104] Prewett, E.J., Bickley, J., Owen, R.J. and Pounder, R.E. (1992) DNA Patterns of Helicobacter pvlori Isolated from Gastric Antrum, Body, and Duodenum. Gastroenterology, 702, 829-833.
[105] Graham, D.Y., Opekun, A.R., Osato, M.S., El-Zimaity, H.M., Lee, C.K., Yamaoka, Y., Qureshi, W.A., Cadoz, M. and Monath, T.P. (2004) Challenge Model for Helicobacter pylori Infection in Human Volunteers. Gut, 53, 1235-1243.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/gut.2003.037499
[106] Nurgalieva, Z.Z., Conner, M.E., Opekun, A.R., Zheng, C.Q., Elliott, S.N., Ernst, P.B., Osato, M., Estes, M.K. and Graham, D.Y. (2005) B-Cell and T-Cell Immune Responses to Experimental Helicobacter pylori Infection in Humans. Infectious Immunology, 73, 2999-3006.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/IAI.73.5.2999-3006.2005
[107] Jones, P.A. and Baylin, S.B. (2007) The Epigenomics of Cancer. Cell, 128, 683-692.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2007.01.029
[108] Lu, H., Ouyang, W. and Huang, C. (2006) Inflammation, a Key Event in Cancer Development. Molecular Cancer Research, 4, 221-233.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1541-7786.MCR-05-0261
[109] Maekita, T., Nakazawa, K., Mihara, M., Nakajima, T., Yanaoka, K., Iguchi, M., et al. (2006) High Levels of Aberrant DNA Methylation in Helicobacter pylori-Infected Gastric Mucosae and Its Possible Association with Gastric Cancer Risk. Clinical Cancer Research, 12, 989-995.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-05-2096
[110] Nakajima, T., Maekita, T., Oda, I., Gotoda, T., Yamamoto, S., Umemura, S., et al. (2006) Higher Methylation Levels in Gastric Mucosae Significantly Correlate with Higher Risk of Gastric Cancers. Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention, 15, 2317-2321.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-06-0436
[111] Razin, S., Yogev, D. and Naot, Y. (1998) Molecular Biology and Pathogenicity of Mycoplasmas. Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews, 62, 1094-1156.
[112] Sun, G., Xu, X., Wang, Y., Shen, X., Chen, Z. and Yang, J. (2008) Mycoplasma pneumoniae Infection Induces Reactive Oxygen Species and DNA Damage in A549 Human Lung Carcinoma Cells. Infectious Immunology, 76, 4405-4413.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/IAI.00575-08
[113] Feng, S.H., Tsai, S., Rodriguez, J. and Lo, S.C. (1999) Mycoplasmal Infections Prevent Apoptosis and Induce Malignant Transformation of Interleukin-3-Dependent 32D Hematopoietic Cells. Molecular Cell Biology, 19, 7995-8002.
[114] Gong, M., Meng, L., Jiang, B., Zhang, J., Yang, H., Wu, J. and Shou, C. (2008) p37 from Mycoplasma hyorhinis Promotes Cancer Cell Invasiveness and Metastasis through Activation of MMP-2 and Followed by Phosphorylation of EGFR. Molecular Cancer Therapeutics, 7, 530-537.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1535-7163.MCT-07-2191
[115] Jiang, S., Zhang, S., Langenfeld, J., Lo, S.C. and Rogers, M.B. (2008) Mycoplasma Infection Transforms Normal Lung Cells and Induces Bone Morphogenetic Protein 2 Expression by Posttranscriptional Mechanisms. Journal of Cellular Biochemistry, 104, 580-594.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jcb.21647
[116] Namiki, K., Goodison, S., Porvasnik, S., Allan, R.W., Iczkowski, K.A., Urbanek, C., Reyes, L., Sakamoto, N. and Rosser, C.J. (2009) Persistent Exposure to Mycoplasma Induces Malignant Transformation of Human Prostate Cells. PLoS ONE, 4, e6872.
[117] Pehlivan, M., Pehlivan, S., Onay, H., Koyuncuoglu, M. and Kirkali, Z. (2005) Can Mycoplasma-Mediated Oncogenesis Be Responsible for Formation of Conventional Renal Cell Carcinoma? Urology, 65, 411-414.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.urology.2004.10.015
[118] Tsai, S., Wear, D.J., Shih, J.W. and Lo, S.C. (1995) Mycoplasmas and Oncogenesis: Persistent Infection and Multistage Malignant Transformation. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science of the United States of America, 92, 10197-10201.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.92.22.10197
[119] Logunov, D.Y., Scheblyakov, D.V., Zubkova, O.V., Shmarov, M.M., Rakovskaya, I.V., Gurova, K.V., Tararova, N.D., Burdelya, L.G., Naroditsky, B.S., Ginzburg, A.L. and Gudkov, A.V. (2008) Mycoplasma Infection Suppresses p53, Activates NF-kappaB and Cooperates with Oncogenic Ras in Rodent Fibroblast Transformation. Oncogene, 27, 4521-4531.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/onc.2008.103
[120] Waterhouse, J., Muir, C., Correa, P. and Powell, J. (1976) Cancer Incidence in Five Continents, Vol. 3. IARC Scientific Publications, No. 15, IARC, Lyon.
[121] Myers, M.H. and Ries, L.A. (1989) Cancer Patient Survival Rates: SEER Program Results for 10 Years of Follow-Up. CA: A Cancer Journal for Clinicians, 39, 21-32.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3322/canjclin.39.1.21
[122] Strom, B.L., Nelson, W.L., Henson, D.E., et al. (1985) Carcinoma of the Gallbladder. In: Cohen, S. and Soloway, R.D., Eds., Gallstones, Churchill Livingstone, New York, 275-278.
[123] Kar, P., Kumar, R., Kapur, B.M., Tandon, B.N. and Tandon, R.K. (1986) Surgical Obstructive Jaundice in India: A Clinical Profile. Journal of the Association of Physicians of India, 34, 115-118.
[124] Delhi Cancer Registry (1993) Institute of Rotary Cancer Hospital, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, 29.
[125] Kimura, W., Shimada, H., Kuroda, A. and Morioka, Y. (1989) Carcinoma of the Gallbladder and Extrahepatic Bile Duct in Autopsy Cases of the Aged, with Special Reference to Its Relationship to Gallstones. American Journal of Gastroenterology, 84, 386-390.
[126] Fraumeni Jr., J.F. (1975) Cancers of the Pancreas and Biliary Tract: Epidemiological Considerations. Cancer Research, 35, 3437-3446.
[127] Caygill, C.P., Hill, M.J., Braddick, M. and Sharp, J.C.M. (1994) Cancer Mortality in Chronic Typhoid and Paratyphoid Carriers. The Lancet, 343, 83-84.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(94)90816-8
[128] Hill, M.J. (1995) Chronic Bacterial Infection and Subsequent Human Carcinogenesis. European Journal of Cancer Prevention, 4, 127-128.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00008469-199504000-00001
[129] Chipman, J.K. (1982) Bile as a Source of Potential Reactive Metabolites. Toxicology, 25, 99-111.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0300-483X(82)90022-1
[130] Akhemedov, D.R. (1994) The Status of the Blood Antioxidant System in a Chronic Typhoid Bacterial Carrier State. Zhurnal Mikrobiologii, Epidemiologii i Immunobiolgii, 1, 91-95.
[131] Carter, P.B. and Collins, F.M. (1975) Peyer’s Patch Responsiveness to Salmonella in Mice. Journal of the Reticuloendothelial Society, 17, 38-46.
[132] Monack, D.M., Bouley, D.M. and Falkow, S. (2004) Salmonella typhimurium Persists within Macrophages in the Mesenteric Lymph Nodes of Chronically Infected Nramp1+/+ Mice and Can Be Reactivated by IFNγ Neutralization. Journal of Experimental Medicine, 199, 231-241.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1084/jem.20031319
[133] Wilson, W.R., Thompson, R.L., Wilkowske, C.J., Washington, J.A., Giuliani, E.R. and Geraci, J.E. (1981) Short-Term Therapy for Streptococcal Infective Endocarditis. Combined Intramuscular Administration of Penicillin and Streptomycin. JAMA, 245, 360-363.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.1981.03310290028017
[134] Reynolds, J.G., Silva, E. and McCormack, W.M. (1983) Association of Streptococcus bovisbacteremia with Bowel Disease. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 17, 696-697.
[135] Leport, C., Bure, A., Leport, J. and Vilde, J.L. (1987) Incidence of Colonic Lesions in Streptococcus bovis and Enterococcal Endocarditis. The Lancet, 1, 748.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(87)90391-6
[136] Zarkin, B.A., Lillemoe, K.D., Cameron, J.L., Effron, P.N., Magnuson, T.H. and Pitt, H.A. (1990) The Triad of Streptococcus bovis Bacteremia, Colonic Pathology, and Liver Disease. Annals of Surgery, 211, 786-791.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00000658-199006000-00019
[137] Kok, H., Jureen, R., Soon, C.Y. and Tey, B.H. (2007) Colon Cancer Presenting as Streptococcus gallolyticus Infective Endocarditis. Singapore Medical Journal, 48, 43-45.
[138] Malkin, J., Kimmitt, P.T., Ou, H.Y., Bhasker, P.S., Khare, M., Deng, Z., Stephenson, I., Sosnowski, A.W., Perera, N. and Rajakumar, K. (2008) Identification of Streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. Macedonicus as the Etiological Agent in a Case of Culture-Negative Multivalve Infective Endocarditis by 16S rDNA PCR Analysis of Resected Valvular Tissue. Journal of Heart Valve Disease, 17, 589-592.
[139] Gupta, A., Madani, R. and Mukhtar, H. (2010) Streptococcus bovis Endocarditis, a Silent Sign for Colonic Tumour. Colorectal Disease, 12, 164-171.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1463-1318.2009.01814.x
[140] Parsonnet, J. (1995) Bacterial Infection as a Cause of Cancer. Environmental Health Perspective, 103, 263-268.
[141] Miki, C., Tanaka, K., Toiyama, Y., Inoue, Y., Uchida, K., Mohri, Y. and Kusunoki, M. (2010) Comparison of the Prognostic Value of Inflammation-Based Pathologic and Biochemical Criteria in Patients Undergoing Potentially Curative Resection for Colorectal Cancer. Annals of Surgery, 251, 389-390.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/SLA.0b013e3181cb8b31
[142] International Agency for Research on Cancer (1994) Infection with Liver Flukes (Opisthorchis viverrini, Opisthorchis felineus and Clonorchis sinensis). IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, 61, 121- 175.
[143] Sun, T. (1984) Pathology and Immunology of Clonorchis sinensis Infection in the Liver. Annals Clinical Lab Science, 14, 208-215.
[144] Higginson, J. (1995) Relation of Carcinoma of the Liver to Cirrhosis, Malaria, Syphilis and Parasitic Disease. Schweizerische Zeitschrift für Pathologie und Bakteriologie. Revue suisse de pathologie et de bactériologie, 18, 625-643.
[145] Lee, S.H., Shim, T.S., Lee, S.M. and Chi, J.G. (1978) Studies on Pathological Changes of the Liver in Albino Rats Infected with Clonorchis sinensis. Korean Journal Parasitology, 16, 148-155.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3347/kjp.1978.16.2.148
[146] Monroe, L.S. (1995) Gastrointestinal Parasites. In: Haubrich, W.S., Schaffner, F. and Berk, J.E., Eds., Bockus Gastroenterology, The W. B. Saunders Co., Philadelphia, 3181-3183.
[147] Ona, F.V. and Dytoc, J.N. (1991) Clonorchis-Associated Cholangiocarcinoma: A Report of Two Cases with Unusual Manifestations. Gastroenterology, 101, 831-839.
[148] Braconi, C. and Patel, T. (2010) Cholangiocarcinoma: New Insights into Disease Pathogenesis and Biology. Infectious Disease Clinics of North America, 24, 871-884.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.idc.2010.07.006
[149] Braconi, C. (2010) Cholangiocarcinoma: New Insights into Disease Pathogenesis and Biology. Infectious Disease Clinics of North America, 24, 871-884.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.idc.2010.07.006
[150] Hong, S.T. and Fang, Y. (2012) Clonorchis sinensis and Clonorchiasis, an Update. Parasitology International, 61, 17-24. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.parint.2011.06.007
[151] Keiser, J. and Utzinger, J. (2009) Food-Borne Trematodiases. Clinical Microbiology Reviews, 22, 466-483.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/CMR.00012-09
[152] IARC (1994) Schistosomes, Liver Flukes and Helicobacter pylori. IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans. Lyon, 7-14 June 1994. IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, 61, 1-241
[153] Sripa, B., Kaewkes, S., Sithithaworn, P., Mairiang, E., Laha, T., Smout, M., et al. (2007) Liver Fluke Induces Cholangiocarcinoma. PLoS Medicine, 4, e201.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.0040201
[154] Thamavit, W., Pairojkul, C., Tiwawech, D., Shirai, T. and Ito, N. (1994) Strong Promoting Effect of Opisthorchis viverrini Infection on Dimethylnitrosamine-Initiated Hamster Liver. Cancer Letters, 78, 121-125.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0304-3835(94)90040-X
[155] Vatanasapt, V.S.B., Sithithaworn, P. and Mairiang, P. (1999) Liver Flukes and Liver Cancer. Cancer Surveys, 33, 313-343.
[156] Thamavit, W., Bhamarapravati, N., Sahaphong, S., Vajrasthira, S. and Angsubhakorn, S. (1978) Effects of Dimethylnitrosamine on Induction of Cholangiocarcinoma in Opisthorchis viverrini-Infected Syrian Golden Hamsters. Cancer Research, 38, 4634-4639.
[157] Bissell, M.J. and Radisky, D. (2001) Putting Tumours in Context. Nature Review Cancer, 1, 46-54.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/35094059
[158] Webb, G. (1981) The Six Diseases of WHO. Schistosomiasis: Some Advances. British Medical Journal, 283, 1104-1106.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmj.283.6299.1104
[159] World Health Organization (1985) The Control of Schistosomiasis. Report of a WHO Expert Committee. WHO Technical Report Series, 728, 1-113.
[160] World Health Organization (1987) Progress in Assessment of Morbidity Due to Schistosoma haematobium Infection. A Review of Recent Literature. WHO Technical Report Series, 87, 91.
[161] Escobedo, G., Roberts, C.W., Carrero, J.C. and Morales-Montor, J. (2005) Parasite Regulation by Host Hormones: An Old Mechanism of Host Exploitation? Trends in Parasitology, 21, 588-593.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pt.2005.09.013
[162] Tawfik, H.N. (1988) Carcinoma of the Urinary bladder Associated with Schistosomiasis in Egypt: The Possible Causal Relationship. In: Miller, R.W., Ed., Unusual Occurrences as Clues to Cancer Etiology, Japanese Science Society Press, Tokyo, 197-209.
[163] Makhyoun, N.A. (1974) Smoking and Bladder Cancer in Egypt. British Journal of Cancer, 30, 577-581.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/bjc.1974.238
[164] El-Merzabani, M.M., El-Aaser, A.A. and Zakhary, N.I. (1979) A Study on the Aetiological Factors of Bilharzial Bladder Cancer in Egypt. 1. Nitrosamines and Their Precursors in Urine. European Journal of Cancer, 15, 287-291.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0014-2964(79)90039-2
[165] Hicks, R.M. (1982) Nitrosamines as Possible Etiological Agents in Bilharzial Bladder Cancer. In: Magee, P.N., Ed., Banbury Report Number 12: Nitrosamines and Human Cancer, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, Cold Spring Harbor, 455-471.
[166] Tricker, A.R., Mostafa, M.H., Speiglhalder, B. and Preussmann, R. (1989) Urinary Excretion of Nitrate, Nitrite and N- Nitroso Compounds in Schistosomiasis and Bladder Cancer Patients. Carcinogenesis, 10, 547-552.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/carcin/10.3.547
[167] Badawi, A.F., Mostafa, M.H., Aboul-Azm, T., Haboubi, N.Y., O’Connor, P.J. and Cooper, D.P. (1992) Promutagenic Methylation Damage in Bladder DNA from Patients with Bladder Cancer Associated with Schistosomiasis and from Normal Individuals. Carcinogenesis, 13, 877-881.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/carcin/13.5.877
[168] IARC (2002) Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks in Humans. International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). IARC Press, Lyon, Vol. 82.
[169] Williams, J.H., Phillips, T.D., Jolly, P.E., Stiles, J.K., Jolly, C.M. and Aggarwal, D. (2004) Human Aflatoxicosis in Developing Countries: A Review of Toxicology, Exposure, Potential Health Consequences, and Interventions. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 80, 1106-1122.
[170] IARC (2002) Some Traditional Herbal Medicines, Some Mycotoxins, Naphthalene and Styrene. IARC Press, Lyon.
[171] Ferlay, J., Shin, H., Bray, F., Forman, D., Mathers, C. and Parkin, D.M. (2010) Estimates of Worldwide Burden of Cancer in 2008: GLOBOCAN 2008. International Journal of Cancer, 127, 2893-2917.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ijc.25516
[172] Jemal, A., Bray, F., Center, M.M., Ferlay, J., Ward, E. and Forman, D. (2011) Global Cancer Statistics. CA: A Cancer Journal for Clinicians, 61, 69-90.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3322/caac.20107
[173] Bressac, B., Kew, M.C., Wands, J. and Ozturk, M. (1991) Selective G to T Mutations of p53 Gene in Hepatocellular Carcinoma from Southern Africa. Nature, 350, 429-431.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/350429a0
[174] Hsu, I.C., Metcalf, R.A., Sun, T., Welsh, J.A., Wang, N.J. and Harris, C.C. (1991) Mutational Hotspot in the p53 Gene in Human Hepatocellular Carcinomas. Nature, 350, 427-428.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/350427a0
[175] Kirk, G.D., Lesi, O.A., Mendy, M., Szymanska, K., Whittle, H., Goedert, J.J., et al. (2005) 249Ser TP53 Mutation in Plasma DNA, Hepatitis B Virus Infection, and Risk of Hepatocellular Carcinoma. Oncogene, 24, 5858-5867.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/sj.onc.1208732
[176] Wang, L.Y., Hatch, M., Chen, C.J., Levin, B., You, S.L., Lu, S.N., et al. (1996) Aflatoxin Exposure and Risk of Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Taiwan. International Journal of Cancer, 67, 620-625.
[177] Ozturk, M., Bressac, B., Pusieux, A., et al. (1991) A p53 Mutational Hotspot in Primary Liver Cancer Is Geographically Localised in High Aatoxin Areas of the World. The Lancet, 338, 260-265.
[178] Coursaget, P., Depril, N., Chabaud, M., Nandi, R., Mayelo, V., LeCann, P., et al. (1993) High Prevalence of Mutations at Codon 249 of the p53 Gene in Hepatocellular Carcinoma from Senegal. British Journal of Cancer, 67, 1395-1397.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/bjc.1993.258
[179] Puisieux, A., Lim, S., Groopman, J. and Ozturk, M. (1991) Selective Targeting of p53 Gene Mutational Hotspots in Human Cancers by Etiologically Defined Carcinogens. Cancer Research, 51, 6185-6189.
[180] Corthay, A. (2014) Does the Immune System Naturally Protect against Cancer? Frontiers in Immunology, 5, 1-8.
[181] Rochford, R., Cannon, M.J. and Moormann, A.M. (2005) Endemic Burkitt’s Lymphoma: A Polymicrobial Disease? Nature Reviews Microbiology, 3, 182-187.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nrmicro1089
[182] Thorley-Lawson, D.A. and Allday, M.J. (2008) The Curious Case of the Tumour Virus: 50 Years of Burkitt’s Lymphoma. Nature Reviews Microbiology, 6, 913-924.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nrmicro2015
[183] Murray, P.R., Rosenthal, K.S. and Pfaller, M.A. (2009) Mycotoxins and Mycotoxicoses: Medical Microbiology. Elsevier, Amsterdam, 211-216.
[184] Wijaya, I. and Hasan, I. (2013) Reactivation of Hepatitis B Virus Associated with Chemotherapy and Immunosuppressive Agents. Acta Medica Indonesiana, 45, 61-66.

  
comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2018 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.