Share This Article:

Use of Stone Dust in the Design of High Performance Concrete

Abstract Full-Text HTML Download Download as PDF (Size:2605KB) PP. 229-239
DOI: 10.4236/ojce.2014.43020    5,725 Downloads   7,520 Views   Citations


This research evaluated the suitability of stone dust in the design and production of High Perfor-mance Concrete (HPC). HPC mix was designed, tested, costed and a comparison of concrete classes used in the market (Class 25, 30 and 35) done using Cost Benefit Analysis (CBA). The cost benefit was analyzed using Internal Rate of Return (IRR) and Net Present Value (NPV). Laboratory tests established the properties concrete obtained from the design mix. Compressive strength, slump, and modulus of elasticity were tested and analyzed. Structural analysis using BS 8110 was done for a 10 storey office building to establish the structural member sizes. Members obtained from concrete Classes 25, 30, 35 and the new compressive strengths from HPC (Class 80) were obtained and compared. Analysis was done for structural members’ sizes and area freed as a result of de-signing with HPC as well as the steel reinforcement used. To justify the initial cost of HPC if ado- pted, the Cost Benefit Analysis (CBA) was used to estimate increased costs versus income resulting from increased let table space created. The minimum class of concrete used in design was limited to Class 25 N/mm2. The research shows that it is possible to manufacture high strength concrete using locally available stone dust. The stone dust sampled from Mlolongo quarries achieved a characteristic strength of 86.7 N/mm2 at a water cement ratio of 0.32. With the results structural analysis of a 10 storey office structures with columns spaced at 8 meters center to center was de-signed using the four classes and results compared. There was a reduction of columns from 1.2 m wide to 0.65 m wide (over 45%) when concrete class changes from Class 25 to Class 80 creating over 3% of the total space area per floor. Cost benefit analysis using Net Present Value (NPV) and Internal Rate of Return (IRR) presented business case for the use of HPC. With Class 80, the IRR was at 3% and NPV being 8% of the total initial investment. The steel reinforcement increased by 8.64% using Class 30, 11.68% using Class 35 and reduced by 8.37% at Class 80. Further analysis needs to be done to understand the trend of steel reinforcement keeping all the member sizes the same. In this study the member sizes were optimized based on the steel reinforcement and serviceability. This paper provides useful information to design Engineers and Architects and inform future design of multi storey structures.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Cite this paper

Cheruiyot, J. , Abuodha, S. and Kabubo, C. (2014) Use of Stone Dust in the Design of High Performance Concrete. Open Journal of Civil Engineering, 4, 229-239. doi: 10.4236/ojce.2014.43020.


[1] Kuwai, T. (2001) State-of-the-Art Report on High-Strength Concrete in Japan Recent Developments and Applications. 105-8007, 88.
[2] Addis, B. and Owens. G. (2001) Fulton’s Concrete Technology. 8th Edition. Cement & Concrete Institute, Midrand, South Africa.
[3] Zia, P., Leming, M.L., Ahmad, S.H., Shemel, J.J., Elliot, R.P. and Naaman, A.E. (1991) Mechanical Behavior of High Strength Concrete, Strategic Highway Research Program, High Performance Concretes, a State of the Art report, SHRP National Research Council, Washington DC.
[4] Russel, H. and Moreno, J. (1977) State-of-the-Art Report on High Strength Concrete, Chicago Committee on High-Rise Buildings.
[5] Addis, B.J. (1991) Properties of High-Strength Concrete Concrete Made with South African Materials. Ph.D. Thesis, University of Witwatersand, Jonanesburg.
[6] Kiliswa, M. (2011) Effect of Quarry Dust on the Strengths and Permeability of Concrete. Msc Thesis, University of Nairobi, Kenya.
[7] Jinnai, H. (2005) Development and Construction Record on High Strength Concrete with the Compressive Strength Exceeding 150MPa, ACI SP-228, Seventh International Symposium on the Utilization of High-Strength/High-Performance Concrete, 1045-1062.
[8] American Concrete Institute 211.1-9191997, Standard Practice for Selecting Proportions for normal, heavyweight, and mass concrete, Farmington Hills, Michigan: American Concrete Institute, 1997.
[9] Aminul, I.L. (2008) Mix Design of High Performance Concrete, National Institute of Technology Silchar-788010, India.
[10] Addis. B.J. and Alexander, M.G. (1990) A Method of Proportioning Trial Mixes for High Strength Concrete, High Strenth Concrete, Second International Symposium, Berkeley, California, 227-278 (ACI special Publication, SP-121).

comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2018 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.