Share This Article:

Nigerian Wood Waste: A Dependable and Renewable Fuel Option for Power Production

Abstract Full-Text HTML XML Download Download as PDF (Size:3439KB) PP. 234-248
DOI: 10.4236/wjet.2014.23025    3,721 Downloads   4,653 Views   Citations

ABSTRACT

Being an oil-rich country, Nigeria’s energy supply is primarily fossil-based. The unequal distribution of oil wealth, along with agitation for self-determination and resource control, has led to the sabotage of oil installations. This, in turn, has affected all services running on the energy supply from these installations, leading to incessant or total shut-down of such facilities. Power generated using biomass-based renewable energy technologies is a promising option in limiting the country’s dependence on fossil energy for power generation. The most important part of this option is on-site power generation via mini-grid systems. The power thus produced is utilized with the excess being fed into the national grid based on Feed-in-Tariff (F.i.T.) requirements and technicalities. The important factors to be considered in the propagation of a mini-grid option are examined in this study. Furthermore, the study shows that about 1.3 TWh of electricity can be generated from the 1.8 million tonnes per year of wood waste produced by the lumber industry in Nigeria. Power generation through the utilization of biomass has however proved to be a possible path in achieving economic, social and environmental sustainability in the country. Economic studies show that for small-scale power generation, internal combustion engines and Stirling engines are economically feasible. Steam turbines and gas turbines are mostly used in medium/large-scale biomass power generators, especially in proximity to biomass waste resources. Micro gas turbine power technology can also be applied on a small scale despite its high total investment capital.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Cite this paper

Oluoti, K. , Megwai, G. , Pettersson, A. and Richards, T. (2014) Nigerian Wood Waste: A Dependable and Renewable Fuel Option for Power Production. World Journal of Engineering and Technology, 2, 234-248. doi: 10.4236/wjet.2014.23025.

References

[1] Library of Congress-Federal Research Division (2008) Country Profile: Nigeria.
http://lcweb2.loc.gov/frd/cs/profiles/Nigeria.pdf
[2] Central Intelligent Agency (2014) Africa: Nigeria. The World Fact Book.
https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ni.html
[3] Oguntunde, P.G., Babatunde, J.A. and Lischeid, G. (2011) Rainfall Trends in Nigeria, 1901-2000. Journal of Hydrology, 41, 207-218.
[4] The Food And Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations (2005) Global Forest Resources Assessment.
http://www.fao.org/docrep/008/a0400e/a0400e00.HTM
[5] Bello, S.R. and Mijinyawa, Y. (2010) Assessment of Injuries in Small Scale Sawmill Industry of South Western Nigeria. Agricultural Engineering International: The CIGR Journal of Scientific Research and Development, 7, Manuscript 1558.
[6] Ejibunu, H.T. (2014) Nigeria’s Niger Delta Crisis: Root Causes of Peacelessness. EPU Research Papers, Issue 07/07, 6.
http://epu.ac.at/fileadmin/downloads/research/rp_0707.pdf
[7] Paki, F.A.E. and Ebienfa, K.I. (2011) Militant Oil Agitations in Nigeria’s Niger Delta and the Economy. International Journal of Humanities and Social Science, 1, 140-145.
[8] Zarma, I.H. (2006) Hydro Power Resources in Nigeria. Energy Commission of Nigeria. 2nd Hydro Power for Today Conference, Hangzhou, 2006.
http://www.unido.org/fileadmin/import/52413_Mr._Ismaila_Haliru_Zarma.pdf
[9] The Light Is Getting Brighter in Nigeria.
http://www.theguardian.com/global-development-professionals-network/adam-smith-
international-partner-zone/nigeria-power-electricity-africa
[10] Nigerian Electricity Regulatory Commission (2008) (Permits for Captive Power Generation) Regulations.
http://www.nercng.org/nercdocs/Regulation-for-Captive-Power-Generation.pdf
[11] Ohimain, E.I. (2012) The Prospects and Challenges of Waste Wood Biomass Conversion to Bioelectricity in Nigeria. Journal of Waste Conversion, Bio-Products and Biotechnology, 1, 3-8.
[12] Oyedepo, S.O. (2012) Energy and Sustainable Development in Nigeria: The Way Forward. Energy, Sustainability and Society, 2, 15.
http://www.energsustainsoc.com/content/2/1/15
[13] Sambo, A.S. (2005) Renewable Energy for Rural Development: The Nigerian Perspective. ISESCO Science and Technology Vision, 1, 12-22.
[14] Agbro, E.B. and Ogie, N.A. (2012) A Comprehensive Review of Biomass Resources and Biofuel Production Potential in Nigeria. Research Journal in Engineering and Applied Sciences, 1, 149-155.
[15] Popoola, L.T., Gutti, B., Adeniran, J.A. and Adeoye, B.K. (2013) The Potentials of Waste-to-Energy System in Nigeria: A Study of Pyrolysis Conversion of Wood Residue to Bio-Oil in Major Cities of South-Western Nigeria. Advances in Applied Science Research, 4, 243-251.
[16] Sambo, A.S. (2009) The Place of Renewable Energy in the Nigerian Energy Sector. World Future Council Workshop on Renewable Energy Policies, 10 October 2009, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
[17] Francescato, V., Antonini, E., Bergomi, L.Z., Metschina, C., Schnedl, C., Krajnc, N., Koscik, K., Gradziuk, P., Nocentini, G. and Stranieri, S. (2008) Wood Fuels Handbook. AIEL: Italian Agriforestry Energy Association, Legnaro.
[18] Babayemi, J.O. and Dauda, K.T. (2010) Evaluation of Solid Waste Generation, Categories and Disposal Options in Developing Countries: A Case Study of Nigeria. Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management, 13, 83-88.
http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/jasem.v13i3.55370
[19] Odewunmi, S.G. (2001) Solid Waste Transportation in Lagos State: Developing a Sustainable Model. Ph.D. Seminar, University of Lagos, Lagos.
[20] Mijinyawa, Y. and Bello, S.R. (2010) Assessment of Injuries in Small Scale Sawmill Industry of South Western Nigeria. Agricultural Engineering International: The CIGR Journal of Scientific Research and Development, 12, 157-157.
[21] Umar, I.H. (2004) Energy Commission of Nigeria at the Fote One Day Workshop on Nigeria Urban Poor: Energy Needs and Sustainable Livelihoods, 23 June 2004, Lagos.
[22] Olesen, G.B. and Kvetay, M. (2001) Sustainable Energy Vision 2050. INFORSE, No. 12, February 2001.
[23] Nnaji, C.E., Uzoma, C.C. and Chukwu J.O. (2010) The Role of Renewable Energy Resources in Poverty Alleviation and Sustainable Development in Nigeria. Continental Journal of Social Sciences, 3, 31-37.
[24] Wihersaari, M. (2005) Evaluation of Greenhouse Gas Emissions Risk from Storage of Wood Residues. Biomass and Energy, 28, 444-453.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biombioe.2004.11.011
[25] Francis, O.A., Robert, B.I. and Efe, C.O. (2006) The Impact of Sawmill Wood Wastes on the Water Quality and Fish Communities of Benin River, Niger Delta Area, Nigeria. Wood Journal of Zoology, 1, 94-102.
[26] Particleboard Plant Operates Successfully on 100% Post Consumer Waste Wood. Green Tech Panels.
http://www.woodsymposium.wsu.edu/Proceedings05/Session%20II%20pdf%20files/Kessing.pdf
[27] UNDP (2009) Converting Waste Agricultural Biomass into a Resource. Compendium of Technologies.
http://www.unep.org/ietc/Portals/136/Publications/Waste%20Management/
WasteAgriculturalBiomassEST_Compendium.pdf
[28] Balat, M. and Balat, H. (2009) Recent Trends in Global Production and Utilization of Bio-Ethanol Fuel. Applied Energy, 86, 2273-2282.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apenergy.2009.03.015
[29] Menind, A. (2012) Peculiarities of Pretreatment and Fuels Refining of Biomass. Ph.D. Thesis, Estonian University of Life Sciences, Tartu.
[30] Oluoti, K.O., Doddapaneni,T.R.K., Kanagasabapathi, D. and Richards, T. (2014) Evaluation of the Pyrolysis and Gasification Kinetics of Tropical Wood Biomass. BioResources, 9, 2179-2190.
http://dx.doi.org/10.15376/biores.9.2.2179-2190
[31] Jeffrey, M. (2008) Environmental Impacts from Clean Wood Waste Management Methods: Preliminary Results. Sound Resource Management.
http://www.zerowaste.com/docs/Environmental%20Impacts%20of%20Clean%20
Wood%20Waste%20Management.pdf.
[32] The Presidency Energy Commission of Nigeria (2003) National Energy Policy. The Presidency and Energy Commission of Nigeria.
http://wacee.net/getattachment/21cca4e4-ef1b-4c59-8501-98b3e8624b88/National
_Energy_Policy_Nigeria.pdf.aspx
[33] The Electricity Power Sector Reform Act 2005. Federal Republic of Nigeria Official Gazette.
http://www.power.gov.ng/download/Electric%20Power%20Sector%20Reform%20Act%202005.pdf
[34] Federal Ministry of Power and Steel (2006) Nigerian Renewable Electricity Policy.
http://www.iceednigeria.org/workspace/uploads/dec.-2006.pdf
[35] Ohimain, E.I. (2011) Environmental Impacts of the Proposed 1MWe Wood Gasification Power Plant in Nigeria. Nigerian Journal of Agriculture, Food and Environment, 7, 12-18.
[36] Chaurey, A., Ranganathan, M. and Mohanty, P. (2005) Electricity Access for Geographically Disadvantaged Rural Communities: Technology and Policy Insights. Energy Policy, 32, 1693-1705.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0301-4215(03)00160-5
[37] The World Bank. Access to Electricity (% of Population).
http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/EG.ELC.ACCS.ZS/countries?display=default
[38] Reuters (2008) Revonergy to Build in Nigeria—14MW Renewable Energy Power Plant Fuelled by Wood. Business Wire.
http://www.reuters.com/article/2008/05/21/idUS133006+21-May-2008+BW20080521
[39] Moner-Girona, M. (Ed.) (2008) A New Scheme for the Promotion of Renewable Energies in Developing Countries: The Renewable Energy Regulated Purchase Tariff. JRC Scientific and Technical Reports, p. 5.
[40] Hybrid Mini-Grids for Rural Electrification: Lessons Learned. Alliance for Rural Electrification (ARE).
http://www.ruralelec.org/fileadmin/DATA/Documents/06_Publications/
Position_papers/ARE_Mini-grids_-_Full_version.pdf.
[41] Osueke, C.O. and Ezugwu, C.A.K. (2011) Study of Nigerian Energy Resources and Its consumption. International Journal of Scientific & Engineering Research, 2, 1-8.
[42] Shi, X., Elmore, A., Li, X., Gorence, N.J., Jin, H., Zhang, X., et al. (2008) Using Spatial Information Technologies to Select Sites for Biomass Power Plants: A Case Study in Guangdong Province, China. Biomass and Bioenergy, 32, 35-43.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biombioe.2007.06.008
[43] Alazraque-Cherni, J. (2008) Renewable Energy for Rural Sustainability in Developing Countries. Bulletin of Science, Technology & Society, 28, 105-114.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0270467607313956
[44] Bhavana, A. and Satry, R.C. (2011) Biomass Gasification Processes in Downdraft Fixed-Bed Reactors: A Review. International Journal of Chemical Engineering and Applications, 2, 425-433.
[45] IEA (2007) Biomass for Power Generation and CHP. Energy Technology Essentials.
http://www.iea.org/techno/essentials3.pdf
[46] Waste Wood as a Biomass Fuel: Market Information Report. Waste Infrastructure Delivery Programme.
http://www.biomassenergycentre.org.uk/pls/portal/docs/page/resources/ref_lib_
res/publications/wastewood-biomass.pdf
[47] (2010) Tar Removal from Low-Temperature Gasifiers. ERA-NET Bioener-gy.
http://www.ecn.nl/docs/library/report/2010/e10008.pdf
[48] Lettner, F., Timmerer, H. and Haselbacher, P. (2007) Deliverable 8: Biomass Gasification—State of the Art Description. Intelligent Energy, Europe.
[49] Energi Styrelsen (2012) Technology Data for Energy Plants—Generation of Electricity and District Heating, Energy Storage and Energy Carrier Generation and Conversion. Energinet.dk, Energi Styrelsen, Denmark.
[50] Gimelli, A. and Luongo, A. (2012) 2.3 MW Biomass Steam Power Plant: Experimental and Thermodynamic Analysis. International Conference on Renewable Energies and Power Quality (ICREPQ’12), Santiago de Compostela, 28-30 March 2012.
http://www.icrepq.com/icrepq'12/825-gimelli.pdf
[51] Obernberger, I., Carlsen, H. and Biedermann, F. (2003) State of the Art and Future Developments Regarding Small Scale Biomass CHP Systems with a Special Focus on ORC and Stirling Engine Technologies. International Nordic Bioenergy, Jyvaskyla.
[52] Turton, R., Bailie, R.C., Whiting, W.B. and Shaeiwitz, J.A. (2008) Analysis, Synthesis and Design of Chemical Processes. Pearson Education.
[53] Syed, S., Janajreh, I. and Ghenai, C. (2012) Thermodynamics Equilibrium Analysis within the Entrained Flow Gasifier Environment. International Journal of Thermal and Environmental Engineering, 4, 47-54.
http://dx.doi.org/10.5383/ijtee.04.01.007

  
comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2019 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.