Share This Article:

Study on the Classification of Speech Anxiety Using Q-Methodology Analysis

Abstract Full-Text HTML Download Download as PDF (Size:1034KB) PP. 69-83
DOI: 10.4236/ajc.2014.23008    4,374 Downloads   5,672 Views   Citations
Author(s)    Leave a comment

ABSTRACT

Public speaking is one of the cornerstones of mass communication, the influence of which has only been enhanced with the advent of the modern era. Yet despite its importance, up to 40% of the world’s population feels anxious when faced with the prospect of presenting in front of an audience (Wilbur, 1981). However, public speaking anxiety is human condition that can be understood and with effort, overcome by sufferers. Based on theoretical research, this study presents an empirical investigation of speech anxiety. The research uses Q-methodology to generate categories of speakers and then draws on the PQ-method program to suggest ways for speakers to improve their speaking confidence based on these categories. This research is of a value to those who are interested in speech anxiety for therapeutic or pedagogical practice.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Cite this paper

Lee, S. (2014) Study on the Classification of Speech Anxiety Using Q-Methodology Analysis. Advances in Journalism and Communication, 2, 69-83. doi: 10.4236/ajc.2014.23008.

References

[1] Anwan, R., Azher, M., Anwar, M. N., & Naz, A. (2010). An Investigation of Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety and Its Relationship with Students’ Achievement. Journal of College Teaching and Learning, 7, 33-40.
[2] Ayres, J., & Hopf, T. (1993). Coping with Speech Anxiety. Norwood, NJ: Ablex.
[3] Ayres, J., Hopf, T. S., & Peterson, E. (2000). A Test of Communication-Orientation Motivation (COM) Therapy. Communication Reports, 13, 35-44. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08934210009367721
[4] Beatty, M. J. (1988). Public Speaking Apprehension, Decision-Making Errors in the Selection of Speech Introduction Strategies and Adherence to Strategy. Communication Education, 37, 297-311.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03634528809378731
[5] Beatty, M. J., & Dobos, J. A. (1997). Physiological Assessment. In J. A. Day, J. C. McCroskey, H. Ayres, T. Hopf, & D. M. Ayres (Eds.), Avoiding Communication Shyness, Reticience and Communication (2nd ed., pp. 216-230). Creskill, NJ. Hampton Press.
[6] Beatty, M., & Friedland, M. (1990). Public Speaking State Anxiety as a Function of Selected Situational and Predispositional Variables. Communication Education, 39, 142-147.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03634529009378796
[7] Beatty, M. J., & Clair, R. P. (1990). Decision Rule Orientation and Public Speaking Apprehension. Journal of Social Behavior and Personality, 5, 105-116.
[8] Beatty, M. J., & Dobos, J. A. (1997). Psychological Assessment. In J. A. Daly, J. C. McCroskey, H. Ayres, T. Hopf, & D. M. Ayres (Eds.), Avoiding Communication Shyness, Reticence and Communication Apprehension (pp. 217-229). Cresskill, NJ: Hampton Press.
[9] Beatty, M. J., McCroskey, J. C., & Heisel, A. D. (1998). Communication Apprehension as Temperamental Expression: A Communibiological Paradigm. Communication Monographs, 65, 197-219. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03637759809376448
[10] Beatty, M. J., & McCroskey, J. C. (2000). The Communibiological Perspective: Implications for Communication in Instruction. Communication Education, 49, 1-6.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03634520009379187
[11] Behnke R., & Sawyer, C. R. (2001a). Patterns Of Psychological State Anxiety in Public Speaking as a Function of Anxiety Sensitivity. Communication Quarterly, 49, 84-94.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01463370109385616
[12] Behnke R., & Sawyer, C. R. (2001b). Public Speaking Arousal as a Function of Anticipatory Activation and Autonomic Reactivity. Communication Reports, 14, 73-85.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08934210109367740
[13] Berkun, S. (2009). Confessions of a Public Speaker. California: O’Reilly Media Inc.
[14] Borkovec, T. D., & O’Brien, G. T. (1976). Methodological and Target Issues in Analogue Therapy Outcome Research. In Hersen, E. Eisler, & P. Miller (Eds.), Progrees in Behaviour Modification (p. 3). New York: Academic Press.
[15] Finn, A. N., Sawyer, C. R., & Behnke, R. (2003). Audience-Perceived Anxiety Patterns of Public Speakers. Communication Quarterly, 51, 470-481. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01463370309370168
[16] Friedrich, G., Goss, B., Cunconan, T., & Lane, D. R. (1997). Systematic Desensitization. In Avoiding Communication: Shyness, Reticence, and Communication Apprehension (pp. 305-330). Cresskill, NJ: Hampton Press.
[17] Gray, J. A. (1982). The Neuropsychology of Anxiety: An Enquiry into the Functions of the Septo-Hippocampal System. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
[18] Gray, J. A. (1990). Brain Systems that Mediate both Emotion and Cognition. Cognition & Emotion, 4, 269-288. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02699939008410799
[19] Gray, J. A., & McNaughton, N. (1982). The Neuropsychology of Anxiety: An Enquiry into the Functions of the Septo-Hippocampal System (2nd ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
[20] Gray, J. A., & McNaughton, N. (2000). Anxiolytic Action on the Behavioural Inhibition System Implies Multiple Types of Arousal Contribute to Anxiety. Journal of Affective Disorders, 61, 161-176.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0165-0327(00)00344-X
[21] Harris, K. B., Sawver, C., & Behnke, R. R. (2006). Predicting Speech State Anxiety from Trait Anxiety, Reactivity, and Situational Influences. Communication Quarterly, 54, 213-226.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01463370600650936
[22] Hsu, C. F. (2009). The Relationship of Trait Anxiety, Audience Nonverbal Feedback and Attributions to Public Speaking State Anxiety. Communication Research Reports, 26, 237-246.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08824090903074407
[23] Kelly, L. (1997). Skills Training as a Treatment for Communication Problems. In J. A. Daly, J. C. McCroskey, H. A. Ayres, T. Hopf, & D. M. Ayres (Eds.), Avoiding Communication: Shyness, Reticence, and Communication Apprehension (2nd ed., pp. 331-336). Cresskill, NJ: Hampton.
[24] Kelly, L., & Keaten, J. A. (2000). Treating Communication Anxiety: Implications of the Commuibiological Paradigm. Communication Education, 49, 45-47.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03634520009379192
[25] Kelly, L., Keaten, J. A., & Finch, C. (2004). Reticent and Non-Reticent College Students’ Preferred Communication Channels for Communicating with Faculty. Communication Research Reports, 21, 197-209. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08824090409359981
[26] Klonowicz, T., Zawadzka, G., & Zawadzki, B. (1987). Reactivity, Arousal, and Coping with Stress. Personality and Individual Differences, 8, 793-798. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0191-8869(87)90132-2
[27] Lang, P. J. (1986). The Cognitive Psychophysiology of Emotion: Fear and Anxiety. In A. H. Tuma, & J. D. Maser (Eds.), Anxiety and the Anxiety Disorders (pp. 130-179). Hillside, NJ: Erlbaum.
[28] McCroskey, J. C., & Beatty, M. J. (1986). Oral Communication Apprehension. In W. H. Jones, J. M. Cheek, & S. R. Briggs (Eds.), Shyness: Perspectives on Research and Treatment (pp. 279-293). New York: Plenum Press.
[29] McCroskey, J. C. (1997). Willingness to Communicate, Communication Apprehension, and Self Perceived Communication Competence: Conceptualizations and Perspectives. In J. A. Daly, J. C. McCroskey, J. Ayres, T. Hopf, & D. M. Sonadre (Eds.), Avoiding Communication: Shyness, Reticence, and Communication Apprehension (2nd ed.). Cresskill, NJ: Hampton.
[30] Malleson, N. (1959). Panic and Phobia: A Possible Method of Treatment. The Lancet, 273, 225-227. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(59)90052-2
[31] Osorio, F., Crippa, J. A., & Loureiro, S. R. (2008). Experimental Models for the Evaluation of Speech and Public Speaking Anxiety: A Critical Review of the Designs Adopted. The Journal of Speech-Language Pathology and Applied Behavior Analysis, 2, 97.
[32] Popper, K. (1959). The Logic of Scientific Discovery. English Edition, London: Hutchison & Co.
[33] Spielberger, C. D. (1966). Anxiety and Behavior. New York: Academic Press.
[34] Stephenson, T. D. (1985). Q-Methodology in Communication Science: An Introduction. Communication Quarterly, 33, 193-208. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01463378509369598
[35] Watts, S., & Stenner, P. (2005). Doing Q-Methodological Research: Theory, Method & Interpretation. Qualitative Research in Psychology, 2, 67-91. http://dx.doi.org/10.1191/1478088705qp022oa
[36] Wilbur, P. K. (1981). Stand up, Speak up, or Shut up: A Practical Guide to Public Speaking. New York: Dembner Books.
[37] Wolpe, J. (1958). Psychotherapy by Reciprocal Inhibition. Palo Alto, CA: Stanford University Press.

  
comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2018 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.