Share This Article:

On the Current and Restoration Conditions of the Southern Iraqi Marshes: Application of the CCME WQI on East Hammar Marsh

Abstract Full-Text HTML Download Download as PDF (Size:294KB) PP. 316-322
DOI: 10.4236/jep.2011.23035    5,437 Downloads   10,240 Views   Citations

ABSTRACT

Water quality of the East Hammar marsh after restoration was assessed by using the Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment Water Quality Index (CCME WQI).The model was applied in two approaches based on the historical data and the CCME aquatic life guidelines as objectives. Variables included in the index calculation were Water Temperature, Dissolved Oxygen, Salinity, pH value, Total Nitrogen, Ammonia, Nitrate, Phosphorus and Sodium. The CCME WQI analysis in both approaches reflected that water quality of the East Hammar marsh is rated as poor based on 2005-2006 data, meaning that the conditions of the marsh are often depart from natural or desirable levels particularly in respect to sodium and nitrogenous compounds; it simply has not recovered yet. The results reflect that the marsh area is still far from the current guideline criteria and, too far from restoration.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Cite this paper

A. Al-Saboonchi, A. Mohamed, A. Alobaidy, H. Abid and B. Maulood, "On the Current and Restoration Conditions of the Southern Iraqi Marshes: Application of the CCME WQI on East Hammar Marsh," Journal of Environmental Protection, Vol. 2 No. 3, 2011, pp. 316-322. doi: 10.4236/jep.2011.23035.

References

[1] M. B. Chougule, A. I. Wasif and V. R. Naik, “Assessment of Water Quality Index (WQI) for Monitoring Pollution of River Panchganga at Ichalkaranji,” Proceedings of International Conference on Energy and environment, Chandigarh, March 2009, pp. 122-127.
[2] UNECE, “Standard Statistical Classification of Surface Freshwater Quality for the Maintenance of Aquatic Life,” In: Readings in International Environment Statistics, United Nations Economic Commission for Europe, United Nations, New York and Geneva, 1994.
[3] H. Partow, “The Mesopotamian Marshlands: Demise of an Ecosystem,” Division of Early Warning and Assessment, United Nations Environment Programme, UNEP Publication UNEP/DEWA/ TR.01-3. Nairobi (Kenya), 2001.
[4] C. J. Richardson and N. A. Hussain, “Restoring the Garden of Eden: An Ecological Assessment of the Marshes of Iraq,” BioScience, Vol. 56, No. 6, June 2006, pp. 477-489. doi:10.1641/0006-3568(2006)56[477:RTGOEA]2.0.CO;2
[5] S. Harkness, “Social and Political Indicators of Human Well-Being,” United Nations University, World Institute for Development Economics Research, Research Paper No. 33, 2004, pp. 1-22.
[6] C. J. Rickwood and G. M. Carr, “Development and Sensitivity Analysis of a Global Drinking Water Quality Index,” Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, Vol. 156, No. 1-4, September 2009, pp. 73-90. doi:10.1007/s10661-008-0464-6
[7] R. D. Harkins, “An Objective Water Quality Index,” Journal of Water Pollution Control Federation, Vol. 46, No. 5, July 1974, pp. 588-591.
[8] D. Couillard and Y. Lefebvre, “Analysis of Water Quality Indices,” Journal of Environmental Management, Vol. 21, No. 2, 1985, pp. 161-179.
[9] Canadian Council of Ministries of the Environment (CCMC), “Canadian Water Quality Index 1.0 Technical Report and User’s Manual,” Canadian Environmental Quality Guidelines, Technical Subcommittee, Gatineau, 2001.
[10] C. Cude, “Oregon Water Quality Index: A Tool for Evaluating Water Quality Management Effectiveness,” Journal of American Water Resource Association, Vol. 37, No. 1, February 2001, pp. 125-137. doi:10.1111/j.1752-1688.2001.tb05480.x
[11] D. Hallock, “Water Quality Assessment of the Nooksack River between Brennan and North Cedarville,” Technical Report, Washington Department of Ecology, Environmental Assessment Program, 2002.
[12] ARID, “Agriculture Reconstruction and Development Program for Marshlands Monitoring,” Final Report, 2005 - 2006, University of Basrah, Iraq, 2006.
[13] M. A. Tahir, A. K. Risen and N. A. Hussain, “Monthly Variations in the Physical and Chemical Properties of the Restored Southern Iraqi Marshes,” Marsh Bulletin, Vol. 3, No. 1, 2008, pp. 81-94.
[14] B. K. Maulood, G. C. F. Hinton, H. S. Kamees, F. A. K. Saleh, A. A. Shaban, S. M. H. Al-Shahwani, “An Ecological Survey of Some Aquatic Ecosystems in Southern Iraq,” Tropical Ecology, Vol. 20, No. 1, 1979, pp. 27-40.
[15] A. M. Al-Zubaidi, “Ecological Study on the Algae (Phytoplankton) in Some Marshes near Qurna-Southern Iraq,” M.Sc. Thesis, University of Basrah, Iraq, 1985.
[16] A. A. Al-Lami, “An Ecological Study on the Phytoplankton in the Southern, Iraq,” M.Sc. Thesis, University of Basrah, Iraq, 1986.
[17] M. J. Al-A’arjy, “An Ecological Study on Phytoplankton and Nutrients in Al-Hammar Marsh-Iraq,” M.Sc. Thesis, University of Basrah, Iraq, 1988.
[18] T. I. Kassim, “An Ecological Study of Benthic Algae in Some Marshes-Southern, Iraq,” M. Sc. Thesis, University of Basrah, Iraq, 1986.
[19] A. R. M. Mohamed and N. A. Barak, “Seasonal Variations in Some Limnological Features of the Garma Marshes,” Basrah Journal of Agricultural Science, Vol. 1, No. 1, 1988, pp. 56-63.
[20] Canadian Council of Ministries of the Environment (CCMC), “Canadian Water Quality Guidelines for the Protection of Aquatic Life,” Canadian Environmental Quality Guidelines, Technical Subcommittee, Gatineau, 1999.
[21] J. Rozoska, “Euphrates and Tigris Mesopotamian Ecology and Destiny,” In: Monographiae Biologicae, Dr. Junk, The Hague-Boston-London, 1980.
[22] B. K. Maulood, G. C. F. Hinton, B. A. Whitton and H. A. Al-Saadi, “On the Algal Ecology of the Lowland IraqiMarshes,” Hydrobiologia, Vol. 80, No. 3, June 1981, pp. 269-276. doi:10.1007/BF00018367
[23] R. W. Fitzpatrick, “Changes in Soil and Water Characteristics of Some Natural, Drained and Reflooded Soils in the Mesopotamian Marshlands: Implications for Land Management Planning,” CSIRO Land and Water Client Report, N.p.: CSIRO, 2004.
[24] C. J. Richardson, P. Reiss, N. A. Hussain, A. J. Alwash and D. J. Pool, “The Restoration Potential of the Mesopotamian Marshes of Iraq,” Science, Vol. 307, No. 5713, February 2005, pp. 1307-1311. doi:10.1126/science.1105750
[25] K. M. Banat, F. M. Howari and M. B. Abdullah, “Mineralogy and Hydrochemical Characteristics of the Late Marshes and Swamps of Hor Al-Hammar, Southern Iraq,” Journal of Arid Environments, Vol. 65, No. 3, May 2006, pp. 400-419. doi:10.1016/j.jaridenv.2005.08.004

  
comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2018 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.