Share This Article:

Growth, Yield and Water Use Effeciency of Forage Sorghum as Affected by Npk Fertilizer and Deficit Irrigation

Abstract Full-Text HTML Download Download as PDF (Size:924KB) PP. 2134-2140
DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2014.513225    4,013 Downloads   5,740 Views   Citations


Drought stress (DS) is an important limiting factor for crop growth and production in some regions of the world. Limitation in water availability precludes optimal irrigation in some production regions. Therefore, investigations on the interaction of other factors to mitigate the DS to varying degree are important. Two field experiments were conducted in the experimental farm of the National Research Centre, Shalakan, Kalubia Governorate, Egypt, during 2004 and 2005 summer seasons to evaluate the interactions between N, P, K rates and optimal vs. deficit irrigation regimes on biomass yield as well as water use efficiency (WUE) of forage sorghum. Omission of the 4th irrigation significantly decreased the biomass of sorghum c.v. Pioneer, as compared to that of the plants receiving optimal irrigation or subject to omission of the 2nd irrigation. The biomass yield increased with an increase in NPK fertilizer rates. Plant height and leaf area also decreased by omitting the 2nd irrigation as compared to that of the plants under optimal irrigation, and further declined with omission of the 4th irrigation. The biomass of the plants (dry weight basis) that received the high N, P, K rates was greater by 26%, 29%, and 35% as compared to that of the plants that received no N, P, K fertilizers, under optimal irrigation, omission of the 2nd, and omission of the 4th irrigation, respectively. The corresponding increases in water use efficiency (based on fresh weight yield) were 37%, 42%, and 55%.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Cite this paper

Hussein, M. and Alva, A. (2014) Growth, Yield and Water Use Effeciency of Forage Sorghum as Affected by Npk Fertilizer and Deficit Irrigation. American Journal of Plant Sciences, 5, 2134-2140. doi: 10.4236/ajps.2014.513225.


[1] Khalili, I. Akbari, N. and Chaichi, M.R. (2008) Limited Lrrigation and Phosphorus Fertilizer Effects on Yield and Yield Components of Grain Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.var. Kimia). American-Eurasian Journal of Agricultural & Environmental Science, 3, 697-702.
[2] Skerman, P.J. and Rivers, F. (1999) Tropical Grasses. FAO. Plant Production and Protection, Series No. 23, FAO, Rome.
[3] Pholsen, S. and Suksri. A. (2007) Effects of Phosphorus and Potassium on Growth, Yield and Fodder Quality of IS 23585 Forage Sorghum Cultivar (Sorghum bicolor L.). Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences, 10, 1604-1610.
[4] Ontario Ministry of Agriculture and Food (OMAF) (2002) Annual Report.
[5] Ram, S.N. and Singh, B. (2001) Effect of Nitrogen and Harvesting Time on Yield and Quality of Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) Intercropped with Legumes. Indian Journal of Agronomy, 46, 32-37.
[6] Cisar, G.D., Synder, G.H. and Swanson, G.S. (1992) Nitrogen, P and K Fertilization for Histosols Grown St. Augustine Grass Sod. Agronomy Journal, 84, 475-479.
[7] Halliday, D.T. and Trenkel, M.E. (1992) World Fertilizer Use Manual. International Fertilizer Industry Association, Paris, 31-32.
[8] Rashid, M., Ranjha, M. and Rehim, A. (2007) Model Based P Fertilization to Improve Yield and Quality of Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.) Fodder on an Ustochrept Soil. Pakistan Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 44, 221-227.
[9] Pholsen, S. and Sormsungnoen, N. (2005) Effects of Nitrogen and Potassium Rates and Planting Distances on Growth, Yield and Fodder Quality of a Forage Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench). Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences, 7, 1793-1800.
[10] Ogunlela, B. and Yusuf, Y. (1988) Yield and Growth Response to Potassium of Grain Sorghum as Influenced by Variety in a Savanna Soil of Nigeria. Fertilizer Research, 16, 217-226.
[11] Sharma, P.S. and Kumari, T.S. (1996) Effect of Potassium under Water Stress on Growth and Yield of Sorghum in Vertisol. J. Potash. Res., 12, 319-325.
[12] Richards, A.R. (2006) Physiological Traits Used in the Breeding of New Cultivars for Water Scarce Environments. Agricultural Water Management, 80, 197-211.
[13] Aulakh, M.S. and Malhi, S.S. (2004) Interaction of Nitrogen with Other Nutrients and Water: Effects on Crop Yield and Quality, Nutrient Use Efficiency, Carbon Sequestration and Environmental Pollution. Advances in Agronomy, 86, 341-409.
[14] Snedecor, G.W. and Cochran, W.G. (1990) Statistical Methods. 8th Edition, Iowa State University, Iowa.
[15] Carmier, A., Aharoni, Y., Edelstein, M., Umiel, N., Hagiladi, A., Yousef, E., Nikbachat, M., Zenou, A. and Miron, J. (2006) Effects of Irrigation and Plant Density on Yield, Composition and in Vitro Digestibility of a New Forage Sorghum Variety, TAL, at Two Maturity Stage. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 131, 121-133.
[16] Mohammadkhani, N. and Heidri, R. (2008) Effects of Drought Stress on Soluble Proteins in Two Maize Varieties. Turkish Journal of Biology, 32, 23-30.
[17] Hoekstra, F.A., Golovinia, E.A. and Butinik, J. (2001) Mechanisms of Plant Desiccation Tolerance. Trends in Plant Science, 6, 431-438.
[18] Koch, K.E. (1996) Carbohydrate-Modulated Gene Expression in Plants. Annual Review of Plant Physiology and Plant Molecular Biology, 47, 509-540.
[19] Smeekens, S. (2000) Sugar-Induced Signal Transduction in Plants. Annual Review of Plant Physiology and Plant Molecular Biology, 51, 49-81.
[20] Larher, F., Leport, L., Petrelavisky, M. and Chapart, M. (1993) Effects of Osmo Induced Proline Response in Higher Plants. Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, 31, 911-922.
[21] Boomsma, C.R. and Vyn, T.J. (2008) Maize Drought Tolerance: Potential Improvements through Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Symbiosis. Field Crops Research, 108, 14-31.
[22] Li, K.R., Wang, H.H., Han, G., Wang, Q.J. and Fan, J. (2008) Effects of Brassinolide on the Survival, Growth and Drought Resistance of Robinia pseudoacacia Seedlings under Water-Stress. New Forests, 35, 255-266.
[23] Akmal, M. and Janssens, J.J. (2004) Productivity and Light Use Efficiency of Perennial Ryegrass with Contrasting Water and Nitrogen Supplies. Field Crop Research, 88, 143-155.
[24] Ferré, I. and Faci, J.M. (2009) Deficit Irrigation in Maize for Reducing Agricultural Water in a Mediterranean Environment. Agricultural Water Management, 96, 383-394.
[25] Bokhtiar, S.M. and Sakurai, K. (2005) Effect of Application of Inorganic and Organic Fertilizers on Growth, Yield and Quality of Sugarcane. Sugar Tech, 7, 35-37.
[26] Bayu, W., Rethman, N.F.G., Hammes, P.S. and Alemu, G. (2006) Effects of Farmyard Manure and Inorganic Fertilizers on Sorghum Growth, Yield, and Nitrogen Use in a Semi-Arid Area of Ethiopia. Journal of Plant Nutrition, 29, 391-407.
[27] Barros, I., Gaiser, T., Lange, F.M. and Römheld, V. (2007) Mineral Nutrition and Water Use Patterns of a Maize/Cowpea Intercrop on a Highly Acidic Soil of the Tropic Semiarid. Field Crops Research, 101, 26-36.
[28] Marschner, H. (1995) Mineral Nutrition of Higher Plants. 2nd Edition, Acadmic Press, London.
[29] Shrotriya, G.C. (1998) Balanced Fertilizer—India Experience. Proceedings of Symposium on Plant Nutrition Management for Sustainable Agricultural Growth, NFDC, 8-10 December 1997, Islamabad.
[30] Bumb, B.I. and Bannante, C.A. (1996) The Use of Fertilizer in Sustaining Food Security and Protecting the Environment-2020. Proceedings of Conference on Agriculture and Fertilizer Use by 2010, NEDC, Islamabad, 35.
[31] Salifu, K.F. and Timmer, V.R. (2003) Nitrogen Retranslocation Response of Young Picea mariana to Nitrogen-15 Supply. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 67, 309-317.
[32] Andivia, E., Fernández, M. and Vázquez-Piqué, J. (2011) Autumn Fertilization of Quercus ilex ssp. ballota (Desf.) Samp. Nursery Seedlings: Effects on Morpho-Physiology and Field Performance. Annals of Forest Science, 68, 543-553.
[33] Villar-Salvador, P., Peñuelas, J.L. and Jacobs, D.F. (2013) Nitrogen Nutrition and Drought Hardening Exert Opposite Effects on the Stress Tolerance of Pinus pinea L. Seedlings. Oxford Journals Life Sciences Tree Physiology, 33, 221-232.

comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2018 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.