Share This Article:

Space-Borne Imagery and Geochemical Characters of Post-Orogenic Dyke Swarms, Fatirah-Abu Zawal District, Eastern Desert of Egypt

Abstract Full-Text HTML Download Download as PDF (Size:5552KB) PP. 228-248
DOI: 10.4236/ojg.2014.45018    3,372 Downloads   4,667 Views  

ABSTRACT

The Precambrian rocks in Wadi Fatirah-Wadi Abu Zawal area, Eastern Desert of Egypt, are crosscut by numerous post-orogenic dyke swarms. Image processing techniques are applied to the enhanced Thematic Mapper plus (ETM+) data for lithological mapping and spectral characterization of these dyke swarms. Band ratios and principal component analysis (PCA) yield conspicuously effective results. Depending on mineralogical and geochemical data, two petrogenetic groups of dyke swarms have been recognized: the first group (mafic dykes) comprises basalt, basaltic andesite and andesite, while the second group (felsic dykes) corresponds to dacite and rhyolite in composition. The mafic dykes are tholeiitic to calc-alkaline, while the felsic dykes display significant calc-alkaline affinity. The Na2O, K2O, Ba, Y, Rb, Zr and Th contents increase from basic to acidic dykes and vice versa relative to CaO, MgO, Fe2O3, Sr, V, Co and Ni contents. These dyke swarms have been emplaced in post-collisional, destructive plate margin settings during periods of extension. The basic dykes have characteristics of volcanic arc setting, whereas the acidic dykes display geochemical features of within plate rocks. The chemical differences between the mafic and felsic dyke swarms favor that the two groups of dyke swarms cannot be related to the same magma source, but they are formed from two different parental magmas.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Cite this paper

Rahman, E. and Emam, A. (2014) Space-Borne Imagery and Geochemical Characters of Post-Orogenic Dyke Swarms, Fatirah-Abu Zawal District, Eastern Desert of Egypt. Open Journal of Geology, 4, 228-248. doi: 10.4236/ojg.2014.45018.

References

[1] Stern, R.J. (1994) Arc Assembly and Continental Collision in the Neoproterozoic East African Orogen: Implications for the Consolidation of Gondwanaland. Annual Reviews of Earth and Planetary Sciences, 22, 315-319. http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev.ea.22.050194.001535
[2] Kusky, T.M., Abdelsalam, M., Stern, R. and Tucker, R. (2003) Preface to Special Issue Precambrian Research on the East African and Related Orogens, and the Assembly of Gondwana. Precambrian Research, 123, 81-85. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0301-9268(03)00062-7
[3] Johnson, P.R. and Woldehaimanot, B. (2003) Development of the Arabian-Nubian Shield: Perspectives on Accretion and Deformation in the Northern East African Orogen and the Assembly of Gondwana. In: Yoshida, M., Windley, B.F. and Dasgupta, S., Eds., Proterozoic East Gondwana: Supercontinent Assembly and Breakup: Geological Society, Vol. 206, Special Publication, London, 290-325.
[4] Akaad, MK. and Noweir, A.M. (1980) Geology and Lithostratigraphy of the Arabian Desert Orogenic Belt of Egypt between Lat. 25° 35' and 26° 30'N. Bulletin Institute Applied Geology, Jeddah, 4, 127-134.
[5] El-Gaby, S. (1975) Petrochemistry and Geochemistry of Some Granites from Egypt. Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie Abhandlungen, 124, 147-189.
[6] Stern, R.J., Gottfried, D. and Hedge, C.E. (1984) Late Precambrian Rifting and Crustal Evolution in the Northeast Desert of Egypt. Geology, 12, 168-172. http://dx.doi.org/10.1130/0091-7613(1984)12<168:LPRACE>2.0.CO;2
[7] Stern, R.J., Sellers, G. and Gottfried, D. (1988) Bimodal Dyke Swarms in the North Eastern Desert of Egypt: Significance for the Origin of Late Precambrian ‘‘A-Type’’ Granites in Northern Afro-Arabia. In: El Gaby, S. and Greiling, R. O., Eds., The Pan-African Belt of Northeast Africa and Adjacent Areas, Vieweg, Weisbaden, 147-177.
[8] Tarney, J. (1992) Geochemistry and Significance of Mafic Dyke Swarms in the Proterozoic. In: Condie, K.C., Ed., Proterozoic Crustal Evolution, Elsevier, Amsterdam, 151-179.
[9] Beyth, M., Stern, R.J., Altherr, R. and Kr?ner, A. (1994) The Late Precambrian Timna Igneous Complex: Southern Israel: Evidence for Comagmatic-Type Sanukitoid Monzodiorite and Alkali Granite Magma. Lithos, 31, 103-124. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0024-4937(94)90003-5
[10] El-Nisr, S.A. and Moghazi, A.M. (2001) Geochemistry, Petrogenesis and Paleotectonic Significance of Dyke Swarms Intruding Neoproterozoic Basement Rocks, South Marsa Alam Area, Eastern Desert, Egypt. Bulletin of the Faculty of Science, Assiut University, 30, 117-134.
[11] Friz-Topfer, A. (1991) Geochemical Characterization of Pan-African Dyke Swarms in Southern Sinai: From Continental Margin to Intraplate Magmatism. Precambrian Research, 49, 281-300.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0301-9268(91)90038-C
[12] Beyth, M. and Peltz, S. (1992) Petrology and Major-Element Geochemistry of Dikes at Har Timna, Southern Israel. Geological Survey of Israel, Jerusalem, Rep. No. GSI/13/92, 39 pp.
[13] Worthing, M.A. (2005) Petrology and Geochronology of a Neoproterozoic Dyke Swarm from Marbat, South Oman. Journal of African Earth Sciences, 41, 248-265.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jafrearsci.2005.04.003
[14] Vogel, T.A. and Wilband, J.T. (1978) Coexisting Acidic and Basic Melts: Geochemistry of a Composite Dike. The Journal of Geology, 86, 353-371. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/649696
[15] Stern, R.J. and Voegeli, D.A. (1987) Geochemistry, Geochronology, and Petrogenesis of Late Precambrian (~590Ma) Composite Dike from the North Eastern Desert of Egypt. Geologische Rundschau, 76, 325-341. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01821078
[16] Jarrar, G., Saffarini, G., Baumann, A. and Wachendorf, H. (2004) Origin, Age and Petrogenesis of Neoproterozoic Composite Dikes from the Arabian-Nubian Shield, SW Jordan. Geological Journal, 39, 157-178. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/gj.950
[17] El-Sayed, M.M. (2006) Geochemistry and Petrogenesis of the Post-Orogenic Bimodal Dyke Swarms in NW Sinai, Egypt: Constraints on the Magmatic-Tectonic Processes during the Late Precambrian. Chemie der Erde, Geochemistry, 66, 129-141. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemer.2003.12.003
[18] Eyal, Y. and Eyal, M. (1987) Mafic Dyke Swarms in the Arabian-Nubian Shield. Israel Journal of Earth Sciences, 36, 195-211.
[19] Halpern, M. and Tristan, N. (1981) Geochronology of the Arabian-Ubian Shield in Southern Israel and Sinai. The Journal of Geology, 89, 639-648. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/628627
[20] Stern, R.J. and Manton, W.I. (1987) Age of Feiran Basement Rocks, Sinai: Implications for Late Precambrian Crustal Evolution in the Northern Arabian-Nubian Shield. Journal of the Geological Society (London), 144, 569-575. http://dx.doi.org/10.1144/gsjgs.144.4.0569
[21] Abdel-Rahman, A.F.M. and Doig, R. (1987) The Rb-Sr Geochronological Evolution of the Ras Gharib Segment of the Northern Nubian Shield. Journal of the Geological Society (London), 144, 577-586. http://dx.doi.org/10.1144/gsjgs.144.4.0577
[22] Moghazi, A.M. (1994) Geochemical and Radiogenic Isotope Studies of Some Basement Rocks at the Kid Area, Southeastern Sinai, Egypt. Ph.D. Thesis, Alexandria University, Alexandria, 377 pp.
[23] Schandelmeier, H., Abdel-Rahman, A.F.M., Wipfler, E., Kuster, D., Utke, A. and Matheis, G. (1994) Late Proterozoic Magmatism in the Nakasib Suture, Red Sea Hills, Sudan. Journal of the Geological Society (London), 151, 485-497. http://dx.doi.org/10.1144/gsjgs.151.3.0485
[24] Meneisy, M. (1990) Vulcanicity. In: Said, R., Ed., The Geology of Egypt, Balkema, Rotterdam, 157-172.
[25] Camp, V.E. and Roobol, M.J. (1992) Upwelling Asthenosphere beneath Western Arabia and Its Regional Implications. Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth, 97, 15255-15271. http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/92JB00943
[26] Stern, R.J. (1981) Petrogenesis and Tectonic Setting of Late Precambrian Ensimatic Volcanic Rocks, Central Eastern Desert of Egypt. Precambrian Research, 16, 195-230.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0301-9268(81)90013-9
[27] Abrams, M.J., Brown, D., Lepley, L. and Sadowski, R. (1983) Remote Sensing for Porphyry Copper Deposits in Southern Arizona. Economic Geology, 78, 591-604.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2113/gsecongeo.78.4.591
[28] Chavez, P.S. and Kwarteng, A.Y. (1989) Extracting Spectral Contrast in Landsat Thematic Mapper Image Data Using Selective Principal Component Analysis. Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing, 55, 339-348.
[29] Abrams, M.J. and Hook, S.J. (1995) Simulated Aster Data for Geologic Studies. IEEE Transactions of Geoscience and Remote Sensing, 33, 692-699. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/36.387584
[30] Rowan, L.C. and Bowers, T.L. (1995) Analysis Of Linear Features Mapped in Landsat Thematic Mapper and SideLooking Airborne Radar Images of the Reno 1 Degree by 2 Degree Quadrangles, Nevada and California; Implications for Mineral Resource Studies. Photogrammetric Engineering & Remote Sensing, 61, 749-759.
[31] Sabins, F.F. (1997) Remote Sensing—Principles and Interpretation. 3rd Edtion, W.H. Freeman, New York, 494 pp.
[32] Sabins, F.F. (1999) Remote Sensing for Mineral Exploration. Ore Geology Reviews, 14, 157-183. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0169-1368(99)00007-4
[33] Gupta, R.P. (2003) Remote Sensing Geology. Springer Berlin Heidelberg, Berlin, 655 pp.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-662-05283-9
[34] Rowan, L.C. and Mars, J.C. (2003) Lithologic Mapping in the Mountain Pass, California Area Using Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) Data. Remote Sensing of Environment, 84, 350-366. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0034-4257(02)00127-X
[35] Rowan, L.C., Hook, S.J., Abrams, M.J. and Mars, J.C. (2003) Mapping Hydrothermally Altered Rocks at Cuprite, Nevada Using Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER), a New Satellite Imaging System. Economic Geology, 98, 1019-1027.
[36] Ranjbar, H., Honarmand, M. and Moezifar, Z. (2004) Application of the Crosta Technique for Porphyry Copper Alteration Mapping Using ETM+ Data in the Southern Part of the Iranian Volcanic Sedimentary Belt. Journal of Asian Earth Sciences, 24, 237-243. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jseaes.2003.11.001
[37] Mars, J.C. and Rowan, L.C. (2006) Regional Mapping of Phyllic- and Argillic-Altered Rocks in the Zagros Magmatic arc, Iran, Using Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) Data and Logical Operator Algorithms. Geosphere, 2, 161-186.
[38] Al Rawashdeh, S., Saleh, B. and Hamzah, M. (2006) The Use of Remote Sensing Technology in Geological Investigation and Mineral Detection in El Azraq-Jordan. Cybergeo: European Journal of Geography, 358.
[39] Gad, S. and Kusky, T. (2007) ASTER Spectral Ratioing for Lithological Mapping in the Arabian-Nubian Shield, the Neoproterozoic Wadi Kid Area, Sinai, Egypt. Gondwana Research, 11, 326-335. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gr.2006.02.010
[40] Zhang, G.F., Shen, X.H., Zou, L.J., Li, C.J., Wang, Y.L. and Lu, S.L. (2007) Detection of Hydrocarbon Bearing Sand through Remote Sensing Techniques in the Western Slope Zone of Songliao Basin, China. International Journal of Remote Sensing, 28, 1819-1833.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01431160600975329
[41] Rajesh, H.M. (2008) Mapping Proterozoic Unconformity-Related Uranium Deposits in the Rockhole Creek Area, Northern Territory, Australia Using Landsat ETM+. Ore Geology Reviews, 33, 382-396. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.oregeorev.2007.02.003
[42] Madani, A. and Emam, A. (2011) SWIR ASTER Band Ratios for Lithological Mapping and Mineral Exploration: A Case Study from El Hudi Area, South Eastern Desert, Egypt. Arabian Journal of Geosciences, 4, 45-52. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12517-009-0059-8
[43] Frei, M. and Jutz, S.L. (1989) Use of Thematic Mapper Data for the Detection of gold Bearing Formations in the Eastern Desert of Egypt. Proceedings of the 7th Thematic Conference on Remote Sensing for Ore Exploration Geology II, Calgary, 2-6 October 1989, 1157-1172.
[44] Visinescu, M., Stern, R.J. and Abdelsalam, M.G. (2000) Application of Remote Sensing Techniques in Gold Exploration in Wadi Allaqi Area, South-Eastern Desert, Egypt. Abstracts with Programs. Geological Society of America, 32, 43.
[45] Singh, A. and Harrison, A. (1985) Standardized Principal Components. International Journal of Remote Sensing, 6, 883-896. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01431168508948511
[46] Drury, S. (1993) Image Interpretation in Geology. 2nd Edition, Chapman and Hall, London.
[47] Kusky, T.M. and Ramadan, T.M. (2002) Structural Controls on Neoproterozoic Mineralization in the South Eastern Desert, Egypt: An Integrated Field, Landsat TM and SIR-C/X SAR Approach. Journal of African Earth Science, 35, 107-121. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0899-5362(02)00029-5
[48] Madani, A.A., Abdel Rahman, E., Fawzy, K.M. and Emam, A.A. (2003) Mapping of the Hydrothermal Alteration Zones at Haimur Gold Mine Area, South Eastern Desert, Egypt, Using Remote Sensing Techniques. Egyptian Journal of Remote Sensing and Space Science, 6, 47-60.
[49] Gad, S.A. and Kusky, T.M. (2006) Lithological Mapping in the Eastern Desert of Egypt, the Barramiya Area, Using Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM). Journal of African Earth Sciences, 44, 196-202. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jafrearsci.2005.10.014
[50] Sultan, M., Arvidson, R.E. and Sturchio, N.C. (1986) Mapping of Serpentinites in the Eastern Desert of Egypt Using Landsat Thematic Mapper Data. Geology, 14, 995-999. http://dx.doi.org/10.1130/0091-7613(1986)14<995:MOSITE>2.0.CO;2
[51] Kaufman, H. (1988) Mineral Exploration along the Agaba-Levant Structure by Use of TM-Data Concepts, Processing and Results. International Journal of Remote Sensing, 9, 1630-1658.
[52] Loughlin, W.P. (1991) Principal Component Analysis for Alteration Mapping. Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing, 57, 1163-1169.
[53] Schmidt, K.J. (1991) Spectral Stratigraphy Applied to Analysis of Cretaceous Units at Como and Flat Top Anticlines, Southeast Wyoming. University of Wyoming, Laramie.
[54] Bennett, S.A., Atkinson, W.W. and Kruse, F.A. (1993) Use of Thematic Mapper Imagery to Identify Mineralization in the Santa Teresa District, Sonara, Mexico. International Geology Review, 35, 1009-1029. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00206819309465572
[55] Martinetti, J.A., Duke, E.F. and Davenport, J.T. (1997) Comparison of Field-Based and Remote-Sensing Approaches Tomineral Exploration Models; Epithermal Quartz-Alunite-Gold Mineralization at Goldfield, Nevada. Abstracts with Programs—Geological Society of America 29, 6-50.
[56] Abdeen, M.M., Thurmond, A.K., Abdelsalam, M.G. and Stern, R.J. (2001) Application of ASTER Band-Ratio Images for Geologicalmapping in Arid Regions; the Neoproterozoic Allaqi Suture, Egypt. Geological Society of America, 2001 Annual Meeting, Abstracts with Programs—Geological Society of America, 33, 289.
[57] Kang, K.K., Song, K.Y., Ahn, C.H. and Won, J.S. (2001) Reflectance of Geological Media by Using a Field Spectrometer in the Ungsang Area, Kyungsang Basin. Korean Journal of Remote Sensing, 17, 165-181.
[58] Tangestani, M.H. and Moore, F. (2002) Porphyry Copper Alteration Mapping in the Meiduk Area, Iran. International Journal of Remote Sensing, 23, 4815-4825.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01431160110115564
[59] Volesky, J.C., Stern, R.J. and Johnson, P.R. (2003) Geological Control of Massive Sulfide Mineralization in the Neoproterozoic Wadi Bidah Shear Zone, Southwestern Saudi Arabia, Inferences from Orbital Remote Sensing and Field Studies. Precambrian Research, 123, 235-247.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0301-9268(03)00070-6
[60] Aydal, D., Arda, E. and Dumanlilar, O. (2007) Application of the Crosta Technique for Alteration Mapping of Granitoidic Rocks Using ETM+ Data: Case Study from Eastern Tauride Belt (SE Turkey). International Journal of Remote Sensing, 28, 3895-3913.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01431160601105926
[61] Kargi, H. (2007) Principal Components Analysis for Borate Mapping. International Journal of Remote Sensing, 28, 1805-1817. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01431160600905003
[62] Thornton, C.P. and Tuttle, O.F. (1960) Chemistry of Igneous Rocks, [Part] 1. Distribution Index. American Journal of Science, 258, 664-684. http://dx.doi.org/10.2475/ajs.258.9.664
[63] Pearce, J.A. (1983) Role of the Sub-Continental Lithosphere in Magma Genesis at Active Continental Margin. In: Hawkesworth, C.J. and Norry, M.J., Eds., Continental Basalts and Mantle Element Xenoliths, Shiva Publishing Ltd., Cambridge, Mass., 272 p.
[64] Cox, K.G., Bell, J.D. and Pankhurst, R.J. (1979) The Interpretation of Igneous Rocks. George Allen and Unwin, London.
[65] Winchester, J.A. and Floyd, P.A. (1977) Geochemical Discrimination of Different Magma Series and Their Differentiation Products Using Immobile Elements. Chemical Geology, 20, 325-343. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0009-2541(77)90057-2
[66] MacDonald, G.A. (1968) Composition and Origin of Hawaii Lavas. Geological Society of America Memoirs, 116, 477-522. http://dx.doi.org/10.1130/MEM116-p477
[67] Irvine, T.N. and Baragar, W.R.A. (1971) A Guide to the Chemical Classification of the Common Volcanic Rocks. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, 8, 523-548. http://dx.doi.org/10.1139/e71-055
[68] Miyashiro, A. (1975) Volcanic Rock Series and Tectonic Setting. Annual Review of Earth and planetary Sciences, 3, 251-269. http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev.ea.03.050175.001343
[69] Pearce, J.A., Lippard, S.J. and Roberts, S. (1984) Characteristics and Tectonic Significance of Supra-Subduction Zone Ophiolite. In: Kokelaar, B.P. and Howells, M.F., Eds., Marginal Basin Geology, In: Geological Society, London, Special Publications, Vol. 16, Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford, 77-94.
[70] Wood, D.A. (1980) The Application of the Th-Hf-Ta Diagram to Problems of Tectonomagmatic Classification and Establishing the Nature of Crustal Contamination of Basaltic Lava of the British Tertiary Volcanic Province. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 50, 11-30.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0012-821X(80)90116-8
[71] Stern, R.J. and Hedge, C.E. (1985) Geochronologic and Isotopic Constraints on Late Precambrian Crustal Evolution in the Eastern Desert of Egypt. American Journal Science, 285, 97-127. http://dx.doi.org/10.2475/ajs.285.2.97
[72] Bentor, Y.K. and Eyal, M. (1987) The Geology of Southern Sinai, Its Implication for the Evolution of the Arabian-Nubian Massif Volume 1: Jebel Sabbagh Sheet. Israel Academy of Sciences and Humanities, Jerusalem, 484 p.
[73] Stern, R.J. and Gottfried, D. (1986) Petrogenesis of Late Precambrian (575-600 Ma) Bimodal Suite in Northeast Africa. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, 92, 492-501.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00374431
[74] Garfunkel, Z. (2000) History and Paleogeography during the Pan-African Orogen to Stable Platform Transition: Reappraisal of the Evidence from Elat Area and the Northern Arabian-Nubian Shield. Israel Journal of Earth Sciences, 48, 135-157.
[75] Genna, A., Nehlig, P., Le Goff, E., Guerrot, C. and Shanti, M. (2002) Proterozoic Tectonism of the Arabian Shield. Precambrian Research, 117, 21-40. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0301-9268(02)00061-X
[76] Eby, G.N. (1992) Chemical Subdivision of the A-Type Granitoids: Petrogenetic and Tectonic Implications. Geology, 20, 641-644. http://dx.doi.org/10.1130/0091-7613(1992)020<0641:CSOTAT >2.3.CO;2
[77] Pearce, J.A. and Norry, M.J. (1979) Petrogenetic Implications of Ti, Zr, Y, and Nb Variation in Volcanic Rocks. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, 69, 33-47. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00375192
[78] Pearce, J.A. (1980) Geochemical Evolution for the Genesis and Eruptive Setting of Lavas from Tethyan Ophiolites. In: Panayiotou, A., Ed., Opiolites, Geological Survey Department, Cyprus, 261-272.

  
comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2018 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.