Share This Article:

Vaginitis in Intrauterine Contraceptive Device Users

Abstract Full-Text HTML XML Download Download as PDF (Size:233KB) PP. 1218-1223
DOI: 10.4236/health.2014.611149    5,149 Downloads   6,107 Views   Citations


Objectives: This study aimed to assess clinical, microbial changes in IUD users and other contraceptive methods in referent to urban health centers in Hamadan city, Iran. Methods: Detailed history and gynecological examination were conducted on women (IUD users, n = 100) or other contraceptive methods (controls, n = 160) in the health centers. Results: Frequencies of the different vaginal pathogens, high indices of infection by bacterial vaginosis (12.0%) candida albicance (7.0%) and low indices of trichomoniasis (5.0%) were found in present study, but none of them in both groups was significant. Menorrhagia was more frequent among women with IUD than that among women without IUD (P < 0.05). A trend of erosion cervix and dysmenorrhea being more frequent among women with IUD was also found (P < 0.05). Conclusions: IUD is the safety in general; however, an increase occurred in the frequency of vaginitis.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Cite this paper

Shobeiri, F. and Nazari, M. (2014) Vaginitis in Intrauterine Contraceptive Device Users. Health, 6, 1218-1223. doi: 10.4236/health.2014.611149.


[1] Steenland, M.W., Zapata, L.B., Brahmi, D., Marchbanks, P.A. and Curtis, K.M. (2013) Appropriate Follow Up to Detect Potential Adverse Events after Initiation of Select Contraceptive Methods: A Systematic Review. Contraception, 87, 611-624.
[2] Donders, G.G., Berger, J., Heuninckx, H., Bellen, G. and Cornelis, A. (2011) Vaginal Flora Changes on Pap Smears after Insertion of Levonorgestrel-Releasing Intrauterine Device. Contraception, 83, 352-356.
[3] Agarwal, K., Sharma, U. and Acharya, V. (2004) Microbial and Cytopathological Study of Intrauterine Contraceptive Device Users. Indian Journal of Medical Sciences, 58, 394-399.
[4] Ferraz do Lago, R., Simões, J.A., Bahamondes, L., Camargo, R.P., Perrotti, M. and Monterio, I. (2003) Follow-Up of Users of Intrauterine Device with and without Bacterial Vaginosis and Other Cervi-covaginal Infections. Contraception, 68, 105-109.
[5] Meirik, O. (2007) Intrauterine Devices—Upper and Lower Genital Tract Infections. Contraception, 75, S41-S47.
[6] Lessard, T., Simões, J.A., Discacciati, M.G., Hidalgo, M. and Bahamondes, L. (2008) Cytological Evaluation and Investigation of the Vaginal Flora of Long-Term Users of the Levonorgestrel-Releasing Intrauterine System (LNG-IUS). Contraception, 77, 30-33.
[7] Watcharotone, W., Sirimai, K., Kiriwat, O., et al. (2004) Prevalence of Bacterial Vaginosis in Thai Women Attending the Family Planning Clinic, Siriraj Hospital. Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand, 87, 1419-1424.
[8] Ocak, S., Cetin, M., Hakverdi, S., Dolapcioglu, K., Gungoren, A. and Hakverdi, A.U. (2007) Effects of Intrauterine Device and Oral Contraceptive on Vaginal Flora and Epithelium. Saudi Medical Journal, 28, 727-731.
[9] Neale, R., Knight, I. and Keane, F. (2009) Do Users of the Intrauterine System (Mirena) Have Different Genital Symptoms and Vaginal Flora than Users of the Intrauterine Contraceptive Device? International Journal of STD & AIDS, 20, 423-424.
[10] Tosun, I., Aydin, F., Kaklikkaya, N. and Yazici, Y. (2003) Frequency of Bacterial Vaginosis among Women Attending for Intrauterine Device Insertion at an Inner-City Family Planning Clinic. European Journal of Contraception and Reproductive Health Care, 8, 135-138.
[11] McClelland, R.S., Sangare, L., Hassan, W.M., et al. (2007) Infection with Trichomonas vaginalis Increases the Risk of HIV-1 Acquisition. The Journal of Infectious Diseases, 195, 698-702.
[12] Auler, M.E., Morreira, D., Rodrigues, F.F., et al. (2010) Biofilm Formation on Intrauterine Devices in Patients with Recurrent Vulvovaginal Candidiasis. Medical Mycology, 48, 211-216.
[13] Sönmez Tamer, G., Keçeli Ozcan, S., Yücesoy, G. and Gacar, G. (2009) The Relation between Trichomoniasis and Contraceptive Methods. Türkiye Parazitoloji Dergisi, 33, 266-269.
[14] Nasir, J.A., Najmi, J., Tahir, F., Asghar, M.N. and Iqbal, J. (2005) Trichomonas vaginalis in Vaginal Smears of Women Using Intrauterine Contraceptive Device. Pakistan Journal of Medical Research, 44, 114-116.
[15] Mahdi, N.K., Gany, H. and Sharief, M. (2001) Infection Rate of Trichomonas vaginalis According to Contraceptive Methods. Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal, 7, 918-924.
[16] Shobeiri, F. and Nazari, M. (2006) A Prospective Study of Genital Infections in Hamadan-Iran. Southeast Asian Journal of Tropical Medicine and Public Health, 37, 174-177.

comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2018 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.