Share This Article:

Oral Administration Following Subcutaneous Administration of FCV Vaccines Enhances Vaccine Efficacy against Challenge of a Highly Virulent Vs Feline Calicivirus

Abstract Full-Text HTML Download Download as PDF (Size:297KB) PP. 81-87
DOI: 10.4236/wjv.2014.42010    2,991 Downloads   4,033 Views   Citations

ABSTRACT

Feline calicivirus (FCV) is a common cause of upper respiratory and oral disease in cats. Highly virulent systemic strains of FCV (vs FCV) have been described. These vs FCV isolates cause characteristic edema, cutaneous ulcers and other clinical signs typically associated with FCV infection. Vs FCV isolates also cause high mortality even in previously vaccinated cats. We reported previously that the FCV serum cross-neutralization profile of cat serum generated using the oralnasal route of administration is broader than with subcutaneous administration (SC), as measured with a 26-FCV viral panel (Rong et al., Virus Research 122:95-108, 2006). In this report, we tested the in vivo ef- ficacy of the FCV vaccine, in a 4-way (FCV-FHV-FPV-FCp) format, by using a highly virulent vs FCV- 33585 as the challenge virus. Vaccines were administered as 2-dose subcutaneouly (SC/SC), or subcutaneously followed by orally (SC/Oral). The mortality induced by vs FCV-33585 in unvaccinated control cats was 78% (7 out of 9 cats). The mortality decreased to 44% (4 out of 9 cats) with cats vaccinated with the 4-way vaccine given SC/SC. However, when this vaccine was given SC/Oral, the mortality decreased to 10% (1 out of 10 cats). The clinical scores, calculated based on frequency and severity of various clinical signs, correlated with mortality data. These results demonstrated that oral administration of FCV vaccines, as the second dose following the first dose of subcutaneious administration, ehances FCV efficacy against challenge of a highly virulent vs FCV. We propose that not only oral vaccination offers convenience and needle-free inoculation, it also enhances FCV vaccine efficacy.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Cite this paper

Rong, S. , Floyd-Hawkins, K. and King, V. (2014) Oral Administration Following Subcutaneous Administration of FCV Vaccines Enhances Vaccine Efficacy against Challenge of a Highly Virulent Vs Feline Calicivirus. World Journal of Vaccines, 4, 81-87. doi: 10.4236/wjv.2014.42010.

References

[1] Thiel, H.J. and Konig, M. (1999) Caliciviruses: An Overview. Vet Microbiology, 69, 55-62.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0378-1135(99)00088-7
[2] Gaskell, R.M., Radford, A.D. and Dawson, S. (2004) Feline Infectious Respiratory Disease. In: Chandler, E.A., Gaskell, C.J. and Gaskell, R.M., Eds., Feline Medicine and Therapeutics, 3rd Edition, Blackwell Publishing, Oxford, 577-595.
[3] Stuart, A.D. and Brown, T.D. (2006) Entry of Feline Calicivirus Is Dependent on Clathrin-Mediated Endocytosis and Acicification in Endosomes. Journal of Virology, 80, 7500-7509.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JVI.02452-05
[4] Makino, A., Shimojima, M., Miyazawa, T., Kato, K., Tohya, Y. and Akashi, H. (2006) Junctional Adhesion Molecule 1 Is a Functional Receptor for Feline Calicivirus. Journal of Virology, 80, 4482-4490.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JVI.80.9.4482-4490.2006
[5] Pesavento, P.A., Stokol, T., Liu, H., van der Lit, D.A., Gaffney, P.M. and Parker, J.S. (2010) Distribution of the Feline Calicivirus Receptor Junctional Adhesion Molecule A in Feline Tissues. Veterinary Pathology, 48, 361-368.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0300985810375245
[6] Pedersen, N.C., Elliott, J.B., Glasgow, A., Poland, A. and Keel, K. (2000) An Isolated Epizootic of Hemorrhagic-Like Fever in Cats Caused by a Novel and Highly Virulent Strain of Feline Calicivirus. Vet Microbiology, 73, 281-300.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0378-1135(00)00183-8
[7] Radford, A.D., Dawsen, S., Gaskell, R.M., Foley, J., Hurley, K. and Pedersen, N.C. (2002) Haemorrhagic Fever, Oederma and High Mortality Associated with FCV Infection. The Vet Record, 155.
[8] Schorr-Evans, E.M., Poland, A., Johnson, W.E. and Pedersen, N.C. (2003) An Epizootic of Highly Virulent Feline Calicivirus Disease in a Hospital Setting in New England. Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery, 5, 217-226.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1098-612X(03)00008-1
[9] Pesavento, P.A., MacLachlan, N.J., Dillard-Telm, L., Grant, C.K. andHurley, K.E. (2004) Pathologic, Immunohisto-chemical, and Electron Microscopic Findings in Naturally Occurring Virulent Systemic Feline Calicivirus Infection in Cats. Veterinary Pathology, 41, 257-263.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1354/vp.41-3-257
[10] Hurley, K.F., Pesavento, P.A., Pedersen, N.C., Poland, A.M., Wilson, E. and Foley, J.E. (2004) An Outbreak of Virulent Systemic Feline Calicivirus Disease. JAVMA, 224, 241-249.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2460/javma.2004.224.241
[11] Coyne, K.P., Jones, B.R.D., Kipar, A., Chantrey, J., Porter, C.J., Barber, P.J., Dawson, S., Gaskell, R.M. and Radford, A.D. (2006) Lethal Outbreak of Disease Associated with Feline Calicivirus Infection in Cats. Vet Record, 158, 544-550.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/vr.158.16.544
[12] Abd-Eldaim, M., Potgieter, L. and Kennedy, M. (2005) Genetic Analysis of Feline Caliciviruses Associated with a Hemorrhagic-Like Disease. Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation, 17, 420-429.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/104063870501700503
[13] Foley, J., Hurley, K., Pesavento, P.A., Poland, A. and Pedersen, N.C. (2006) Virulent Systemic Feline Calicivirus Infection: Local Cytokine Modulation and Contribution of Viral Mutant. Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery, 8, 55-61.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jfms.2005.08.002
[14] Rong, S., Slade, D., Floyd-Hawkins, K. and Wheeler, D. (2006) Characterization of a Highly Virulent Feline Calicivirus and Attenuation of This Virus. Virus Research, 122, 95-108.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.virusres.2006.07.003
[15] Reynolds, B.S., Poulet, H., Pingret, J.-L., Jas, D., Brunet, S., Lemeter, C., Etievant, M. and Boucraut-Baralon, C. (2009) A Nosocomial Outbreak of Feline Calicivirus Associated Virulent Systemic Disease in France. Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery, 11, 633-644.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jfms.2008.12.005
[16] Meyer, A., Kershaw, O. and Klopfleisch, R. (2011) Feline Calicivirus Associated Virulent Systemic Disease: Not Necessarily a Local Epizootic Problem. Veterinary Record, 168, 589a. http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/vr.d160
[17] Schneider, K. and Truyen, U. (1998) Antigenic Variation among Feline Caliciviruses. Revue de Médecine Vétérinaire, 149, 1007-1011.
[18] Lauritzen, A., Jarrett, O. and Sabara, M. (1997) Serological Analysis of Feline Calicivirus Isolates from the United States and United Kingdom. Vet Microbiology, 56, 55-63. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0378-1135(96)01252-7
[19] Radford, A.D., Dawson, S., Wharmby, C., Ryvar, R. and Gaskell, R.M. (2000) Comparison of Serological and Sequence-Based Methods for Typing Feline Calicivirus Isolates from Vaccine Failures. The Vet Record, 146, 117-123.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/vr.146.5.117
[20] Radford, A.D., Dawson, S., Coyne, K.P., Porter, C.J. and Gaskell, R.M. (2006) The Challenges for the Next Generation of Feline Calicivirus Vaccines. Veterinary Microbiology, 117, 14-18.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetmic.2006.04.004
[21] Baulch-Brown, C., Love, D.N. and Meanger, J. (1997) Feline Calicivirus: A Need for Vaccine Modification? Australian Veterinary Journal, 75, 209-213.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1751-0813.1997.tb10068.x
[22] Dawson, S., McArdel, F., Bennett, D., Carter, S.D., Bennett, M., Ryvar, R. and Gaskell, R.M. (1993) Investigation of Vaccine Reactions and Breakdowns after Feline Calicivirus Vaccination. The Vet Record, 132, 346-350. http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/vr.132.14.346

  
comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2019 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.