Share This Article:

Analyses and Numerical Modeling of Gravity Waves Generated by Flow over Nanling Mountains

Abstract Full-Text HTML XML Download Download as PDF (Size:1419KB) PP. 317-322
DOI: 10.4236/acs.2014.42032    3,532 Downloads   4,572 Views  
Author(s)    Leave a comment


Although there have been many observational and modeling studies of gravity waves excited by topograpghy, the detailed structure and its changes in real world are still poorly understood. The interaction of topography and background flow are described in details for a better understanding of the gravity waves observed by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) satellite imagery over Nanling Mountains. The evolutionary process and spatial structure of gravity waves were investigated by using almost all available observational data, including MODIS satellite imagery, the Final Analyses (FNL) data issued by National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP), the aerosol backscattering signal data from Lidar, the surface observational data and the sounding data of Nanling mountain regions. In order to study its development mechanism, choosing the initial sounding of Jiangxi Gaizhou station located in the upstream of Nanling regions, and using the Advanced Regional Prediction System (ARPS), the numerical simulation was performed. It is shown that the ARPS model reproduced the main features of gravity waves reasonably well, where the gravity waves and turbulent mixed layer are consistent with the satellite image and the aerosol backscattering signal from Lidar observation. It is well-known that gravity wave-induced turbulence and thus turbulent mixing could affect the local composition of chemical species, which plays a significant role in the formation of low visibility and precipitation associated with local orography.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Cite this paper

Li, Z. and Zhou, J. (2014) Analyses and Numerical Modeling of Gravity Waves Generated by Flow over Nanling Mountains. Atmospheric and Climate Sciences, 4, 317-322. doi: 10.4236/acs.2014.42032.


[1] Queney, P. (1948) The Problem of Airflow over Mountains. A Summary of Theoretical Studies. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 29, 16-26.
[2] Scorer, R.S. (1949) Theory of Waves in the Lee of Mountains. Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, 75, 41-56.
[3] Scorer, R.S. (1956) Airflow over an Isolated Hill. Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, 82, 75-81. 10.1002/qj.49708235107
[4] Smith, R.B. (1979) The Influence of Mountains on the Atmosphere. Advances in Geophysics, 29, 87-230.
[5] Smith, R.B. (2002) Stratified Flow over Topography. Environment Stratified Flows, 3, 119-159.
[6] Durran, D.R. (1990) Atmospheric Processes over Complex Terrain, Meteorological monographs. American Meteorological Society, Cambridge.
[7] Baines, P.G. (1995) Topography Effects in Stratified Flows. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
[8] Wurtele, M.G., Sharman, R.D. and Data, A. (1996) Atmospheric Lee Waves. Annual Review of Fluid Mechanics, 28, 429-476. 10.1146/annurev.fl.28.010196.002241
[9] Sharman, R.D. (2004) Three-Dimensional Structures of Forced Gravity Waves and Lee Waves. Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, 61, 664-681. <0664:TSOFGW>2.0.CO;2
[10] Smolarkiewicz, P.K. and Rotunno, R. (1989) Low Froude Number Flow Past Three-dimensional Obstacles. Part I: Baroclinically Generated Lee Vortices. Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, 46, 1154-64.<1154:LFNFPT>2.0.CO;2
[11] Suzuki, S., Nakamura, T., Ejiri, M.K., Tsutsumi, M., Shiokawa, K. and Kawahara, T.D. (2010) Simultaneous Airglow, Lidar, and Radar Measurements of Mesospheric Gravity Waves over Japan. Journal of Geophysical Research, 115, Article ID: D24113. 10.1029/2010JD014674
[12] Suzuki, S., Tsutsumi, M., Palo, S.E., Ebihara, Y., Taguchi, M. and Ejiri, M. (2011) Short-Period Gravity Waves and Ripples in the South Pole Mesosphere. Journal of Geophysical Research, 116, Article ID: D19109.
[13] Suzuki, S., Lübken, F.J., Baumgarten, G., Kaifler, N., Eixmann, R., Williams, B.P. and Nakamura, T. (2013) Vertical Propagation of a Mesoscale Gravity Wave from the Lower to the Upper Atmosphere. Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics, 97, 29-36.
[14] Wurtele, M.G. (1957) The Three-Dimensional Lee Wave. Beiträge zur Physik der freien Atmosphäre, 29, 242-252.
[15] Crapper, G.D. (1959) A Three-Dimensional Solution for Waves in the Lee of Mountains. Journal of Fluid Mechanics, 6, 51-76.
[16] Crapper, G.D. (1962) Waves in the Lee of a Mountain with Elliptical Contours. Philosophical Transactions for the Royal Society of London. Series A, 254, 601-623.
[17] Janowitz, G.S. (1984) Lee Waves in Three Dimensional Stratified Flow. Journal of Fluid Mechanics, 148, 97-108. S0022112084002263
[18] Smith, R.B. (1980) Linear Theory of Stratified Hydrostatic Flow past an Isolated Mountain. Tellus, 32, 348-364. 0.1111/j.2153-3490.1980.tb00962.x
[19] Smith, R.B. (1988) Linear Theory of Stratified Flow past an Isolated Mountain in Isosteric Coordinates. Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, 45, 3889-3896.<3889:LTOSFP>2.0.CO;2
[20] Smith, R.B. (1989) Mountain Induced Stagnation Points in Hydrostatic Flow. Tellus, 41A, 270-274.
[21] Phillips, D.S. (1984) Analytical Surface Pressure and Drag for Linear Hydrostatic Flow over Three Dimensional Elliptical Mountain. Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, 41, 1073-1084.
[22] Sharman, R.D. and Wurtele, M.G. (1983) Ship Waves and Lee Waves. Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, 40, 396-427. 10.1175/1520-0469(1983)040<0396:SWALW>2.0.CO;2
[23] Gjevik, B. and Marthinsen, T. (1978) Three Dimensional Lee Wave Pattern. Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, 104, 947-957.
[24] Grubisic, V. and Smolarkiewicz, P.K. (1997) The Effects of Critical Levels on 3D Orographic Flows: Linear Regime. Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, 54, 1943-1960.<1943:TEOCLO>2.0.CO;2
[25] Bauer, M.H., Mayr, G.J., Vergeiner, I. and Pichler, H. (2000) Strongly Nonlinear Flow over and around a Three Dimensional Mountain as a Function of the Horizontal Aspect Ratio. Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, 57, 3971-1991.<3971:SNFOAA >2.0.CO;2
[26] Epifanio, C.C. and Durran, D.R. (2001) Three Dimensional Effects in High Drag State Flows over Long Ridges. Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, 58, 1051-1065. 058<1051:TDEIHD>2.0.CO;2
[27] Ruppert, J.H. and Bosart, L.F. (2014) A Case Study of the Interaction of a Mesoscale Gravity Wave with a Mesoscale Convective System. Monthly Weather Review, 142, 1403-1429.

comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2019 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.