Share This Article:

The Effect of Physical Factors on Fecal Coliform Viability Rate in Sewage Sludge

Abstract Full-Text HTML Download Download as PDF (Size:285KB) PP. 9-13
DOI: 10.4236/gep.2014.22002    2,414 Downloads   3,365 Views   Citations

ABSTRACT

Experiments were conducted on the survival rate of fecal coliform after spreading the sewage sludge for desiccation on sludge beds in an open field throughout the year. The ambient temperature, humidity, sunlight intensity and solar radiation were measured during the period of sludge desiccation. The maximum average temperature, sunlight intensity and solar radiation were recorded throughout the year. During May and August the minimum microbial counts were recorded after four weeks of sludge desiccation. Relative humidity did not have significant effect on survival rate. The minimum microbial counts were taken after four weeks of sludge drying. When the sludge was mixed with three different media, the maximum count of fecal coliform was presented when soil mixed with sludge and irrigated with treated sewage effluent (TSE). When soil mixed with sludge irrigated with well water, the number of fecal coliform count dropped significantly. The minimum count occurred when compost was used instead of sludge. This was a clear indication that the source of contamination was from sludge and was mostly contributed by the TSE irrigation. The use of dried sludge after four weeks of treatment had the lowest fecal coliform count
and was safe to be used as fertilizer for farming. Oman is located in a semi-equatorial belt with arid environmental conditions which are ideal for elimination of microbial pathogens. Thus, sludge desiccation in such environmental conditions, specifically during the hot months of the year, is perfect for such practice.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Cite this paper

Al-Bahry, S. , Mahmoud, I. and Al-Musharafi, S. (2014) The Effect of Physical Factors on Fecal Coliform Viability Rate in Sewage Sludge. Journal of Geoscience and Environment Protection, 2, 9-13. doi: 10.4236/gep.2014.22002.

References

[1] Al-Bahry, S. N., Mahmoud, I. Y., & Al-Musharafi, S. K. (2012a). Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria Used as Bioindicators of Environmental Pollution Produced by Tertiary Treated Sewage Effluent. 11th International Conference on Modelling, Monitoring and Management of Water Pollution. WIT Transactions on Ecology and the Environment (pp 313-321). New Forest.
[2] Al-Bahry, S. N., Al-Zadjali, M. A., Mahmoud, I. Y., & Elshafie, A. E. (2012b). Biomonitoring Marine Habitats in Reference to Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria and Ampicillin Resistance Determinants from Oviductal Fluid of the Nesting Green Sea Turtle, Chelonia mydas. Chemosphere, 87, 1308-1315. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2012.01.051
[3] Al-Bahry, S. N., Mahmoud, I. Y., Al-Khaifi, A., Elshafie, A. E., & Al-Harthy, A. (2009). Viability of Multiple Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria in Distribution Lines of Treated Sewage Effluent Used for Irrigation. Water Science & Technology, 60, 2939-2948. http://dx.doi.org/10.2166/wst.2009.687
[4] Al-Musharafi, S. K., Mahmoud, I. Y., & Al-Bahry, S. N. (2013a). Heavy Metal Pollution from Treated Sewage Effluent. APCBEE Procedia, 5, 344-348. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apcbee.2013.05.059
[5] Al-Musharafi, S. K., Mahmoud, I. Y., & Al-Bahry, S. N. (2013b). Heavy Metals Infiltration from Sewage Treated Effluent into Soil and Tomato Plants. IPCBEE, 50, 16-25.
[6] Al-Musharafi, S. K., Mahmoud, I. Y., & Al-Bahry, S. N. (2012). Heavy Metal Contamination from Treated Sewage Effluents. 11th International Conference on Modelling, Monitoring and Management of Water Pollution. WIT Transactions on Ecology and The Environment (pp381-389). New Forest.
[7] APHA/AWWA/WEF (American Public Health Association/American Water Works Association/Water Environment Federation (1998). Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater (20th ed.). Washington DC: American Public Health Association/American Water Works Association/Water Environment Federation. Baltimore: United Book Press Inc.
[8] Horswell, J., Ambrose, V., Clucas, L., Leckie, A., Clinton, P., & Speir, T. W. (2007). Survival of Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp. after Application of Sewage Sludge to a Pinus Radiata Forest. Journal of Applied Microbiology, 103, 1321-1331. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2672.2007.03373.x
[9] Kwarteng, A., Dorvlo, A. S., & Kumar, G. T. (2009). Analysis of a 27-Year Rainfall Data (1977-2003) in the Sultanate of Oman. International Journal of Climatology, 29, 605-617. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/joc.1727

  
comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2019 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.