Share This Article:

Rooting Response of Air-Layered Shea (Vitellaria paradoxa) Trees to Media and Hormonal Application under Two Different Climatic Conditions

Abstract Full-Text HTML Download Download as PDF (Size:304KB) PP. 1212-1219
DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2014.59134    3,250 Downloads   4,509 Views   Citations

ABSTRACT

Shea tree (Vitellaria paradoxa Gaertn. Family; Sapotaceae) indigenous to the Sudano-sahelian zone of Africa has great economic and ecological potential and attributes. Commercial cultivation of the tree is however, hampered by the poor rooting success of its planting material with adverse consequences on field establishment and total fruit yield. A 3 × 2 factorial experiment arranged in a randomized complete block design was carried out in 2012 at Bole in the Interior Savanna agro-ecological zone. The objective was to assess the rooting success of Shea shoots by the air-layering technique using two media types (palm fibre and Sphagnum moss) and three IBA hormone concentrations (0, 5000 and 10,000 ppm) under contrasting climatic (wet and dry) conditions. Layered shoots which were sprayed with 10,000 ppm IBA and wrapped with Sphagnum moss gave significantly (P < 0.05) higher rooting success in terms of more roots per cutting (73.3%) and longer roots per cutting (9.0 cm) than palm fibre at both 5000 ppm (30.0%; 3.7 cm) and 10,000 ppm (46.7%;7.9 cm) concentrations. Higher rooting success was significantly achieved in the wet season than in the dry season. Sphagnum moss treated with 10,000 ppm IBA facilitated the translocation of higher levels of sugar and total free phenol (TFP) to the base of the layered shoots which resulted in significantly (P < 0.05) higher number of roots and better roots protection from fungal infection than the other treatments. Rooting of layered shoots was affected to a greater extent by low temperatures (Rooting = 836 – 34.2 Temp (low); R2 = 82%, p < 0.001) than by high temperatures (Rooting = 5250 – 175.0 Temp (high); R2 = 64.5%, p < 0.009). Rooting of layered shoots was also significantly and negatively affected by the spread of the canopy of the selected tree such that closed canopy trees resulted in higher and better rooting that open canopy trees (Rooting = 113.87-23.697(Canopy spread); R2 = 89%, p = 0.002; n = 9). Furthermore, significant and positive correlations were found between IBA concentration level and simple sugars (r = 0.99; P < 0.0001; n = 9) and also between IBA concentration level and total free phenols (r = 0.98; P < 0.0002; n = 9). The study concluded that to achieve high rooting success in the propagation of Shea nut tree by the air-layering technique, a combination of Sphagnum moss treated with 10,000 ppm of IBA hormone should be used and the whole set up carried out in the wet season.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Cite this paper

Yeboah, J. , Branoh Banful, B. , Boateng, P. , Amoah, F. , Maalekuu, B. and Lowor, S. (2014) Rooting Response of Air-Layered Shea (Vitellaria paradoxa) Trees to Media and Hormonal Application under Two Different Climatic Conditions. American Journal of Plant Sciences, 5, 1212-1219. doi: 10.4236/ajps.2014.59134.

References

[1] White, F. (1983) The Vegetation of Africa. UNECSO, Natural Resources Research, 20.
[2] FAO (1988) Traditional Food Plants. Food and Nutrition Paper, FAO, Rome, 125-129.
[3] Dalziel, J.M. (1955) The useful plants of Tropical Africa. 3rd Edition, Crown Agents, London.
[4] Adomako, D. (1974) Comparative Study of Cocoa, Sheanut and Tallow (Pentedesma butyracea sp.) Fats. Annual Report, Cocoa Research Institute of Ghana, 178-179.
[5] Adomako, D. (1975) Cocoa Butter, Shea Butter and Tallow Fat. Annual Report, Cocoa Research Institute of Ghana, 65.
[6] Spore (1991) The Shea Butter Tree’s Untapped Riches. Spore, Crop Production and Protection, No. 32, 5.
[7] Yeboah, J., Lowor, S.T., Boateng, P.Y. and Amoah, F.M. (2010) Some Physiological and Environmental Factors that affect the Vegetative Propagation of the Shea (Vitellaria paradoxa C.F. Gaertn) Tree. International Journal of Tropical Agriculture and Food Systems, 3, 170-177.
[8] Yeboah, J., Lowor, S.T. and Amoah, F.M. (2009) The Rooting Performance of Shea (Vitellaria paradoxa C. F. Gaertn) Cuttings Leached in Water and Application of Rooting Hormone in Different Media. Journal of Plant Sciences, 4, 10-14. http://dx.doi.org/10.3923/jps.2009.10.14
[9] Yeboah, J., Lowor, S.T. and Amoah, F.M. (2009) The Rooting Performance of Shea (Vitellaria paradoxa C. F. Gaertn) Cuttings as Influence by Woodtype Sucrose and Rooting Hormone. Scientific Research and Essay, 4, 521-525.
[10] Yeboah, J., Lowor, S.T., Amoah, F.M. and Owusu-Ansah, F. (2010) Propagation Structures and Some Factors That Affect the Rooting Performance of Sheanut (Vitellaria paradoxa C. F. Gaertn) Cuttings. Agiculture and Biology Journal of North America, 2, 258-269.
[11] Yeboah, J., Akrofi, A.Y. and Owusu-Ansah, F. (2010) Influence of Selected Fungicides and Hormone on the Rooting Success of Shea (Vitellaria paradoxa C. F. Gaertn) Stem Cuttings. Agiculture and Biology Journal of North America, 1, 313-320. http://dx.doi.org/10.5251/abjna.2010.1.3.313.320
[12] Sanou, H., Kambou, S., Teklehaimanot, Z., Dembélé, M., Yossi, H. Sina, S., Djingdia, L. and Bouvet, J.-M. (2004) Vegetative Propagation of Vitellaria paradoxa by Grafting. Agroforestry Systems, 60, 93-99.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/B:AGFO.0000009408.03728.46
[13] Opoku-Ameyaw, K. (1996) Sheanut Experiments. Report, Cocoa Research Institute of Ghana, Bole Substation, 225-228.
[14] Hartmann, H.T., Kester, D.E., Davies, F.T. and Geneve, R.L. (2002) Plant Propagation, Principles and Practices. 7th Edition. Prentice Hall Engineering, Cliff, 275-551.
[15] Moore, K.G., Illsley, A. and Lovell, P.H. (1975) The Effects of Temperature on Root Initiation in Detached Cotyledons of Sinapis alba L. Annals of Botany, 39, 657-669.
[16] Sivaci, A. and Yalcin, I. (2008) The Seasonal Changes in Endogenous Levels of Indole-3-Acetic Acid, Gibberellic acid, Zeatin and Abscisic Acid Stems of Some Apple Varieties (Malus sylvestris Miller). Asian Journal of Plant Sciences, 7, 319-322.
[17] Jain, M.K. and Nanda, K.K. (1972) Effect of Temperature and Some Antimetabolites on the Interaction Effects of Auxin Nutrition in Rooting Etiolated Stem Segments of Salix tetrasperma. Physiologia Plantarum, 27, 169-172.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1399-3054.1972.tb03595.x
[18] Cakmak, I. (2000) Possible Roles of Zinc in Protecting Plant Cells from Damage by Reactive Oxygen Species. New Phytologist, 146, 185-205. http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1469-8137.2000.00630.x
[19] Noggle, G.R. and Fritz, J.F. (1983) Introductory Plant Physiology. 2nd Edition, Prentice Hall Inc., Englewood Cliffs, 440-442.
[20] Hutcheon, V.W., Smith, R.W. and Asomaning, E.J.A. (1973) Effect of Irrigation on the Yield and Physiological Behaviour of Matured Amelonado cocoa in Ghana. Tropical Agriculture, 50, 261-272.
[21] Akakpo, B., Amissah, N., Yeboah, J. and Blay, E. (2013) Effect of Indole-3-Butyric Acid and Media Type on Adventitious Root Formation in Sheanut Tree (Vitellaria paradoxa C. F. Gaertn) Stem Cuttings. American Journal of Plant Sciences, 5, 313-318. http://dx.doi.org/4236/ajps.2014.53043
[22] Amissah, N., Akakpo, B., Yeboah, J. and Blay, E. (2013) Asexual Propagation of the Shea (Vitellaria paradoxa C. F. Gaertn) Tree Using a Container Layering Technique. American Journal of Plant Sciences, 4, 1758-1764.
http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/ajps.2013.49216
[23] Das, P., Basak, U.C. and Das, A.B. (1997) Metabolic Changes during Rooting in Pre-Girdled Stem Cuttings and Air-Layers of Heritiera. Botanical Bulletin of Academia Sinica, 38, 91-95.
[24] Gabryszewska, E. (2011) Effect of Various Levels of Sucrose, Nitrogen Salts and Temperature on the Growth and Development of Syringa vulgaris L. Shoots in Vitro. Journal of Fruit and Ornamental Plant Research, 19, 133-148.
[25] Woodward, A.W. and Bartel, B. (2005) Auxin: Regulation, Action and Interaction. Annals of Botany, 95, 707-735.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/aob/mci083
[26] Pandey, D. and Pathak, R.K. (1981) Effect of Rootstocks, IBA and Phenolic Compounds on the Rooting of Apple Cuttings. Propagation of Horticulture, 13, 105-110.
[27] James, B.L. (1993) Update on fungicides. Combined Proceedings of International Plant Propagators’ Society, 43, 373-375.
[28] Amstrong, M. (1992) Integreted Disease Management-Research and Development Using New Techniques and Bioremediation of Vans Pines. Combined Proceedings of International Plant Propagators’ Society, 42, 502-506.

  
comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2018 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.