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Vismodegib Provides a Novel Treatment for Advanced Basal Cell Carcinoma

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DOI: 10.4236/jct.2014.52027    3,510 Downloads   4,548 Views   Citations

ABSTRACT

Objective: To review and evaluate vismodegib, the first US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved treatment for locally advanced (laBCC) or metastatic basal cell carcinoma (mBCC) that has recurred after surgery or for patients in which surgery or radiation is not an option. Data Sources: A literature search using PubMed was conducted through January 2013, using the terms vismodegib, GDC-0449, and Erivedge. Additional literature was found through the reference citations of identified articles. Study Selection and Data Extraction: Potential sources were limited to human studies published in English with a priority placed on those focused on laBCC or mBCC. Data Synthesis: Vismodegib is a selective inhibitor of the hedgehog (Hh) pathway approved for the treatment of laBCC or mBCC that has recurred after surgery, or for patients for whom surgery or radiation is contraindicated. Vismodegib inhibits cancer cell growth and survival by binding Smoothened, a transmembrane protein involved in the Hedgehog signal transduction. Vismodegib is administered orally at a dose of 150 mg daily. It is primarily eliminated through the feces unchanged but does have some oxidative metabolites produced from the recombinant cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2C9 and CYP3A4/5. Despite CYP450 involvement, it appears to have very few drug interactions. The most common adverse events reported with vismodegib include muscle spasms, dysgeusia, alopecia, weight loss, fatigue, nausea, anorexia, and diarrhea. FDA approval was based on a single arm phase II study that demonstrated an objective response rate of 30% in mBCC patients and 45% in laBCC patients. Vismodegib was approved by the FDA on January 30, 2012 for use in patients with advanced basal cell carcinoma, and continues to be studied in other patient populations for additional potential uses. Conclusions: Based on a review of current evidence, vismodegib provides an effective and well-tolerated treatment for otherwise untreatable basal cell carcinoma.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Cite this paper

J. Kelm, T. Magliaro, M. Anderson and C. Mach, "Vismodegib Provides a Novel Treatment for Advanced Basal Cell Carcinoma," Journal of Cancer Therapy, Vol. 5 No. 2, 2014, pp. 217-221. doi: 10.4236/jct.2014.52027.

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