Share This Article:
Review Paper

Helicobacter pylori and upper gastrointestinal diseases: A review

Abstract Full-Text HTML XML Download Download as PDF (Size:175KB) PP. 263-273
DOI: 10.4236/health.2014.64039    3,761 Downloads   6,324 Views  


Since its first isolation by Marshall and Warren, Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) has been recognized to have a causal role in the upper gastrointestinal diseases development, especially in chronic gastritis, peptic ulcer disease, mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT lymphoma) and gastric adenocarcinoma. H. pylori is a spiral-shaped gram-negative flagellate bacterium that has a high genetic diversity, which is an important factor in its adaptation to the host stomach and also for the clinical outcome of the infection, an aspect that remains unclear. However, it is thought to involve a interplay among the virulence of the infecting strain, host genetics and environmental factors. This review chapter brings the principal characteristics of the diseases associated with H. pylori infection and summarizes some important characteristics concerning the virulence of bacterium strain, host genetics and external environment.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Cite this paper

Roesler, B. , Rabelo-Gonçalves, E. and Zeitune, J. (2014) Helicobacter pylori and upper gastrointestinal diseases: A review. Health, 6, 263-273. doi: 10.4236/health.2014.64039.


[1] Kusters J.G., Arnoud H.M. and Kuipers E. (2006) Pathogenesis of Helicobacter pylori infection. Clinical Microbiology Reviews, 19, 449-490.
[2] Marshall, M.J. and Warren, J.R. (1984) Unidentified curved bacilli in the stomach of patients with gastritis and peptic ulceration. Lancet, 1, 1311-1315.
[3] Ahmed, N. and Sechi, L.A. (2005) Helicobacter pylori and gastroduodenal pathology: New threats of the old friend. Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials, 4, 1-10.
[4] International Agency for Research on Cancer. Schistosomes, liver flukes and Helicobacter pylori. IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans. (1994) IARC monographs on the evaluation of carcinogenic risks to humans. World Health Organization, International Agency for Research on Cancer, 61, 1-241.
[5] Blaser, M.J. (2005) An endangered species in the stomach. Scientific American, 292, 38-45.
[6] Ahmed, N. (2005) 23 years of the discovery of Helicobacter pylori: Is the debate over? Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials, 4, 17-19.
[7] Urita, Y., Watanabe, T., Kawagoe, N., Takemoto, I., Tanaka, H., Kijima, S., et al. (2013) Role of infected grandmothers in transmission of Helicobacter pylori to children in a Japanese rural town. Journal of Paediatric Children Health, 49, 394-398.
[8] Bastos, J., Carreira, H., La Vecchia, C. and Lunet, N. (2013) Childcare attendance and Helicobacter pylori infection: Systematic review and meta-analysis. European Journal of Cancer Prevention, 22, 311-319.
[9] Covacci, A., Telford, J.L., Del Giudice, G., Parsonnet, J. and Rappuoli, R. (1998) Helicobacter pylori virulence and genetic geography. Science, 284, 1328-1333.
[10] Lu, Y., Redlinger, T.E., Avitia, R., Galindo, A. and Goodman, K. (2002) Isolation and genotyping of Helicobacter pylori from untreated municipal wastewater. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 68, 1436-1439.
[11] Bahrami, A.R., Rahimi, E. and Ghasemian Safaei, H. (2013) Detection of Helicobacter pylori in city water, dental unit’s water and bottled mineral water in Isfahan, Iran. Scientific World Journal, 2013.
[12] Blaser, M.J. and Berg, D.E. (2001) H. pylori genetic diversity and risk of human disease. The Journal of Clinical Investigation, 107, 767-773.
[13] Suerbaum, S. and Michetti, P. (2002) Helicobacter infection. New England Journal of Medicine, 347, 1175-1186.
[14] Mégraud, F. (2001) Impact of Helicobacter pylori virulence on the outcome of gastroduodenal diseases: Lessons from the microbiologist. Digestive Diseases, 19, 99-103.
[15] Peek, R.M., Blaser, M.J., Mays, D.J., Forsyth, M.H., Cover, T.L., Song, S.Y., Krishna, U. and Pietenpol, J.A. (1999) Helicobacter pylori strain-specific genotypes and modulation of the gastric epithelial cell cycle. Cancer Research, 59, 6124-6131.
[16] de Vries, A.C., Haringsma, J. and Kuipers, E.J. (2007) The detection, surveillance and treatment of premalignant gastric lesions related to Helicobacter pylori infection. Helicobacter, 12, 1-15.
[17] Figura, N., Franceschi, F., Santucci, A., Bernardini, G., Gasbarrini, G. and Gasbarrini, A. (2010) Extragastric manifestations of Helicobacter pylori infection. Helicobacter, 15, 60-68.
[18] Baudron, C.R., Franceschi, F., Salles, N. and Gasbarrini, A. (2013) Extragastric diseases and Helicobacter pylori. Helicobacter, 18, 44-51.
[19] Capurso, G., Lahner, E. Marcheggiano, A., Caruana, P., Carnuccio, A., Bordi, C., Delle Fave, G. and Annibale, B. (2001) Involvement of the corporal mucosa and related changes in gastric acid secretion characterize patients with iron deficiency anemy associated with Helicobacter pylori infection. Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics, 15, 1753-1761.
[20] Pelicano, R., Franceschi, F., Saracco, G., Fagoonee, S., Roccarina, D. and Gasbarrini, A. (2009) Helicobacters and extragastric diseases. Helicobacter, 14, 58-68.
[21] Arnold, D.M., Bernotas, A., Nazi, I., Stasi, R., Kuwana, M., Liu, Y., Kelton, J.G. and Crowther, M.A. (2009) Platelet count response to H. pylori treatment in patients with immune thrombocytopenic purpura with and without H. pylori infection: a systematic review. Haematologica, 94, 850-856.
[22] Franceschi, F., Navarese, E.P., Mollo, R., Giupponi, B., De Marco, G., Merra, G., Gasbarrini, G. and Silveri, N.G. (2009) Helicobacter pylori and atherosclerosis. A review of the literature. Recent Progress in Medicine, 100, 91-96.
[23] Rogha, M., Nikvarz, M., Poumoghaddas, Z., et al. (2012) Is Helicobacter pylori infection a risk factor for coronary heart disease? ARYA Atherosclerose, 8, 5-8.
[24] Isaeva G.Sh., Abuzarova E.R., Valeeva IuV., Pozdeev O.K., Murav′eva E.V. (2009) Helicobacter pylori in patients with disorders of hepatobiliary system. Zhurnal Mikrobiologii Epidemiologii I Immunobioogiil, 2, 96-101.
[25] Pirouz, T., Zounubi, L., Keivani, H., Rakhshani, N. and Hormazdi, M. (2009) Detection of Helicobacter pylori in paraffin-embedded specimens from patients with chronic liver diseases, using the amplification method. Digestive Diseases and Sciences, 54, 1456-1459.
[26] Dixon, M.F., Genta, R.M., Yardley, J.H. and Correa, P. and the Participants in the International Workshop on the Histopathology of Gastritis, Classification and Grading of Gastritis (1996) The updated Sydney system. American Journal of Surgical Pathology, 20, 1161-1181.
[27] Bornschein, J. and Malfertheiner, P. (2011) Gastric carcinogenesis. Langenbecks Archives of Surgery, 396, 729-742.
[28] Granstrom, M., Tindberg, Y. and Blennow, M. (1997) Seroepidemiology of Helicobacter pylori infection in a cohort of children monitored from 6 months to 11 years of age. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 35, 468-470.
[29] Malaty, H.M., Graham, D.Y., Wattigney, W.A., Srinivasan, S.R., Osato, M. and Berenson, G.S. (1999) Natural history of Helicobacter pylori infection in childhood: 12-year follow-up cohort study in a biracial community. Clinical Infectious and Diseases, 28, 279-282.
[30] Pérez-Pérez, G.L., Sack, R.B., Reid, R., Santosham, M., Croll, J. and Blaser, M.J. (2003) Transient and persistent Helicobacter pylori colonization in Native American children. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 41, 2401-2407.
[31] Rubin, C.E. (1997) Are there three types of Helicobacter pylori gastritis? Gastroenterology, 112, 2108-2110.
[32] Versalovic, J. (2003) Helicobacter pylori. Pathology and diagnostic strategies. American Journal of Clinical Pathology, 119, 403-412.
[33] Uemura, N., Okamoto, S., Yamamoto, S., Matsumura, M., Yamaguchi, S., Yamakido, M., Taniyama, K., Sasaki, N. and Schlemper, R.J. (2001) Helicobacter pylori infection and the development of gastric cancer. New England Journal of Medicine, 345, 784-789.
[34] Linz, B., Balloux, F., Moodley, Y., Manica, A., Liu, H., Roumagnac, P., Falush, D., Stamer, C., Prugnolle, F., van der Merwe, S.W., Yamaoka, Y., Graham, D.Y., Perez-Trallero, E., Wadstrom, T., Suerbaum, S. and Achtman, M. (2007) An African origin for the intimate association between humans and Helicobacter pylori. Nature, 445, 915-918.
[35] Warren, J.R. (2000) Gastric pathology associated with Helicobacter pylori. Gastroenterology Clinics of North America, 29, 705-751.
[36] Kate, V., Ananthakrishnan, N. and Tovey, F.I. (2013) Is Helicobacter pylori infection the primary cause of duodenal ulceration or a secondary factor? A review of the evidence. Gastroenterology Research and Practice, 2013, Article ID: 425840.
[37] El-Omar, E.M., Penman, I.D., Ardill, J.E., Chittajallu, R.S., Howie, C. and McColl, K.E. (1995) Helicobacter pylori infection and abnormalities of acid secretion in patients with duodenal ulcer disease. Gastroenterology, 109, 681-691.
[38] El-Omar, E.M., Oien, K., El-Nujumi, A., Gillen, D., Wirz, A., Dahill, S., Williams, C., Ardill, J.E. and McColl, K.E. (1997) Helicobacter pylori infection and chronic gastric acid hyposecretion. Gastroenterology, 113, 15-24.
[39] Konturek, P.C., Konturek, S.J. and Brzozowski, T. (2009) Helicobacter pylori infection in gastric cancero-genesis. Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology, 60, 3-21.
[40] Siao, D. and Somsouk, M. (2013) Helicobacter pylori: Evidence-based review with a focus on immigrant populations. Journal of General Internal Medicine.
[41] den Hollander, W.J., Sostres, C., Kuipers, E.J. and Lanas, A. (2013) Helicobacter pylori and nonmalignant diseases. Helicobacter, 18, 24-27.
[42] Leodolter, A., Kulig, M., Brasch, H., Meyer-Sabellek, W., Willich, S.N. and Malfertheiner, P. (2001) A meta-analysis comparing eradication, healing and relapse rates in patients with Helicobacter pylori-associated gastric or duodenal ulcer. Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics, 15, 1949-1958.
[43] Huang, J.Q., Sridhar, S. and Hunt, R.H. (2002) Role of Helicobacter pylori infection and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in pepticulcer disease: A meta-analysis. Lancet, 359, 14-22.
[44] Malfertheiner, P., Megraud, F., O’Morain, C.A., Atherton, J., Axon, A.T., Bazzoli, F., Gensini, G.F., Gisbert, J.P., Graham, D.Y., Rokkas, T., El-Omar, E.M., Kuipers, E.J. and European Helicobacter Study Group. (2012) Management of Helicobacter pylori infection—The Maastricht IV/ Florence Consensus Report. Gut, 61, 646-664.
[45] Hawkey, C.J. (1999) Personal review: Helicobacter pylori, NSAIDs and cognitive dissonance. Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics, 13, 695-702.
[46] Dell Valle, J., Chey, W. and Scheimann, J. (2003) Acid peptic disorders. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia.
[47] Sonnenberg, A. (1997) Peptic ulcer. In: Johanson, J.A., Ed., Gastrointestinal Diseases: Risks Factors and Prevention. Lippincott-Raven, New York, 45-65.
[48] Misciagna, G., Cisternino, A.M. and Freudenheim, J. (2000) Diet and duodenal ulcer. Digestive and Liver Diseases, 32, 468-472.
[49] Matos, J.I., de Sousa, H.A., Marcos-Pinto, R. and Dinis-Ribeiro, M. (2013) Helicobacter pylori CagA and VacA genotypes and gastric phenotype: A meta-analysis. European Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, 25, 1431-1441.
[50] Hussein, N.R. (2010) The association of dupA and Helicobacter pylori-related gastroduodenal diseases. European Journal of Clinical Microbiological and Infectious Diseases, 29, 817-821.
[51] Roesler, B.M., Oliveira, T.B., Costa, S.C.B. and Zeitune, J.M.R. (2012) Is there any relationship between Helicobacter pylori dupA gene and the development of early and advanced gastric cancer in Brazilian patients? Journal of Medical Research and Science, 2, 15-24.
[52] Gisbert, J.P. and Calvet, X. (2011) Review article: Common misconceptions in the management of Helicobacter pylori-associated gastric MALT-lymphoma. Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics, 34, 1047-1062.
[53] Jonkers, D., Gisbertz, I., Bruine, A., Bot, F., Arends, J.W., Stobberingh, E., Schouten, H. and Stockbrügger, R. (1997) Helicobacter pylori and non-Helicobacter pylori bacterial flora in gastric mucosal and tumour specimens of patients with primary gastric lymphoma. European Journal of Clinical Investigation, 27, 885-892.
[54] Gisbert, J.P. (1998) Is gastric lymphoma an infectious disease? Medicina Clinica, 110, 56-61.
[55] Dogusoy, G., Karayel, F.A., Göcener, S. and Göksel, S. (1999) Histopathologic features and expression of Bcl-2 and p53 proteins in primary gastric lymphomas. Pathology and Oncology Research, 5, 36-40.
[56] Isaacson, P. and Wright, D.H. (1983) Malignant lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue. A distinctive type of B-cell lymphoma. Cancer, 52, 1410-1416.<1410::AID-CNCR2820520813>3.0.CO;2-3
[57] Wang, F., Meng, W., Wang, B. and Qiao, L. (2013) Helicobacter pylori-induced gastric inflammation and gastric cancer. Cancer Letters.
[58] Asenjo, L.M. and Gisbert, J.P. (2007) Prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection in gastric MALT lymphoma: A systematic review. Revista Española de Enfermedades Digestivas, 99, 398-404.
[59] Genta, R.M., Hamner, H.W. and Graham, D.Y. (1993) Gastric lymphoid follicles in Helicobacter pylori infection: Frequency, distribution, and response to triple therapy. Human Pathology, 24, 577-583.
[60] Isaacson, P.G. (1994) Gastrointestinal lymphoma. Human Pathology, 25, 1020-1029.
[61] Wotherspoon, A.C., Ortiz-Hidalgo, C., Falzon, M.R. and Isaacson, P.G. (1991) Helicobacter pylori-associated gastritis and primary B-cell gastric lymphoma. Lancet, 338, 1175-1176.
[62] Eidt, S., Stolte, M. and Fischer, R. (1994) Helicobacter pylori gastritis and primary gastric non-Hodgkin’s lymphomas. Journal of Clinical Pathology, 47, 436-439.
[63] Nakamura, S., Yao, T., Aoyagi, K., Iida, M., Fujishima, M. and Tsuneyoshi, M. (1997) Helicobacter pylori and primary gastric lymphoma. A histopathologic and immuno-histochemical analysis of 237 patients. Cancer, 79, 3-11.<3::AID-CNCR2>3.0.CO;2-P
[64] Nakamura, S., Aoyagi, K., Furuse, M., Suekane, H., Matsumoto, T., Yao, T., Sakai, Y., Fuchigami, T., Yamamoto, I., Tsuneyoshi, M. and Fujishima, M. (1998) B-cell monoclonality precedes the development of gastric MALT lymphoma in Helicobacter pylori-associated chronic gastritis. American Journal of Pathology, 152, 1271-1279.
[65] Enno, A., O’Rourke, J.L., Howlett, C.R., Jack, A., Dixon, M.F. and Lee, A. (1995) MAL Toma-like lesions in the murine gastric mucosa after long-term infection with Helicobacter felis. A mouse model of Helicobacter pylori-induced gastric lymphoma. American Journal of Pathology, 147, 217-222.
[66] Ferrero, R.L., Avé, P., Radcliff, F.J., Labigne, A. and Huerre, M.R. (2000) Outbred mice with long-term Helicobacter felis infection develop both gastric lymphoid tissue and glandular hyperplastic lesions. Journal of Pathology, 191, 333-340.<::AID-PATH619>3.0.CO;2-H
[67] Mueller, A., O’rourke, J., Chu, P., Chu, A., Dixon, M.F., Bouley, D.M., Lee, A. and Falkow, S. (2005) The role of antigenic drive and tumor-infiltrating accessory cells in the pathogenesis of Helicobacter-induced mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma. American Journal of Pathology, 167, 797-812.
[68] Stolte, M., Bayerdörffer, E., Morgner, A., Alpen, B., Wündisch, T., Thiede, C. and Neubauer, A. (2002) Helicobacter and gastric MALT lymphoma. Gut, 50, III19-III24.
[69] Zullo, A., Hassan, C., Cristofari, F., Andriani, A., Francesco, V., Ierardi, E., Tomao, S., Stolte, M., Morini, S. and Vaira, D. (2010) Effects of Helicobacter pylori eradication on early stage gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma. Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology, 8, 105-110.
[70] Wündisch, T., Dieckhoff, P., Greene, B., Thiede, C., Wilhelm, C., Stolte, M. and Neubauer, A. (2012) Second cancers and residual disease in patients treated for gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma by Helicobacter pylori eradication and followed for 10 years. Gastroenterology, 143, 936-942.
[71] Ruskone-Fourmestraux, A., Fischbach, W., Aleman, B.M., Boot, H., Du, M.Q., Megraud, F., Montalban, C., Raderer, M., Savio, A. and Wotherspoon, A. (2011) EGILS consensus report. Gastric extranodal marginal zone B-cell lymphoma of MALT. Gut, 60, 747-758.
[72] Hussell, T., Isaacson, P.G., Crabtree, J.E. and Spencer, J. (1996) Helicobacter pylori-specific tumour-infiltrating T cells provide contact dependent help for the growth of malignant B cells in low-grade gastric lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue. Journal of Pathology, 178, 122-127.<122::AID-PATH486>3.0.CO;2-D
[73] Ferreri, A.J., Govi, S. and Ponzoni, M. (2013) The role of Helicobacter pylori eradication in the treatment of diffuse large B-cell and marginal zone lymphomas of the stomach. Current Opinion in Oncology, 25, 470-479.
[74] Isaacson, P.G. and Du, M.Q. (2004) MALT lymphoma: From morphology to molecules. Nature Reviews Cancer, 4, 644-653.
[75] Rollinson, S., Levene, A.P., Mensah, F.K., Roddam, P.L., Allan, J.M., Diss, T.C., Roman, E., Jack, A., MacLennan, K., Dixon, M.F. and Morgan, G.J. (2003) Gastric marginal zone lymphoma is associated with polymorphisms in genes involved in inflammatory response and antioxidative capacity. Blood, 102, 1007-1011.
[76] Liu, H., Ye, H., Ruskone-Fourmestraux, A., Jong, D., Pileri, S., Thiede, C., Lavergne, A., Boot, H., Caletti, G., Wündisch, T., Molina, T., Tall, B.G., Elena, S., Thomas, T., Zinzani, P.L., Neubauer, A., Stoltle, M., Hamoudi, R.A., Dogan, A., Isaacson, P.G. and Du, M.Q. (2002) T(11;18) is a marker for all stage gastric MALT lymphomas that will not respond to H. pylori eradication. Gastroenterology, 122, 1286-1294.
[77] Du, M.Q. (2007) MALT lymphoma: Recent advances in aetiology and molecular genetics. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hematopathology, 47, 31-42.
[78] Auer, I.A., Gascoyne, R.D., Connors, J.M., Cotter, F.E., Greiner, T.C., Sanger, W.G. and Horsman, D.E. (1997) t(11;18)(q21;q21) is the most common translocation in MALT lymphomas. Annals of Oncology, 8, 979-985.
[79] Ott, G., Katzenberger, T., Greiner, A., Kalla, J., Rosenwald, A., Heinrich, U., Ott, M.M. and Müller-Hermelink, H.K. (1997) The t(11;18)(q21;q21) chromosome translocation is a frequent and specific aberration in low-grade but not high-grade malignant non-Hodgkin’s lymphomas of the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT-) type. Cancer Research, 57, 3944-3948.
[80] Du, M.Q., Peng, H., Liu, H., Hamoudi, R.A., Diss, T.C., Willis, T.G., Ye, H., Dogan, A., Wotherspoon, A.C., Dyer, M.J. and Isaacson, P.G. (2000) BCL10 gene mutation in lymphoma. Blood, 95, 3885-3890.
[81] Koehler, C.I., Mues, M.B., Dienes, H.P., Kriegsmann, J., Schirmacher, P. and Odenthal, M. (2003) Helicobacter pylori genotyping in gastric adenocarcinoma and MALT lymphoma by multiplex PCR analyses of paraffin wax embedded tissues. Molecular Pathology, 56, 36-42.
[82] Ferreira-Chagas, B., Lasne, G., Dupouy, S., Gallois, A., Morgner, A., Ménard, A., Mégraud, F. and Lehours, P. (2007) In vitro proinflammatory properties of Helicobacter pylori strains causing low-grade gastric MALT lymphoma. Helicobacter, 2, 616-617.
[83] Lehours, P., Ménard, A., Dupouy, S., Bergey, B., Richy, F., Zerbib, F., Ruskoné-Fourmestraux, A., Delchier, J.C. and Mégraud, F. (2004) Evaluation of the association of nine Helicobacter pylori virulence factors with strains involved in low-grade gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma. Infection and Immunity, 72, 880-888.
[84] Malfertheiner, P., Bornschein, J. and Selgrad, M. (2010) Role of Helicobacter pylori infection in gastric cancer pathogenesis: A chance for prevention. Journal of Digestive Diseases, 11, 2-11.
[85] Nardone, G., Rocco, A. and Malfertheiner, P. (2004) Review article: Helicobacter pylori and molecular events in precancerous gastric lesions. Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics, 20, 261-270.
[86] Hohenberger, P. and Gretschel, S. (2003) Gastric cancer. Lancet, 362, 305-315.
[87] Bowles, M.J. and Benjamin, I.C. (2001) ABC of the upper gastrointestinal tract. Cancer of the stomach and pancreas. British Medical Journal, 323, 1413-1416.
[88] Lauren, P. (1975) The two histological main types of gastric carcinoma: Diffuse and so called intestinal type carcinoma. Acta Pathologica et Microbiologica Scandinavica, 64, 31-49.
[89] Sugiyama, T. and Asaka, M. (2004) Helicobacter pylori infection and gastric cancer. Medical Eletron Microscopy, 37, 149-157.
[90] Correa, P., Haenszel, W., Cuello, C., Tannenbaum, S. and Archer, M. (1975) A model for gastric cancer epidemiology. Lancet, 306, 58-60.
[91] Correa, P. (1988) A human model of gastric carcino-genesis. Cancer Research, 48, 3554-3560.
[92] Correa, P. (1992) Human gastric carcinogenesis: A multisptep and multifactorial process—First American Cancer Society Award lecture on cancer epidemiology and prevention. Cancer Research, 52, 6735-6740.
[93] Correa, P. and Piazuelo, M.B. (2012) The gastric precancerous cascade. Journal of Digestive Diseases, 13, 2-9.
[94] Everett, S.M. and Axon, A.T.R. (1998) Early gastric cancer: Disease or pseudo-disease? Lancet, 351, 1350-1352.
[95] Censini, S., Lange, C. and Xiang, Z. (1996) cag, a pathogenicity island of Helicobacter pylori, encodes type I-specific and disease-associated virulence factors. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 93, 14648-14651.
[96] Franco, A.T., Johnson, E., Krishna, U., Yamaoka, Y., Israel, D.A., Nagy, T.A., Wroblewski, L.E., Piazuelo, M.B., Correa, P. and Peek Jr., R.M. (2008) Regulation of gastric carcinogenesis by Helicobacter pylori virulence factors. Cancer Research, 68, 379-387.
[97] Parsonnet, J., Friedman, G.D., Orentreich, N. and Vogelman, H. (1997) Risk for gastric cancer in people with CagA positive or CagA negative Helicobacter pylori infection. Gut, 40, 297-301.
[98] Kuipers, E.J., Perez-Perez, G.I., Meuwissen, S.G.M. and Blaser, M.J. (1995) Helicobacter pylori and atrophic gastritis: Importance of the cagA status. Journal of the National Cancer Institute, 87, 1777-1780.
[99] Blaser, M.J., Perez-Perez, G.I., Kleanthous, H., Cover, T.L., Peek, R.M., Chyou, P.H., Stemmermann, G.N. and Nomura, A. (1995) Infection with Helicobacter pylori strains possessing cagA is associated with an increased risk of developing adenocarcinoma of the stomach. Cancer Research, 55, 2111-2115.
[100] Wang, S.H., Zhu, H.F., He, B.S., Zhang, Z.Y., Chen, Z.T., Wang, Z.Z. and Wu, G.L. (2007) cagA + H. pylori infection is associated with polarization of T helper cell immune responses in gastric carcinogenesis. World Journal of Gastroenterology, 13, 2923-2931.
[101] Roesler, B.M., Costa, S.C.B. and Zeitune, J.M.R. (2011) Virulence factors of Helicobacter pylori and their relationship with the development of early and advanced distal intestinal type gastric adenocarcinoma. In: Gastritis and Gastric Cancer. New Insights in Gastroprotection, Diagnosis and Treatments. Paola Tonino, Rijeka, 1, 259-280.
[102] Odenbreit, S., Puls, J., Sedlmaier, B., Gerland, E., Fischer, W. and Haas, R. (2000) Translocation of Helicobacter pylori CagA into gastric epithelial cells by type IV secretion. Science, 287, 1497-1500.
[103] Higashi, H., Tsutsumi, R., Muto, S., Sugiyama, T., Azuma, T., Asaka, M. and Hatakeyama, M. (2002) SHP-2 tyrosine phosphatase as an intracellular target of Helicobacter pylori CagA protein. Science, 295, 683-686.
[104] Franco, A.T., Israel, D.A., Washington, M.K., et al. (2005) Activation of β-catenin by carcinogenic Helicobacter pylori. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 102, 10646-10651.
[105] Murata-Kamiya, N., Kurashima, Y., Teishikata, Y., Yamahashi, Y., Saito, Y., Higashi, H., Aburatani, H., Akiyama, T., Peek Jr., R.M., Azuma, T. and Hatakeyama, M. (2007) Helicobacter pylori CagA interacts with E-cadherin and deregulates the β-catenin signal that promotes intestinal transdifferentiation in gastric ephitelial cells. Oncogene, 26, 4617-4626.
[106] Amieva, M.R., Vogelmman, R., Covacci, A., Tompkins, L.S., Nelson, W.J. and Falkow, S. (2003) Disruption of the epithelial apical-junctional complex by Helicobacter pylori CagA. Science, 300, 1430-1434.
[107] Suzuki, M., Mimuro, H., Suzuki, T., Park, M., Yamamoto, T. and Sasakawa, C. (2005) Interaction of CagA with Crk plays an important role in Helicobacter pylori-induced loss of gastric epithelial cell adhesion. The Journal of Experimental Medicine, 202, 1235-1247.
[108] Bagnoli, F., Buti, L., Tompkins, L., Covacci, A. and Amieva, M.R. (2005) Helicobacter pylori CagA induces a transition from polarized to invasive phenotypes in MDCK cells. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 102, 16339-16344.
[109] Kabir, S. (2009) Effect of Helicobacter pylori eradication on incidence of gastric cancer in human and animal models: Underlying biochemical and molecular events. Helicobacter, 14, 159-171.
[110] Nardone, G. and Morgner, A. (2003) Helicobacter pylori and gastric malignances. Helicobacter, 8, 44-52.
[111] Machado, J.C., Figueiredo, C., Canedo, P., et al. (2003) A proinflammatory genetic profile increases the risk for chronic atrophic gastritis and gastric carcinoma. Gastroenterology, 125, 364-371.
[112] Hou, L., El-Omar, E.M., Chen, J., Grillo, P., Rabkin, C.S., Baccarelli, A., Yeager, M., Chanock, S.J., Zatonski, W., Sobin, L.H., Lissowska, J., Fraumeni Jr., J.F. and Chow, W.H. (2007) Polymorphisms in Th1-type cell mediated response genes and risk of gastric cancer. Carcinogenesis, 28, 118-123.
[113] Wex, T., Ebert, M.P., Kropf, S., Dierkes, J., Schüttler, K., Röcken, C., Höcker, M. and Malfertheiner, P. (2008) Gene polymorphisms of the NOD-2/CARD-15 gene and the risk of gastric cancer in Germany. Anticancer Research, 28, 757-762.
[114] Santini, D., Angeletti, S., Ruzzo, A., Dicuonzo, G., Galluzzo, S., Vincenzi, B., Calvieri, A., Pizzagalli, F., Graziano, N., Ferraro, E., Lorino, G., Altomare, A., Magnani, M., Graziano, F. and Tonini, G. (2008) Toll-like receptor 4 Asp299Gly and Thr399IIe polymorphisms in gastric cancer of intestinal and diffuse histotypes. Clinical and Experimental Immunology, 154, 360-364.
[115] Pandey, R., Misra, V., Misra, S.P., et al. (2010) Helicobacter pylori and gastric cancer. Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention, 11, 583-588.
[116] Ngoan, L.T., Mizoue, T., Fujino, Y., Tokui, N. and Yoshimura, T. (2002) Dietary factors and stomach cancer mortality. British Journal of Cancer, 87, 37-42.
[117] Chao, A., Thun, M.J., Henley, S.J., Jacobs, E.J., McCullough, M.L. and Calle, E.E. (2002) Cigarette smoking, use of other tobacco products and stomach cancer mortality in US adults: The cancer prevention study II. International Journal of Cancer, 101, 380-389.
[118] Nishino, Y., Inoue, M., Tsuji, I., Wakai, K., Nagata, C., Mizoue, T., Tanaka, K. and Tsugane, S. (2006) Tobacco smoking and gastric cancer risk: An evaluation based on a systematic review of epidemiologic evidence among the Japanese population. Japanese Journal of Clinical Oncology, 36, 800-807.
[119] Ladeiras-Lopes, R., Pereira, A.K., Nogueira, A., Pinheiro-Torres, T., Pinto, I., Santos-Pereira, R. and Lunet, N. (2008) Smoking and gastric cancer: Systematic review and meta-analysis of cohort studies. Causes Cancer & Control, 19, 689-701.
[120] Steevens, J., Schouten, L.J., Goldbohm, R.A. and van den Brandt, P.A. (2010) Alcohol consumption, cigarette smoking and risk of subtypes of oesophageal and gastric cancer: A prospective cohort study. Gut, 59, 39-48.
[121] Gerhard, M., Rad, R., Prinz, C. and Naumann, M. (2002) Pathogenesis of Helicobacter pylori infection. Helicobacter, 7, 17-23.

comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2018 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.