Share This Article:

Morphological, Physical and Chemical Characteristics of Hill Forest Soils at Chittagong University, Bangladesh

Abstract Full-Text HTML Download Download as PDF (Size:210KB) PP. 26-35
DOI: 10.4236/ojss.2014.41004    5,053 Downloads   7,617 Views   Citations

ABSTRACT

Forty five soil samples were collected from the four pedons of the hill areas at Chittagong University based on the depth of soil horizon. Soil profiles on hill top were relatively well developed and belonged to Ultisols according to USDA soil Taxonomy. The profiles at the piedmont were relatively young soils and classified as Inceptisols and Entisols. The soils of all profiles were characterized by coarse texture (38% to 73%, sand fraction), high bulk density (1.15 to 1.32 Mg·m-3), low organic-C content (0.26% to 1.73%), acid soil reaction ( varied from 4.44 to 5.52 and pHKCl from 3.57 to 4.90). Soils in all pedons were poor in exchangeable bases and base saturation. The CEC values ranged from 9.12 cmolc·kg-1 to 14.5 cmolc·kg-1 while ECEC varied from 1.96 to 4.78 cmolc·kg-1. The exchangeable Al (aluminum) concentration ranged from 0.41 to 0.66 cmolc·kg-1. Exchangeable acidity level ranged from 0.74 to 1.25 cmolc·kg-1. Exchangeable Al and aluminum saturation increased with depth and their concentrations were below the toxic range for tree stands. The study revealed that more young soils formed on the piedmont sites had somewhat better properties as compared to matured hill top soils. The variation in physico-chemical properties of the soils seemed to be influenced by the topography to a greater extent in the studied area.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Cite this paper

M. Akhtaruzzaman, M. Haque and K. Osman, "Morphological, Physical and Chemical Characteristics of Hill Forest Soils at Chittagong University, Bangladesh," Open Journal of Soil Science, Vol. 4 No. 1, 2014, pp. 26-35. doi: 10.4236/ojss.2014.41004.

References

[1] P. W. Birkeland, “Soil and Geomorphology,” Oxford University Press, New York, 1999, p. 430.
[2] A. Yair, “The Role of Topography and Surface Cover upon Soil Formation along Hill Slopes in Arid Climates,” Geomorphology, Vol. 3, No. 3-4, 1990, pp. 287-299.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0169-555X(90)90008-E
[3] R. H. Dahlgren, J. L. Boettinger, G. L. Huntington and R. G. Amundson, “Soil Development along an Elevational Transect in the Western Sierra Nevada, California,” Geoderma, Vol. 78, No. 3-4, 1997, pp. 207-236.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0016-7061(97)00034-7
[4] Y. Canton, A. S. Bent and R. Lazaro, “Soil-Geomorphology Relations in Gypsiferour Materials of the Tabernas Desert,” Geoderma, Vol. 115, No. 3-4, 2003, pp. 193222. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0016-7061(03)00012-0
[5] H. Brammer, “Bangladesh Land Resources Technical Report-3,” AGL: SF, Pak-6, FAO, Rome, 1971.
[6] Reconnaissance Soil Survey, “Reconnaissance Soil Survey of Sadar South and Cox’s Bazar Subdivision Chittagong District,” Department of Soil Survey, Government of the Peoples Republic of Bangladesh, 1976, p. 5.
[7] W. J. Vreeken, “Soil Variability in Small Loess Watersheds: Clay and Organic Matter Content,” Catena, Vol. 1, 1973, pp. 18l-195.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0341-8162(73)80010-4
[8] P. Sollins, C. C. Grier, F. M. McCorison, K. Cromack and D. Fogel, “The Internal Nutrient Budget of an Old Growth Douglas-Fir Ecosystem in Western Oregon,” Ecological Monographs, Vol. 50, 1980, pp. 261-285.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2937252
[9] G. M. Pierzynski, J. T. Sims and G. F. Vance, “Soils and Environmental Quality,” CRC Press LLC, USA, 2000.
[10] M. J. Singer and D. N. Munns, “Soils: An Introduction,” Prentice-Hall Inc., New Jersey, 1996, p. 270.
[11] M. Jakovljevic, M. Kresovic, S. Blagojevic and S. Antic-Mladenovic, “Some Negative Chemical Properties of Acid Soils,” Journal of the Serbian Chemical Society, Vol. 70, No. 5, 2005, pp. 765-774.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2298/JSC0505765J
[12] J. P. Boudot, T. Becquer, D. Merlet and J. Rouiller, “Aluminium Toxicity in Declining Forests: A General Overview with a Seasonal Assessment in a Silver Fir Forest in the Vosges Mountains (France),” Annals of Forest Science, Vol. 51, No. 1, 1994, pp. 27-51.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1051/forest:19940103
[13] G. Sposito, “The Environmetal Chemistry of Aluminium,” CRC Press LLC, USA, 1996.
[14] C. Gauthier, “Contribution to the Study of Fractionation of Free Aluminium in Solutions of Forest Soils. Influence of Quality and Nature of Organic Matter,” Faculté des Sciences et Techniques, Université de Limoges, 2002, p. 156.
[15] A. Van Wambeke, “Soil Moisture and Temperature Regimes of Asia,” Soil Conservation Service, USDA, SMSS Technical Monograph, No. 9, Washington DC, 1985.
[16] Soil Survey Staff, “Keys to Soil Taxonomy,” SMS Technical Monograph, No. 436, 1990.
[17] FAO, “Guidelines for Soil Description,” 4th Edition, FAO, Rome, 2006.
[18] P. R. Day, “Particle Fraction and Particle Size Analysis,” In: C. A. Black, Ed., Methods of Soil Analysis, Part 1, American Society of Agronomy, Madison, 1965, pp. 545567.
[19] C. A. Black, “Methods of Soil Analysis,” American Society of Agronomy, Inc. Publisher, Madison, 1965, pp. 894-895.
[20] A. Walkley and I. A. Black, “An Examination of the Degtjareff Method for Determining Soil Organic Matter and a Proposed Modification of the Chromic Acid Titration Method,” Soil Science, Vol. 37, No. 1, 1934, pp. 2938. http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00010694-193401000-00003
[21] Minitab Inc., “Minitab User’s Guide, Release 11,” Minitab, State College, 1996, p. 216.
[22] S. W. Boul and F. D. Hole, “Clay Skin Genesis in Wisconsin Soils,” Soil Science Society of America, Vol. 25, No. 5, 1961, pp. 377-379.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2136/sssaj1961.03615995002500050021x
[23] Soil Survey Staff, “Soil Taxonomy,” A Basic of Soil Classification for Making and Interpreting Soil Survey, USDA Handbook No. 436, Washington DC, 1999.
[24] FAO/ISRIC, “World References Base for Soil Resources,” World Soil Report, 2006, Rome, p. 128.
[25] Y. L. Lee, H. A. Osumanu, M. Nik Muhamad Ab and M. B. Jalloh, “Organic Matter, Carbon and Humic Acids in Rehabilitated and Secondary Forest Soils,” American Journal of Applied Sciences, Vol. 6, No. 5, 2009, pp. 824-828.
[26] R. D. Gupta, S. Arora, G. D. Gupta and N. M. Sumberia, “Soil Physical Variability in Relation to Soil Erodibility under Different Land Uses in Foothills of Siwaliks in N-W India,” Tropical Ecology, Vol. 51, No. 2, 2010, pp. 183-197.
[27] R. F. Harris, D. L. Karlen and D. J. Mulla, “A Conceptual Framework for Assessment and Management of Soil Quality and Soil Health,” In: J. W. Doran and A. J. Jones, Eds., Methods for Assessing Soil Quality, SSSA Special Publication 49, Madison, 1996, pp. 61-82.
[28] BARC, “Fertiliser Recommendation Guide for Most Bangladesh Crops,” Dhaka, Bangladesh Agricultural Research Council, 1985.
[29] M. S. H. Chowdhury, S. Biswas, S. M. S. Haque, N. Muhammed and M. Koike, “Comparative Analysis of Some Selected Macronutrients of Soil Orange Orchard and Degraded Forests in Chittagong Hill Tracts, Bangladesh,” Journal of Forest Research, Vol. 18, No. 1, 2007, pp. 2730. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11676-007-0005-0
[30] A. Gafur, C. B. Koch and O. K. Borsgaard, “Weathering Intensity Controlling Sustainability of Ultisols under Shifting Cultivation in the Chittagong Hill Tracts of Bangladesh,” Soil Science, Vol. 169, No. 9, 2004, pp. 663-674.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/01.ss.0000142632.80160.5b
[31] A. Gafur, O. K. Borggaard, J. R. Jensen and L. Petersen, “Changes in Soil Nutrient Content under Shifting Cultivation in the Chittagong Hill Tracts of Bangladesh,” Danish Journal of Geography, Vol. 100, No. 1, 2000, pp. 37-46.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00167223.2000.10649437
[32] A. Gafur, J. R. Jensen, O. K. Borggaard and L. Petersen, “Runoff and Losses of Soil and Nutrients from Small Watersheds under Shifting Cultivation (Jhum) in the Chittagong Hill Tracts of Bangladesh,” Journal of Hydrology, Vol. 279, 2003, pp. 293-309.
[33] M. H. Akbar, O. H. Ahmed, A. S. Jamaluddin, N. M. Nik Ab. Majid, H. Abdul-Hamid, S. Jusop, A. Hassan, K. H. Yusof and A. Abdu, “Differences in Soil Physical and Chemical Properties of Rehabilitated and Secondary Forests,” American Journal of Applied Sciences, Vol. 7, No. 9, 2010, pp. 1200-1209.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3844/ajassp.2010.1200.1209
[34] E. Yatnoa and S. Zauyahb, “Properties and Management Implications of Soils Formed from Volcanic Materials in Lembang Area, West Java,” Indonesian Journal of Agricultural Science, Vol. 9, No. 2, 2008, pp. 44-54.
[35] P. Kumar and T. S. Verma, “Characterization and Classification of Some Rice Growing Soils of Pal am Valley of Himachal Pradesh,” Agropedology, Vol. 15, No. 2, 2005, pp. 80-85.
[36] S. Shoji, Y. Fujiwara, I. Yamada and M. Saigusa, “Chemistry and Clay Mineralogy of Ando Soils, Brown Forest Soils, and Podzole Soils Formed from Recent Towada Ashes, Northeastern, Japan,” Soil Science, Vol. 133, No. 2, 1982, pp. 69-86.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00010694-198202000-00001
[37] M. M. Hassan, “Clay Mineralogy of Some Soils Developed on Alluvial Parent Materials in Bangladesh,” Journal of Bangladesh Academy of Sciences, Vol. 15, 1991, pp. 163-171.
[38] M. L. Alam, N. Miyauchi and A. Shinagawa, “Study on Clay Mineralogical Characteristics of Hill and Terrace Soils of Bangladesh,” Clay Science, Vol. 9, 1993, pp. 109-121.
[39] B. C. Dhananjaya and R. Ananthanarayana, “Soil Acidity and Exchange Chemistry in Soils of Southern Karnataka,” Agropedology, Vol. 19, No. 2, 2009, pp. 99-105.
[40] L. Mladkova, L. Boruvka and O. Drabek, “Distribution of Aluminium among Its Mobilizable Forms in Soils of the Jizera Mountains Region,” Plant, Soil and Environment, Vol. 50, No. 8, 2004, pp. 346-351.
[41] K. A. Shade, “Temporal Analysis of Floodplain Deposition Using Urban Pollution Stratigraphy,” Wilson’s Creek, SW Missouri, Master’s Thesis, Southwest Missouri State University, 2003.
[42] W. E. Rodgers, “Mercury Contamination of Channel and Floodplain Sediments in Wilson’s Creek Watershed,” Southwest Missouri, Master’s Thesis, Southwest Missouri State University, 2005.
[43] D. Hattori, J. Sabang, S. Tanaka, J. J. Kendawang and I. Ninomiya, “Soil Characteristics under Three Vegetation Types Associated with Shifting Cultivation in a Mixed Dipterocarp Forest in Sarawak, Malaysia,” Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, Vol. 51, No. 2, 2005, pp. 231-241.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1747-0765.2005.tb00027.x
[44] N. Tanskanen, “Aluminium Chemistry in Ploughed Podzolic Forest Soils,” Unpublished M. Sc. Dissertation, Department of Forest Ecology, Faculty of Agriculture and Forestry, University of Helsinki, Finland, 2006.
[45] B. Jansen, K. G. J. Nierop and J. M. Verstraten, “Mechanisms of Controlling the Mobility of Dissolved Organic Matter, Aluminium and Iron in Podzol B Horizons,” European Journal of Soil Science, Vol. 56, No. 4, 2005, pp. 537-550.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2389.2004.00686.x
[46] A. Amberger, “Soil Fertility and Plant Nutrition in the Tropics and Subtropics,” IFA/IPI, 2006, p. 96.
[47] H. Brix, “Soil Acidity,” 2008.
Protocol_Soil_Acidity_20081103.doc.
[48] B. T. Kang, M. Gichuru, N. Hulugalle and N. J. Swift, “Soil Constraints for Sustainable Upland Crop Production in Humid West Africa,” Proceedings of the International Symposium of Tropical Agriculture Research Centre, Tsukuba, 1991, pp. 101-112.
[49] E. Evans and E. J. Kamprath, “Lime Response as Related to Percent Al Saturation, Solution Al, and Organic Matter Content,” Soil Science Society of America Proceedings, Vol. 34, No. 6, 1970, pp. 893-896.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2136/sssaj1970.03615995003400060023x
[50] R. H. Fox, “Soil pH, Aluminum Saturation and Corn Grain Yield,” Soil Science, Vol. 127, No. 6, 1979, pp. 330-335.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00010694-197906000-00002
[51] S. Setiyono and G. Supardi, “Liming Acid Mineral Soils in Indonesia as a Precondition to Increase N-Efficiency,” In: B. T. Kang and J. van der Heide, Eds., Proceedings of the Symposium, Nitrogen Management in Farming Systems in Humid and Subhumid Tropics, Institute for Soil Fertility, Haren, 1985, pp. 185-198.
[52] T. Dierolf, T. Fairhurst and E. Mutert, “Soil Fertility Kit,” GTZ-GmbH, FAO, PT Jasa Katom, and PPI and PPIC, Oxford Graphic Printer, 2001.
[53] I. G. Dalovic, S. Dorde, D. S. Jockovic, J. Goran, G. J. Dugalic, G. F. Bekavac, B. Purar, S. I. Seremesic and M. D. Jockovic, “Soil Acidity and Mobile Aluminum Status in Pseudogley Soils in the Cacak-Kraljevo Basin,” Journal of the Serbian Chemical Society, Vol. 77, No. 6, 2012, pp. 833-843. http://dx.doi.org/10.2298/JSC110629201D
[54] O. Dengiz, C. Gol, S. Karaca and M. Yuksel, “Effects of Different Landscape Position and Parent Material on Soil Variability and Land Use in both Sides of Acicay RiverCankiri,” International Soil Meeting on Soil Sustaining Life on Earth, Managing Soil and Technology Proceedings, Sanliurfa, Vol. 2, 2006, pp. 745-751.

  
comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2018 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.