Share This Article:

Post-traumatic stress disorder among homeless adults in Poland: Prevalence and predictors

Abstract Full-Text HTML Download Download as PDF (Size:181KB) PP. 9-15
DOI: 10.4236/ojpsych.2014.41003    3,942 Downloads   6,254 Views   Citations

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Symptoms of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) have often been found in studies on homeless people, due to high rates of traumatic experiences. Most research on homelessness has been conducted in North America and Western Europe. However there are many social and cultural factors which can impact the prevalence and number of PTSD symptoms. AIMS: This study sought to determine the prevalence and predictors of trauma and PTSD symptoms among homeless adults in an Eastern European nation (Poland). METHOD: Randomly chosen residents of shelters were interviewed (N = 200). The respondents were asked about symptoms of PTSD, alcohol abuse/dependence, depression symptoms and perceived social support. RESULTS: The data indicated that 30% of the homeless sample were victims of traumatic events, 22% showed at least one PTSD symptom, and 7% met criteria for a lifetime diagnosis of PTSD. Symptoms of PTSD were the most common among those who had symptoms of alcohol abuse/ dependence and depression. CONCLUSION: The study’s findings support the need to attend to mental disorders such as PTSD when addressing the array of needs of homeless people.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Cite this paper

Bokszczanin, A. , Toro, P. , Hobden, K. and Tompsett, C. (2014) Post-traumatic stress disorder among homeless adults in Poland: Prevalence and predictors. Open Journal of Psychiatry, 4, 9-15. doi: 10.4236/ojpsych.2014.41003.

References

[1] Kushel, M.B., Evans, J.L., Perry S., Robertson, M.J. and Moss, A.R. (2003) No door to lock: Victimisation among homeless and marginally housed persons. Archives of International Medicine, 163, 2492-2499. http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/archinte.163.20.2492
[2] Buhrich, N., Hodder, T. and Teesson, M. (2000) Lifetime prevalence of trauma among homeless people in Sydney. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 34, 963-966.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/000486700270
[3] Ford, J.D. and Frisman, L. (2002) Traditional and complex PTSD in homeless parents and adults with chronic addictions. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies, 18, 57.
[4] Clarke, P.N., Williams, C.A., Percy, M.A. and Kim, Y.S. (1995) Health and life problems of homeless men and women in the Southeast. Journal of Community Health Nursing, 12, 101-110.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1207/s15327655jchn1202_4
[5] Bender, K., Ferguson, K., Thompson, S., Komlo, Ch. and Pollio, D. (2010) Factors associated with trauma and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder among homeless youth in three US cities: The importance of transience. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 23, 161-168.
[6] Kim, M.M. and Ford, J.D. (2006) Trauma and post-traumatic stress among homeless men: A review of current research. Journal of Aggression, Maltreatment & Trauma, 13, 1-22. http://dx.doi.org/10. 1300/J146v13n02_01
[7] Wenzel, S.L., Koegel, P. and Gelberg, L. (2000) Antecedents of physical and sexual victimization among homeless women: A comparison to homeless men. American Journal of Community Psychology, 28, 367-390. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1005157405618
[8] Sidorowicz, S., Sanecka, B., Slepecka, J. and Ruciński, K. (1986). Czy bezdomnosc jest problemem dla opieki psychiatrycznej? [Is homelessness a problem for mental health care?]. Psychiatria Polska, 4.
[9] Sidorowicz, S., Sanecka, B., Slepecka, J. and Ruciński, K. (1989) Alkoholizm wsród osób bezdomnych [Alcoholism among homeless]. In: Z. Bizoń and W. Szyszkowski, Eds., Zagadnienia Alkoholizmu i Innych Uzaleznień, Państwowe Wydawnictwo Naukowe, Warszawa.
[10] Stein, J.A., Dixon, E.L. and Nyamathi, A.M. (2008) Effects of psychosocial and situational variables on substance abuse among homeless adults. Psychology of Addictive Behavior, 22, 343-356. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0893-164X.22.3.410
[11] Yeater, E.A., Austin, J.L., Green, M.J. and Smith, J.E. (2010) Coping mediates the relationship between posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and alcohol use in homeless, ethnically diverse women: A preliminary study. Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy, 2, 307-310. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0021779
[12] Perron, B., Alexander-Eitzman, B., Gillespie, D.F. and Pollio, D. (2008) Modeling victimization among homeless persons with serious mental illnesses. Social Science and Medicine, 67, 1475-1479. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2008.07.012
[13] Barrera, M. (1986) Distinctions between social support concepts, measures, and models. American Journal of Community Psychology, 14, 413-445. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00922627
[14] Toro, P., Tulloch, E. and Ouellette, N. (2008) Stress, social support, and outcomes in two probability samples of homeless adults. Journal of Community Psychology, 36, 483-498. http://dx.doi.org/10. 1002/jcop.20190
[15] D?bski, M. and Olech, P. (2005) Socjodemograficzny portret zbiorowosci ludzi bezdomnych Województwa Pomorskiego (raport z badań). [Socio-demographic portrait of the homeless population from the Pomeranian province (Research Report)]. Gdańsk, Pomost.
[16] Szajerska, A. (2007) Reintegracja spoleczno zawodowa bezdomnych kobiet na przykladzie mieszkanek schronisk w województwie kujawsko-pomorskim w latach 2004-2006 [Professional and social reintegration of homeless women on the example of women living in shelters in Kujawsko-Pomorskie, in the years 2004-2006]. In: M. Debski and K. Stachura, Eds., Oblicza Bezdomnosci, 246-247. http://www.pfwb.org.pl/wp-content/uploads/2009/11/1.1.-Raport-BadanieSocjodemograficzne-2005-Samodzielnie.pdf
[17] Toro, P.A., Tompsett, C.J., Lombardo, S., Philippot, P., Nachtergael, H., Galand, B., Schlienz, N., Stammel, N., Yabar, Y., Blume, M., MacKay, L. and Harvey, K. (2007) Homelessness in Europe and North America: A comparison of prevalence and public opinion. Journal of Social Issues, 63, 505-524. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-4560.2007.00521.x
[18] Bokszczanin, A., Hobden, K.L. and Toro, P.A. (2006) Homelessness and public opinion: A comparison across four nations. Society for Community Research & Action 10th Biennial Conference 2005, Urbana, Poster Presentation.
[19] GUS, Departament Statystyki Spolecznej [Department of Social Statistics] (2007) Wyniki badań GUS. Podstawowe dane dotyczace rozwoju demograficznego Polski do 2006 roku [GUS Survey Results: Basic data on Polish demographic trends through 2006]. GUS, Warszawa.
[20] Watson, Ch., Tuba, M.P., Manifold, V., Kucala, T. and Anderson, P.E.D. (1991) The PTSD interview: Rationale, description, reliability, and concurrent validity of a DSMIII-based technique, Journal of Clinical Psychology, 47, 179-188. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/1097-4679(199103)47:2<179::AID-JCLP2270470202>3.0.CO;2-P
[21] Koniarek, J., Dudek, B. and Szymczak (2000) Kwestionariusz do pomiaru zaburzeń po stresie urazowym (H-PTSD) —Zastosowanie PTSD—Interview Ch. Watsona i jego wspólpracowników w badaniach grupowych. [Questionnaire to measure traumatic stress disorder after (H-PTSD), the use of PTSD-Interview Ch. Watson and his colleagues in the study group]. Przegl?d Psychologiczny, 43, 205-216.
[22] Dudek, B. (2003) Zaburzenie po stresie traumatycznym. [Posttraumatic stress disorder]. Gdańskie Wydawnictwo Psychologiczne, Gdańsk.
[23] Norris, F.H. and Hamblen, J. (2004) Standardized selfreport measures of civilian trauma and PTSD. In: J. P. Wilson, T. M. Keane and T. Martin, Eds., Assessing Psychological Trauma and PTSD, Guilford Press, New York.
[24] Toro, P.A. (1998) Homelessness. In: A. Bellack and M. Hersen, Eds., Comprehensive Clinical Psychology: Applications in Diverse Populations, Pergamon, New York, 119-135. http://dx.doi.org/10. 1016/B0080-4270(73)00165-6
[25] Derogatis, L.R. (1977) SCL-90-R (revised version) manual I. Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore.
[26] DeRoon-Cassini, T.A., Mancini, A.D., Rusch, M.D. and Bonanno, G.A. (2010) Psychopathology and resilience following traumatic injury: A latent growth mixture model analysis. Rehabilitation Psychology, 55, 1-11. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0018601
[27] Bates, D. and Toro, P. (1999) Developing measures to assess social support among homeless and poor people. Journal of Community Psychology, 27, 137-156. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1520-6629(199903)27:2<137::AID-JCOP3>3.0.CO;2-B
[28] Kulka, R.A., Schlenger, W.E., Fairbank, J.A., Jordan, B.K., Hough, R.L., Marmar, C.R. and Weiss, D.S. (1991) Assessment of posttraumatic stress disorder in the community: Prospects and pitfalls from recent studies of Vietnam veterans. Psychological assessment. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 3, 547-560.
[29] Ozer, E.J., Best, S.R., Lipsey, T.L. and Weiss, D.S. (2003) Predictors of posttraumatic stress disorder and symptoms in adults: A meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 129, 52-73. http://dx.doi.org/10. 1037/0033-2909.129.1.52
[30] Marra, J., McCarthy E., Lin, H., Ford, J.D., Rodis, E. and Frisman, L.K. (2009) Effects of social support and conflict on parenting among homeless mothers. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 79, 348-356. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0017241
[31] Shinn, M., Weitzman, B.C., Stojanovic, D., Knickman, J. R., Jimenez, L., Duchon, L., James, S. and Krantz, D.H. (1998) Predictors of homelessness among families in New York City: From shelter request to housing stability. American Journal of Public Health, 88, 1651-1657. http://dx.doi.org/ 10.2105/AJPH.88.11.1651

  
comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2018 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.