Share This Article:

The Social Ecology of Cervical Cancer: The Challenges to Pap Smear Screening

Abstract Full-Text HTML Download Download as PDF (Size:81KB) PP. 16-20
DOI: 10.4236/ijcm.2013.412A1004    3,578 Downloads   5,211 Views   Citations

ABSTRACT

Cervical cancer is a preventable disease. The risk factors for the development of cervical cancer include both biologic factors and social factors. In the United States, the leading risk factor for the development of cervical cancer is not having a Pap smear for five years prior to the diagnosis of cancer. In low and middle income countries, cervical cancer incidence and mortality are directly related to the lack of both screening programs and cancer treatment facilities. This paper examines the social ecology of cervical cancer. The literature is reviewed on social and cultural barriers to access to health care and its effect of cervical cancer rates and outcomes.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Cite this paper

A. Goodman, "The Social Ecology of Cervical Cancer: The Challenges to Pap Smear Screening," International Journal of Clinical Medicine, Vol. 4 No. 12A, 2013, pp. 16-20. doi: 10.4236/ijcm.2013.412A1004.

References

[1] ASCCP American Society of Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology, “Updated Consensus Guidelines for the Management of Abnormal Cervical Cancer Screening Tests, and Cancer Precursors,” 2012.
http://www.asccp.org/Guidelines/Updated-Consensus-Guidelines
[2] I. Brankovic, P. Verdonik and I. Klinge, “Applying a Gender Lens on Human Papillomavirus Infection: Cervical Cancer Screening, HPV DNA Testing, and HP Vaccination,” International Journal Equity Health, Vol. 12, No. 14, 2013, pp. 1-10.
http://www.equityhealthj.com/content/12/1/14
[3] C. M. Pierce Campbell, L. J. Menezes, E. D. Paskett and A. R. Giuliano, “Prevention of Invasive Cervical Cancer in the United States: Past, Present, and Future,” Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers Prevenetion, Vol. 21, No. 9, 2012, pp. 1402-1408.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-11-1158
[4] M. G. del Carmen and M. Avila-Wallace, “Effect of Health Care Disparities on Screening,” Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology, Vol. 56, No. 1, 2013, pp. 65-75.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/GRF.0b013e31827af75a
[5] A. C. Kronman, K. M. Freund, T. Heeren, K. A. Beaver, M. Flynn and T. A. Battaglia, “Depression and Anxiety Diagnoses Are Not Associated with Delayed Resolution of Abnormal Mammograms and Pap Tests among Vulnerable Women,” Journal of General Internal Medicine, Vol. 27, No. 4, 2012, pp. 452-457.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11606-011-1920-5
[6] A. Aggarwal, A. Pandurangi and W. Smith, “Disparities in Breast and Cervical Cancer Screening in Women with Mental Illness: A Systematic Literature Review,” American Journal Preventive Medicine, Vol. 44, No. 4, 2013, pp. 392-398.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.amepre.2012.12.006
[7] L. M. Niccolai, C. Russ, P. J. Julian, S. Hariri, J. Sinard, J. I. Meek, V. McBride, L. E. Markowitz, E. R. Unger, J. L, Hadler and L. E. Sosa. “Individual and Geographic Disparities in Human Papillomavirus Types 16/18 in High-Grade Cervical Lesions: Associations with Race, Ethnicity, and Poverty,” Cancer, Vol. 119, No. 16, 2013, pp. 3052-3058. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cncr.28038
[8] S. Tu. Jackson, S. L. Y. Yasui, M. Deschamps, T. G. Hislop and V. M. Taylor, “Cancer Preventive Screening: Across-Border Comparison of United States and Canadien Chinese Women,” Preventive Medicine, Vol. 41, No. 1, 2005, pp. 36-46.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ypmed.2005.01.005
[9] S. C. Chang, J. S. Woo, V. Yau, B. B. Gorzalka and L. A. Brotto, “Cervical Cancer Screening and Chinese Women: Insights from Focus Groups,” Frontiers in Psycholology, Vol. 4, No. 48, 2013。
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2013.00048
[10] A. M. Roncancio, K. K. Ward and M. E. Fernandez, “Understanding Cervical Cancer Screening Intentions among Latinas Using an Expanded Theory of Planned Behavior Model,” Behavioral Medicine, Vol. 39, No. 3, 2013, pp. 66-72. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08964289.2013.799452
[11] B. Elias, E. V. Kliewer, M. Hall, A. A. Demers, D. Turner, P. Martens, S. P. Hong, L. Hart, C. Chartrand and G. Munro, “The Burden of Cancer Risk in Canada’s Indigenous Population: A Comparative Study of Known Risks in a Canadian Region,” International Journal of General Medicine, Vol. 4, No. 4, 2011, pp. 699-709.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/IJGM.S24292
[12] J. D. Bellinger, H. M. Brandt, J. W. Hardin, S. A. Bynum, P. A. Sharpe and D. Jackson, “The Role of Family History of Cancer on Cervical Cancer Screening Behavior in a Population-Based Survey of Women in the Southeastern United States,” Women’s Health Issues, Vol. 23, No. 4, 2013, pp. e197-204.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.whi.2013.03.003
[13] X. Niu, L. M. Roche, K. S. Pawlish and K. A. Henry, “Cancer Survival Disparities by Health Insurance Status,” Cancer Medicine, Vol. 2, No. 3, 2013, pp. 403-411.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cam4.84
[14] C. R. Clark, N. Baril, A. Hall, M. Kunicki, N. Johnson, J. Soukup, S. Lipsitz and J. Bigby, “Case Management Intervention in Cervical Cancer Prevention: The Boston REACH Coalition Women’s Health Demonstration Project,” Progress in Community Health Partnerships, Vol. 5, No. 3, 2011, pp. 235-247.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1353/cpr.2011.0034
[15] T. L. Byrd, K. M. Wilson, J. L. Smith, G. Coronado, S. W. Vernon, M. E. Fernandez-Esquer, B. Thompson, M. Ortiz, D. Lairson and M. E. Fernandez, “AMIGAS: A Multicity, Multicomponent Cervical Cancer Prevention Trial among Mexican American Women,” Cancer, Vol. 119, No. 7, 2013, pp. 1365-1372.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cncr.27926
[16] K. P. Williams, L. Roman, C. I. Meghea, L. Penner, A. Hammad, J. Gardiner and S. M. Kin Keeper, “Design and Baseline Characteristics of a Community-Based Randomized Controlled Trial Promoting Cancer Screening in Black, Latina, and Arab Women,” Contemporary Clinical Trials, Vol. 34, No. 2, 2013, pp. 312-319.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cct.2012.12.005
[17] E. P. Simard, D. Naishadham, D. Saslow and A. Jemal, “Age-Specific Trends in Black-White Disparities in Cervical Cancer Incidence in the United States: 1975-2009,” Gynecologic Oncology, Vol. 127, No. 3, 2012, pp. 611-615. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ygyno.2012.08.021
[18] K. Ashing-Giwa and M. Rosales, “Evaluation of Therapeutic Care Delay among Latina- and European American Cervical Cancer Survivors,” Gynecologic Oncology, Vol. 128, No. 2, 2013, pp. 160-165.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ygyno.2012.11.015
[19] S. E. Wagner, D. M. Hurley, J. R. Hébert, C. McNamara, A. R. Bayakly and J. E. Vena, “Cancer Mortality-to-Incidence Ratios in Georgia: Describing Racial Cancer Disparities and Potential Geographic Determinants,” Cancer, Vol. 118, No. 16, 2012, pp. 4032-4045.
[20] N. Harcourt, R. G. Ghebre, G. L. Whembolua, Y. Zhang, S. Warfa Osman and K. S. Okuyemi, “Factors Associated with Breast and Cervical Cancer Screening Behavior Among African Immigrant Women in Minnesota,” Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10903-012-9766-4
[21] K. L. Gonzales, A. K. Harding, W. E. Lambert, R. Fu and W. G. Henderson, “Perceived Experiences of Discrimination in Health Care: A Barrier for Cancer Screening among American Indian Women with Type 2 Diabetes,” Women’s Health Issues, Vol. 23, No. 1, 2013, pp. e61-67.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.whi.2012.10.004
[22] K. J. Bennett, C. Pumkam, J. D. Bellinger and J. C. Probst, “Cancer Screening Delivery in Persistent Poverty Rural Counties,” Journal Primary Care Community Health, Vol. 2, No. 4, 2011, pp. 240-249.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2150131911406123
[23] C. M. Chang, Y. C. Su, N. S. Lai, K. Y. Huang, S. H. Chien, Y. H. Chang, W. C. Lian, T. W. Hsu and C. C. Lee, “The Combined Effect of Individual and Neighborhood Socioeconomic Status on Cancer Survival Rates,” PLoS One, Vol. 7, No. 8, 2012, Article ID: e44325.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0044325
[24] M. Farooqui, M. A. Hassali, A. Knight, A. A. Shafie, M. A. Farooqui, F. Saleem, N. U. Haq and H. Aljadhey, “A Qualitative Exploration of Malaysian Patients’ Perceptions of Cancer Screening,” BMC Public Health, Vol. 13 No. 48, 2013, pp. 1-7.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3564681/
[25] M. Lee, E. C. Park, H. S. Chang, J. A. Kwon, K. B. Yoo and T. H. Kim, “Socioeconomic Disparity in Cervical Cancer Screening among Korean Women: 1998-2010,” BMC Public Health, Vol. 13, No. 553, 2013, pp. 1-8.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3682861/pdf/1471-2458-13-553.pdf
[26] M. Rohani-Rasaf, M. Moradi-Lakeh, R. Ramezani and M. Asadi-Lari, “Measuring Socioeconomic Disparities in Cancer Incidence in Tehran, 2008,” Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention, Vol. 13, No. 6, 2012, pp. 2955-2960. http://dx.doi.org/10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.6.2955
[27] F. G. De Maio, B. Linetzky and D. Ferrante, “Changes in the Social Gradients for Pap Smears and Mammograms in Argentina: Evidence from the 2005 and 2009 National Risk Factor Surveys,” Public Health, Vol. 126, No. 10, 2012, pp. 821-826.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.puhe.2012.05.011
[28] D. P. Osborn, L. Horsfall, A. Hassiotis, I. Petersen, K. Walters and I. Nazareth, “Access to Cancer Screening in People with Learning Disabilities in the UK: Cohort Study in the Health Improvement Network, a Primary Care Research Database,” PLoS One, Vol. 7, No. 8, 2012, Article ID: e43841.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0043841
[29] G. Damiani, B. Federico, D. Basso, A. Ronconi, C. B. Bianchi, G. M. Anzellotti, G. Nasi, F. Sassi and W. Ricciardi, “Socioeconomic Disparities in the Uptake of Breast and Cervical Cancer Screening in Italy: A Cross Sectional Study,” BMC Public Health, Vol. 12, No. 99, 2012.

  
comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2018 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.