Share This Article:

Towards Energy Conservation in Qatar

Abstract Full-Text HTML Download Download as PDF (Size:3252KB) PP. 176-191
DOI: 10.4236/ojee.2013.24023    7,549 Downloads   10,494 Views   Citations
Author(s)    Leave a comment

ABSTRACT

Qatar energy consumptions are among the highest in the world, and can easily serve double the present population. Energy conservation is a must, as the energy resources are finite, and their consumptions are increasing at alarming rates. The country depends on desalted seawater, which consumes extensive amounts of energy, and is produced by using the least energy efficient desalting system. The desalination process is vulnerable to many factors, and strategic water storage needs to be built. The high energy consumptions are ruining the air and marine environments. Several suggestions are introduced to conserve energy in the Cogeneration Power Desalting Plants (CPDP), by moving to replace the Multi Stage Flash (MSF) desalting system by the energy efficient Seawater Reverse Osmosis System (SWRO); fully utilizing the installed power capacity to desalt water in winter, when electric power load is low, and during summer non-peak hours for strategic water storage; and modifying the simple Gas Turbines (GT) Power cycle plants to GT combined cycle to raise the Electric Power (EP) generation efficiency (to about 50%).

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Cite this paper

Darwish, M. (2013) Towards Energy Conservation in Qatar. Open Journal of Energy Efficiency, 2, 176-191. doi: 10.4236/ojee.2013.24023.

References

[1] “Initial National Communication to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change,” Ministry of Environment, State of Qatar 2010.
[2] Cia World Factbook and Other Sources, “Qatar Economy,” 2012.
http://www.theodora.com/wfbcurrent/qatar/qatar_economy.html
[3] “The GCC in 2020: Resources for the Future,” A Report from the Economist Intelligence Unit Sponsored by the Qatar Financial Centre Authority.
http://graphics.eiu.com/upload/eb/GCC_in_2020_Resources_WEB.pdf
[4] Qatar, Overview/Data.
http://www.eia.gov/countries/country-data.cfm?fips=QA
[5] BP Statistical Review of World Energy, 2012, bp.com/ Statistical Review.
http://www.bp.com/assets/bp_internet/globalbp/globalbp_uk_english/reports_and_publications/statistical_energy_review_2011/STAGING/local_assets/pdf/statistical_review_of_world_energy_full_report_2012.pdf
[6] G. Sarraf, W. Fayad, T. El Sayed and S.-P. Monette, “Unlocking the Potential of District Cooling, The Need for GCC Governments to Take Action,” Booz & Company, New York.
http://www.booz.com/me/home/thought_leadership_strategy/40007409/40007869/50737873
[7] Qatar Weather Averages.
http://www.worldweatheronline.com/Doha-weather-averages/Ad-Dawhah/QA.aspx
[8] Qatar General Electricity and Water Corp, (KAHRAMAA) Statistical Yearbooks 2007, 2008, and 2010.
[9] Annual Statistical Report 2010, Organization of Arab Petroleum Exporting Countries (OAPEC).
[10] Personal Communication with Dr. Youssef El Gendy from KAHRAMAA.
[11] QATAR—The Power Sector.
http://www.thefreelibrary.com/QATAR+-+The+Power+Sector.-a0265495758
[12] Hitachi Combustion Turbines.
http://www.hitachipowersystems.us/products/combustion_turbines/index.html
[13] A. S. Al Malki, “Business Opportunities in Water Industry in Qatar”.
http://www.siww.com.sg/pdf/Biz_Opps_in_Water_Industry_in_Qatar.pdf
[14] A. O. B. Amer, “Development and Optimization of METVC Desalination System,” Desalination, Vol. 249, No. 3, 2009, pp. 1315-1331.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.desal.2009.06.026
[15] A. A. Alsairafi, I. H. Al-Shehaima and M. Darwish, “Efficiency Improvement and Exergy Destruction Reduction by Combining a Power and a Multi-Effect Boiling Desalination Plant,” Journal of Engineering Research, Vol. 1, No. 1, 2013, pp. 289-315.
[16] Ras Abo Fontas B1.
http://globalenergyobservatory.org/geoid/5020
[17] Ras Abu Fontas “B” Power and Desalination Plant.
http://midmac.net/projects_details.asp?project_id=12&cat_id=9
[18] Ras Abu Fontas B-2.
http://globalenergyobservatory.org/geoid/5021
[19] Ras Abu Fontas A1.
http://www.impregilo.it/public/impregilo/en/engineering_key_current_projects.php?s=&d=&p=367
[20] Ras Abu Fontas Power Station.
http://www.panoramio.com/photo/1922664
[21] RasLaffan A.
http://globalenergyobservatory.org/geoid/5022
[22] RasLaffan B.
http://globalenergyobservatory.org/geoid/5023
[23] RasLaffan C.
http://globalenergyobservatory.org/geoid/42860
[24] Mesaieed CCGT Power Plant.
http://globalenergyobservatory.org/geoid/42859
[25] MED/TVC Desalination Plant Inaugurated in Qatar.
http://www.desalination.biz/news/news_story.asp?id=5939&title=MED/TVC+desalination+plant+inaugurated+in+Qatar
[26] RasQatras Energy Plant.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ras_Qartas_Energy_Plant
[27] Mesaieed Power Plant. MPCL-IBERDOLA INGENIERIA & CONSTRUCCION (Mesaieed).
http://wikimapia.org/13712833/Mesaieed-Power-Plant-MPCL-IBERDOLA-INGENIERIA-CONSTRUCCION
[28] Tri-Tech Infrastructure LLC, the Chinese company’s US Subsidiary, Was Awarded a US$8.3 Million Contract for the Seawater Desalination Unit for the Utility Plant of Qatar Petrochemical Co. Ltd. (QAPCO) at Mesaieed Industrial City in Doha.
http://www.desalination.biz/news/news_story.asp?id=6254&title=Qatar+MED%2FTC+desalination+plant+goes+to+Tri-Tech
[29] Qatar Population Surpassed 1.9 Million.
http://dohanews.co/post/42188848936/qatars-population-surpasses-1-9-million-three-years
[30] M. A. Darwish, et al., “Technical and Economical Comparison between Large Capacity Multi Stage Flash and Reverse Osmosis Desalting Plants,” Desalination, Vol. 72, No. 3, 1989, pp. 367-379.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0011-9164(89)80018-9
[31] J. Jiang, “The Price of Electricity in your State,” Planet Money.
http://www.npr.org/blogs/money/2011/10/27/141766341/the-price-of-electricity-in-your-state
[32] “Seawater Desalination Power Consumption,” White Paper, Water Reuse Association, 2011.
http://www.watereuse.org/sites/default/files/u8/Power_consumption_white_paper.pdf
[33] J. Tonner, “Desalination Trends,” Water Consultants International.
Siteresources.worldbank.org
EXTWAT/Resources/4602122-1213366294492/5106220-1213366309673/6.2JohnTonner_PPT_Desalination_Trends.pdf
[34] Water Desalination Using Renewable Energy, Technology Brief, International Renewable Energy Agency, IRENA.
http://search.fastaddressbar.com/web.php?s=Water+Desalination+Using+Renewable+Energy%2C+Technology+Brief&fid=65017
[35] Qatar to Get Solar-Powered Desalination Plant, 2012.
http://thepeninsulaqatar.com/qatar/216388-qatar-to-get-solar-powered-desalination-plant.htmlsiteresources.worldbank.org/EXTWAT/Resources/4602122-1213366294492/5106220-1213366309673/6.2JohnTonner_PPT_Desalination_Trends.pdf
[36] “CO2 Emissions (Metric Tons per Capita),” The World Bank. http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/EN.ATM.CO2E.PC
[37] “Electric Power Consumption (kWh per Capita),” The World Bank Data.
http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/EG.USE.ELEC.KH.PC
[38] C. McElroy, “Quenching Qatar’s Thirst,” Construction Week on line.com, by Cathal McElroy on April 7, 2012.
http://www.constructionweekonline.com/article-16307-quenching-qatars-thirst/1/
[39] Verity Ratcliffe Doha Shifts Focus to Water Security, Issue 2, 13-19 January 2012.
http://www.agentschapnl.nl/sites/default/files/bijlagen/MEED%20-%20Doha%20shifts%20focus%20to%20water%20security.pdf

  
comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2018 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.