Share This Article:

An Environmental Risk Evaluation Method Employing Atmospheric Dispersion Models and GIS

Abstract Full-Text HTML Download Download as PDF (Size:8079KB) PP. 1392-1408
DOI: 10.4236/jep.2013.412160    5,250 Downloads   8,449 Views   Citations

ABSTRACT

This study aims to develop a method for evaluating the environmental risk of harmful chemical substances released from specific sources, using two atmospheric dispersion models and GIS (Geographic Information Systems). In the first stage of evaluation, ADMER was used to conduct a wide-area evaluation which covered the entire area of the evaluation target region. In the second stage, METI-LIS was used to conduct a detailed limited-area evaluation which targeted the vicinity of sources. In this study, incinerators were selected as sources and dioxins were selected as harmful chemical substances. The area selected for evaluation was the Tokyo Metropolis in Japan, and the evaluation method proposed in this study was used to evaluate environmental risk. Through the use of atmospheric dispersion models and GIS, the behavior of dioxins emitted into the atmosphere from incinerators was estimated. By superimposing atmospheric levels and population data, the amounts of dioxins that humans exposed to were found. Additionally, by superimposing deposition amounts and land use data, the amounts of dioxins accumulated in each land environment were found. Conducting these steps enabled the impact of dioxins on humans and the environment to be grasped quantitatively and visually, and the risk that dioxins emitted from incinerators pose to the environment to be evaluated.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Cite this paper

M. Ishii and K. Yamamoto, "An Environmental Risk Evaluation Method Employing Atmospheric Dispersion Models and GIS," Journal of Environmental Protection, Vol. 4 No. 12, 2013, pp. 1392-1408. doi: 10.4236/jep.2013.412160.

References

[1] M. Kawashima, T. Tobe, A. Kaga, A. Kondo, Y. Inoue, D. Matsumoto and Y. Dong, “A Multimedia Model for the Evaluation of Environmental Behavior of Dioxins,” Annual Report of FY2004, the Core University Program between Japan Society for the Promotion of Science and Vietnamese Academy of Science and Technology, 2005, pp. 59-64.
[2] Ministry of the Environment, “Dioxin Behavior Model Handbook,” Ministry of the Environment, Tokyo, 2004.
[3] J. Nakanishi, S. Hanai and Y. Yoshida, “Entrance and exit Scenario and Criteria,” Maruzen Co., Ltd., Tokyo, 2008.
[4] H. Sasaki, F. Iimura, T. Tsukui, H. Yoshioka, Y. Sasaki, H. Ando and N. Kashiwagi, “Study on the Composition of Dioxins of Environment in Tokyo,” FY2004 Annual Report of the Tokyo Metropolitan Research Institute for Environmental Protection, 2004, pp.117-123.
[5] K. Higashino, T. Abe, T. Yamamoto, S. Hashimoto, N. Kashiwagi and Y. Sasaki, “Study of Estimating of Dioxin Source Contribution Using Chemical Mass Balance Method,” FY2007 Annual report of the Tokyo Metropolitan Research Institute for Environmental Protection, 2007, pp. 63-68.
[6] Ministry of the Environment, “Measures Concerning Dioxins,” 2012.
http://www.env.go.jp/chemi/dioxin/index.html
[7] K. Sato, Y. Shimizu, T. Suzuki, S. Kim, N. Masafumi and K. Hattori, “Spatial Distribution of Dioxins from Incineration Sources and Its Estimation Using Atmospheric Dispersion Model,” Journal of Environmental Instrumentation, Control and Automation, Vol. 9, No. 2, 2004, pp. 273-276.
[8] K. Sato, “Estimation of Stockpile, Origin and Outflow Behavior of Dioxins in the Basin,” Ph.D. Dissertation, Kyoto University, Kyoto, 2006.
[9] T. Teshima, S. Shibakawa, Y. Fujita, A. Matsumoto, N. Takeda and M. Takaoka, “Reduction of Dioxin Emissions by Retrofitting a Municipal Solid Waste Incinerator,” Journal of the Japan Society Waste Management Experts, Vol. 17, No. 4, 2006, pp. 281-292.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3985/jswme.17.281
[10] H. T. Trinh, “Spatial Distribution of Dioxin Plumes in the Vicinity of an Incinerator Using Air Dispersion Coupled Geostatistical Model,” Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Michigan, Michigan, 2009.
[11] G. Ripamonti, G. Lonati, P. Baraldi, F. Cadini and E. Zio, “Uncertainty Propagation in a Model for the Estimation of the Ground Level Concentration of Dioxin/Furans Emitted from a Waste Gasification Plant,” Reliability Engineering and System Safety, Vol. 111, No. 120, 2013. pp. 98-105. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ress.2013.05.012
[12] D. C. Ashworth, G. W. Fuller, M. B. Toledano, A. Font, P. Elliott, A. L. Hansell and K. Hoogh, “Comparative Assessment of Particulate Air Pollution Exposure from Municipal Solid Waste Incinerator Emission,” Journal of Environmental and Public Health, Vol. 2013, 2013, Article ID: 560342.
[13] J. A. Maantay, J. Tu and A. R. Marokoa, “Loose-Coupling an Air Dispersion Model and a Geographic Information System (GIS) for Studying Air Pollution and Asthma in the Bronx, New York City,” International Journal of Environmental Health Research, Vol. 19, No. 1, 2009, pp. 59-79.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09603120802392868
[14] Q. Chen, J. Sun and J. Liu, “Toxicity Prediction of Dioxins and Dioxin-Like Compounds Based on the Molecular Fragments Variable Connectivity Index,” Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, Vol. 87, No. 2, 2011, pp. 134-137. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00128-011-0316-x
[15] M. Onofrio, R. Spataro and S. Botta, “The Role of a Steel Plant in North-West Italy to the Local Air Concentrations of PCDD/FS,” Chemosphere, Vol. 82, No. 5, 2011, pp. 708-717. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2010.10.095
[16] X. Ma, X. Jiang, Y. Jin, H. Liu, X. Li, T. Chen and J. Yan, “Dispersion Modeling and Health Risk Assessment of Dioxin Emissions from a Municipal Solid Waste Incinerator in Hangzhou, China,” Journal of Zhejiang University—SCIENCE A (Applied Physics & Engineering), Vol. 13, No. 1, 2012, pp. 69-78.
[17] B. Zhang, F. Meng, C. Shi, F. Yang, D. Wen, J. Aronsson, P. K. Gbor and J. J. Sloan, “Modeling the Atmospheric Transport and Deposition of Polychlorinated Dibenzop-Dioxins and Dibenzofurans in North America,” Atmospheric Environment, Vol. 43, No. 13, 2009, pp. 2204-2212. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2009.01.004
[18] J. F. Viel, “GIS and Atmospheric Diffusion Modeling for Assessment of Individual Exposure to Dioxins Emitted from a Municipal Solid Waste Incinerator,” In: J. A. Maantay and S. McLafferty, Eds., Geospatial Analysis of Environmental Health, Springer Verlag, Berlin, 2011, pp. 443-456. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-94-007-0329-2_22
[19] S. Bunsan, W. Chen, H. Chen, Y. H. Chuang and N. Grisdanurak, “Modeling the Dioxin Emission of a Municipal Waste Incinerator Using Neural Networks,” Chemosphere, Vol. 92, No. 3, 2013, pp. 258-264.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2013.01.083
[20] X. Zeng, X. Zhang and Y. Wang, “QSPR Modeling of n-Octanol/Air Partition Coefficients and Liquid Vapor Pressures of Polychlorinated Dibenzo-p-Dioxins,” Chemosphere, Vol. 91, No. 2, 2013, pp. 229-232.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2012.12.060
[21] J. M. Armitage, M. S. McLachlan, K. Wiberg and P. Jonsson, “A Model Assessment of Polychlorinated Dibenzop-Dioxin and Dibenzofuran Sources and Fate in the Baltic Sea,” Science of the Total Environment, Vol. 407, No. 12, 2009, pp. 3784-3792.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2009.03.001
[22] C. K. Huang and J. Liang, “Effects of Basin Topography and Monsoon Conditions on Transport and Occurrence of Atmospheric PCDD/FS in the Taichung Basin,” Environmental Science and Pollution Research, Vol. 18, No. 8, 2011, pp. 1305-1315.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-011-0464-x
[23] H. S. Rifai, D. Lakshmanan and M. P. Suarez, “Mass Balance Modeling to Elucidate History and Continuing Sources of Dioxin into an Urban Estuary,” Chemosphere, Vol. 93, No. 2, 2013, pp. 480-486.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2013.06.016
[24] National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, “ADMER,” 2012.
http://www.aist-riss.jp/software/admer/ja/index_ja.html
[25] National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, “ADMER ver.2.5 Instruction Manual,” 2009.
[26] National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, “Detailed Risk Assessment Technical Guidance—Detailed Edition—No. 2. ADMER—Exposure/Risk Assessment Atmospheric Dispersion Model,” 2005.
[27] Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry, “Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry—Low-Rise Industrial Source Dispersion Model—METI-LIS Model ver.3.02—Instruction Manual,” 2012.
[28] Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry, “Manual for Method of Estimating Environmental Impact in the Vicinity of Sources Relating to Hazardous Air Pollutants (Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry—Low Rise Industrial Source Dispersion Model: METI-LIS) ver.3.02,” 2009.
[29] Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry, “Detailed Risk Assessment Technical Guidance—Detailed Edition—No. 3. Low-Rise Industrial Source Dispersion Atmospheric Level Estimation System (METI-LIS),” 2006.
[30] Committee to Investigate Measures for the Reduction of Dioxins Related to Waste Treatment, “Guidelines for the Prevention of the Occurrence of Dioxins Relating to waste Treatment, etc.: Dioxin Reduction Program,” 1997.
[31] Ministry of the Environment, “Inventory of Dioxin Emissions (Emissions Inventory),” 2001.
[32] Central Environment Council, “Report of the Advisory Committee for Environmental Standards for Dioxins Relating to Atmospheric Pollution,” 1999.
[33] Ministry of the Environment, “Manual for Soil Survey Measurements Relating to Dioxins,” 2009.
[34] M. Yasuhiko, “Small-Scale Incinerators,” Environmental Communications, Tokyo, 2004.
[35] Japan Environmental Management Association for Industry, “Explanation of METI-LIS Model Program,” 2001. http://www.jemai.or.jp/tech/meti-lis/analysis.html
[36] Bureau of Environment, Tokyo Metropolitan Government, “Results of the Survey on Dioxins in the Tokyo Metropolitan Environment,” 2012.
http://www.kankyo.metro.tokyo.jp/chemical/chemical/dioxin/result/report_2000.html

  
comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2018 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.