Share This Article:

Spatial Variation of Dissolved Nutrient and Heavy Metal Concentrations in River Bed Sediments as Influenced by Land-Use Patterns in Ogun-Osun River Basin, Nigeria

Abstract Full-Text HTML Download Download as PDF (Size:442KB) PP. 1203-1212
DOI: 10.4236/jep.2013.411138    4,618 Downloads   6,800 Views   Citations

ABSTRACT

Evaluation of levels and spatial characteristics of dissolved nutrients and heavy metals in the river bed sediment within a basin are critical to understanding the extent of land-use impact on the river systems. Surface river bed sediments across eight rivers in the Ogun-Osun River Basin in Nigeria were collected and analyzed for Total N, , Total P, Total organic carbon, Cd, Hg, Pb, Zn, Cu, Fe, Mn and Cr. Pollution Load Index (PLI), Accumulation Factor (AF) and Hierarchical Clustering Analysis (HCA) were used to identify the impact of the pollutants and also define the spatial variation across the basin. The pollution load indices of heavy metals were moderately high ranging from 0.41 - 0.60, while AFs were 0.43 - 2.00 and 0.61 - 1.29 for heavy metals and nutrients from upstream to downstream in the rivers systems, respectively. The HCA identified 7 distinct spatial patterns describing pollutant input from the land-use in the basin. Although, heavy metals contents were low in relation to the background values, and the potential for redistribution and secondary pollution was high hence, there was need to impose checks on the activities across agricultural, urban and grazing land-uses that had impact negatively on the river systems in the basin.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Cite this paper

A. Oke, A. Sangodoyin, K. Are and A. Adelana, "Spatial Variation of Dissolved Nutrient and Heavy Metal Concentrations in River Bed Sediments as Influenced by Land-Use Patterns in Ogun-Osun River Basin, Nigeria," Journal of Environmental Protection, Vol. 4 No. 11, 2013, pp. 1203-1212. doi: 10.4236/jep.2013.411138.

References

[1] F. S. Chapin III, S. Naeem, S. W. Pacala, J. Roy, W. L. Steffen, D. Tilman, O. E. Sala, I. C. Burke, J. P. Grime, D. U. Hooper, W. K. Lauenroth, A. Lombard, H. A. Mooney and A. R. Mosier, “Ecosystem Consequences of Changing Biodiversity,” BioScience, Vol. 48, No. 1, 1998, pp. 45-52. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1313227
[2] B. Kiersch, “Land Use Impacts on Water Resources: A Literature Review,” In: B. Kiersch and J. Faures, Eds., Land-Water Linkages in Rural Watershed, Proceedings of the Electronic Workshop Organized by FAO Land and Water Development Division, FAO, Rome, 2000, pp. 35-42.
[3] B. W. Bartl and O. Horak, “Long-Term Application of Bio Waste Compost versus Mineral Fertilization: Effects on the Nutrient and Heavy Metal Contents of Soil and Plants,” Journal of Plant Nutrition & Soil Science, Vol. 165, No. 2, 2002, pp. 165-171.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/1522-2624(200204)165:2<161::AID-JPLN161>3.0.CO;2-P
[4] S. Moussa, W. Qi-Tang, M. Ce-Hui and M. Jean-Louis, “Plant Grown on Sewage Sludge in South China and Its Relevance to Sludge Stabilization and Metal Removal,” Journal of Environmental Science, Vol. 15, No. 5, 2003, pp. 622-627.
[5] K. D. Awasthi, B. K. Sitaula, B. R. Singh and R. M. Bajacharava, “Land Use Change in Two Nepalese Watersheds,” Land Degradation and Development, Vol. 13, No. 6, 2002, pp. 495-513. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ldr.538
[6] I. R. Calder, “Water Resources and Land Use Issues,” SWIM Paper 3, IWMI, Colombo, 1998.
[7] E. D. Ongley, “Control of Water Pollution from Agriculture,” FAO Irrigation and Drainage Paper, Rome, 1996.
[8] H. Xiang, S. Mika, B. Duo and T. G. Egil, “Water Quality in the Tibetian Plateau: Metal Contents,” Environmental Pollution, Vol. 156, No. 2, 2008, pp. 270-277.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2008.02.014
[9] M. S. Sanja, S. D. Dragana, D. M. Dragan and S. P. Polic, “Assessment of Heavy Metal Pollutants Accumulation in the Tisza River Sediments,” Journal of Environmental Management, Vol. 90, No. 11, 2009, pp. 3382-3390.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2009.05.013
[10] P. Lilsa and S. Micheal, “Fluxes of As, Cu, Hg, Pb in Lake Sediment in the Coppermine River Basin Canada,” Nordic Hydrology, Vol. 38, No. 2, 2007, pp. 177-185.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2166/nh.2007.006
[11] G. B. Bird, P. A. Macklin, M. G. Balteanu, D. Driga, B. Serban and M. S. Zaharia, “The Solid State Partitioning of Contaminant Metals and As in River Channel Sediments of the Mining Affected Tisa Drainage Basin, Northwestern Romania and Eastern Hungary,” Applied Geochemistry, Vol. 18, No. 10, 2003, pp. 1583-1595.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0883-2927(03)00078-7
[12] H. M. V. M. Soares, R. A. R. Boaventura, A. A. S. C. Machado and J. C. G. Esteves da Silva, “Sediments as Monitors of Heavy Metal Contamination in the Ave River Basin Portugal: Multivariate Analysis of Data,” Environmental Pollution, Vol. 105, No. 3, 1999, pp. 311-323.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0269-7491(99)00048-2
[13] K. S. Are, A. O. Oke, O. Babalola, G. A. Oluwatosin, A. O. Adelana, A. O. Ojo and O. D. Adeyolanu, “Conservation Strategies for Effective Management of Eroded Landform: Soil Structural Quality, Nutrient Enrichment Ratio and Runoff Water Quality,” Soil Science, Vol. 176, No. 5, 2010, pp. 252-263.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/SS.0b013e3182172b1b
[14] Ogun Osun River Basin Authority, “OORBDA Publication,” 1996.
[15] A. Walkley and I. A. Black, “An Estimation of the Digestion Method for Determining Soil Organic Matter and a Proposed Modification of the Chromic Acid Titration Method,” Soil Science, Vol. 37, No. 1, 1934, pp. 29-38.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00010694-193401000-00003
[16] J. M. Bremner and C. S. Mulvaney, “Nitrogen Total,” In: A. L. Page, R. H. Miller and D. R. Keeny, Eds., Methods of Soil Analysis. II. Chemical and Microbiological Properties, Agronomy Monograph 9, 2nd Edition, Soil Science Society of America, Madison, 1982, pp. 595-624.
[17] J. Murphy and J. P. Riley, “A Modified Single Solution Method for Determination of Phosphorus in Natural Water,” Analytica Chimica Acta, Vol. 27, No. 1, 1962, pp. 31-36. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0003-2670(00)88444-5
[18] H. Agemian and A. S. Y. Chau, “Evaluation of Extraction Techniques for the Determination of Metals in Aquatic Se-diments,” Analyst, Vol. 101, No. 1207, 1976, pp. 761-767. http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/an9760100761
[19] D. A. Wunderlin, M. P. Diaz, M. V. Ame, S. F. Pesce, A. C. Hued and M. A. Bistoni, “Pattern Recognition Techniques for the Evaluation of Spatial and Temporal Variations in Water Quality. A Case Study: Suquia River Basin (Cordoba-Argentina),” Water Research, Vol. 35, No. 12, 2001, pp. 2881-2894.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0043-1354(00)00592-3
[20] K. P. Singh, A. Malik, D. Mohan and S. Sinha, “Multivariate Statistical Techniques for the Evaluation of Spatial and Temporal Variations in Water Quality of Gomti River (India)—A Case Study,” Water Research, Vol. 38, No. 18, 2004, pp. 3980-3992.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2004.06.011
[21] B. S. Shyamalendu, M. Abhijit, S. B. Bhattacharyya and C. Amalesh, “Status of Sediment with Special References to Heavy Metal Pollution of a Brackishwater Tidal Ecosystem in Northern Sundarbans of West Bengal,” Tropical Ecology, Vol. 42, No. 1, 2001, pp. 127-132.
[22] O. A. Aina, A. B. Taofeek and V. C. Azubike, “Spatial and Temporal Variations in Water and Sediment Quality of Ona River, Ibadan, Southwest Nigeria,” European Journal of Scientific Research, Vol. 74, No. 2, 2012, pp. 186-204.
[23] J. O. Agbenin, M. Danko and G. Welp, “Soil and Vegetable Compositional Relationships of Eight Potentially Toxic Metals in Urban Garden Fields from Northern Nigeria,” Journal of Science, Food and Agriculture, Vol. 89, No. 1, 2007, pp. 49-54.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.3409
[24] P. A. Sanchez, K. D. Shepherd, M. J. Soule, F. M. Place, R. J. Buresh and A. N. Izac, “Soil Fertility Replenishment in Africa: An Investment in Natural Resource Capital,” In: R. J. Buresh, P. A. Sanchez and F. Calhoun, Eds., Proceedings of an International Symposium Cosponsored by Divisions A-6 (International Agronomy) and S-4 (Soil Fertility and Plant Nutrition), and the International Center for Research in Agroforestry, Indianapolis.
[25] C. Deborah, “Water Quality Assessments—A Guide to Use of Biota, Sediments and Water in Environmental Monitoring,” UNESCO/WHO/UNEP, 1996, pp. 23-28.
[26] M. O. Jaji, O. Bamigbose, O. O. Odukoya and T. A. Arowolo, “Water Quality Assessment of Ogun River, South Western Nigeria,” Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, Vol. 133, No. 1-3, 2007, pp. 473-482.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10661-006-9602-1
[27] S. Surindra, K. N. Arvind, C. Mayiri and K. G. Sanjay, “Assessment of Metals in Water and Sediment of Hindon River, India: Impact of Industrial and Urban Discharges,” Journal of Harzadous Material, Vol. 171, No. 1-3, 2009, pp. 1360-1368.
[28] G. O. Kolawole and G. Tian, “Phosphorus Fraction and Crop Performance on an Alfisol Amended with Phosphate Rock Combined with or without Plant Residue,” African Journal of Biotechnology, Vol. 6, No. 16, 2004, pp. 1972-1978.
[29] K. Vuori, “Direct and Indirect Effects of Iron on River Ecosystem,” Annals of Zoology Fennici, Vol. 32, 1995, pp. 317-329.
[30] W. Davison and R. De Vitre, “Iron Particles in Freshwater,” In: J. Buffle and H. P. Van Leeuwen, Eds., Environmental Particles Vol. 1, Environmental Analytical and Physical Chemistry Series, 1992, pp. 315-355.
[31] D. Martincic, Z. Kwokal and M. Branica, “Distribution of Zinc, Lead, Cadmium and Copper between Different Size Fractions of Sediments I. The Limski Kanal (North Adriatic Sea),” Science of the Total Environment, Vol. 95, 1990, pp. 201-215.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0048-9697(90)90065-3
[32] F. W. Ruth and A. M. Mathew, “Environmental Engineering,” 4th Edition, Butterworth and Heineman, Elsevier Science, 2003.
[33] P. M. Nyenje, J. W. Foppen, S. Uhlenbrook, R. Kulabako and A. Muwanga, “Eutrophication and Nutrient Release in Urban Areas of Sub-Saharan Africa-A Review,” Science of Total Environment, Vol. 408, No. 3, 2010, pp. 447-455.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2009.10.020
[34] S. Shrestha and F. Kazama, “Assessment of Surface Water Quality Using Multivariate Statistical Techniques: A Case Study of the Fuji River Basin Japan,” Environmental Modelling and Software, Vol. 22, No. 4, 2007, pp. 464-475. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envsoft.2006.02.001

  
comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2018 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.