Share This Article:

Polyphenol extraction from grape wastes: Solvent and pH effect

Abstract Full-Text HTML Download Download as PDF (Size:158KB) PP. 56-62
DOI: 10.4236/as.2013.49B010    5,067 Downloads   7,980 Views   Citations

ABSTRACT

World wine industry transforms 10% - 25% of raw grapes into residues, mainly represented by lees, grape marcs, seeds and stems. These by-products are a rich source of polyphenols and therefore they can be used to produce new added value products. The aim of this work wasto determine the best process conditions(treatment time, % of ethanol and pH of the solvent)during solid-liquid extraction of polyphenolsfrom grape marcs, by analyzing the phenolic content of the extracts, namely: total polyphenol content, flavanols, flavonols, phenolic acids and anthocyanins. Antioxidant activity of the extracts was also determined. An extraction time of two hours was enough since longer times did not increase process yields. Best extraction yields were obtained for 75% ethanol solutions. Basic pH led to better yields in extracting media with low percentage of ethanol, whereas acid pH presented better extraction yields in extracting media with high percentage of ethanol. Among all the polyphenols extracted, anthocyanins were themost abundant representing over 40% of the total. In general, the best process conditions were 2 h ofextraction in a 75% EtOH liquid mixture at pH =2.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Cite this paper

M. Librán, C. , Mayor, L. , M. Garcia-Castello, E. and Vidal-Brotons, D. (2013) Polyphenol extraction from grape wastes: Solvent and pH effect. Agricultural Sciences, 4, 56-62. doi: 10.4236/as.2013.49B010.

References

[1] FAO (2013) Faostat webpage. http://faostat.fao.org
[2] Hwang, J.Y., Shyu, Y.S. and Hsu, C.K. (2009) Grape wine lees improves the rheological and adds antioxidant properties to ice cream. LWT-Food Science and Technology, 42, 312-318. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lwt.2008.03.008
[3] Hidalgo, J. (2003) Tratado de enología, tomos I y II. Mundiprensa, Madrid, Spain.
[4] Spigno, G. and De Faveri, D.M. (2007) Antioxidants from grape stalks and marc: Influence of extraction procedure on yield, purity and antioxidant power of the extracts. Journal of Food Engineering, 78, 793-801. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2005.11.020
[5] Anastasiadis, M., Pratsinis, H., Kletsas, D., Skaltsounis, A.L. and Haroutounian, S.A. (2012) Grape stem extracts: Polyphenolic content and assessments of their in vitro antioxidant properties. LWT-Food Science and Technology, 48, 316-322. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lwt.2012.04.006
[6] Amendola, D., De Faveria, D.M. and Spigno, G. (2010) Grape marc phenolics: Extraction kinetics, quality and stability of extracts. Journal of Food Engineering, 97, 384-392. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2009.10.033
[7] Spigno, G., Tramelli, L. and De Faveri, D.M. (2007) Ef- fects of extraction time, temperature and solvent on concentration and antioxidant activity of grape marc phenolics. Journal of Food Engineering, 81, 200-208. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2006.10.021
[8] Yilmaz, Y. and Toledo, R.T. (2004) Health aspects of functional grape seed constituents. Trends in Food Science and Technology, 15, 422-433. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tifs.2004.04.006
[9] EFSA (2012) Scientific opinion on the re-evaluation of butylated hydroxytoluene BHT (E 321) as a food additive. EFSA Journal, 10, 2588 (43p).
[10] Bucic-Kojic, A., Planinic, M., Tomas, S., Bilic, M. and Velic, D. (2006) Study of solid-liquid extraction kinetics of total polyphenols from grape seeds. Journal of Food Engineering, 81, 236-242. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2006.10.027
[11] Pinelo, M., Sineiro, J. and Núñez, M.J. (2006) Mass transfer during continuous solid-liquid extraction of anti-oxidant from grape by-products. Journal of Food Engineering, 77, 57-63. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2005.06.021?
[12] Ma-kris, D.P., Boskou, G. and Andrikopoulos, N.K. (2007) Polyphenolic content and in vitro antioxidant characteristics of wine industry and other agri-food solid waste extracts. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis, 20, 125-132. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jfca.2006.04.010
[13] Metivier, R.P., Francis, F.J. and Clydesdale, F.M. (1980) Solvent extraction of anthocyanins from wine pomace. Journal of Food Science, 45, 1099-1100. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2621.1980.tb07534.x
[14] Vatai, T., Skerget, M. and Knez, Z. (2009) Extraction of phenolic compounds from elder berry and different grape marc varieties using organic solvents and/or supercritical carbon dioxide. Journal of Food Engineering, 90, 246- 254. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2008.06.028
[15] Ge-selma, W.J., Deligny, C.L. and Blijleve, H.A. (1967) PH measurements in alcohol water mixtures. On use of standard buffer solutions for calibration. Recueil des Travaux Chimiques des Pays-Bas, 86, 852-859.
[16] Bates, R.G., Baabo, R.G. and Robinson, R.A. (1963) Interpretation of pH measurements in alcohol-water solvents. Journal of Physical Chemistry, 67, 1833-1838. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/j100803a022
[17] Montgomery, D.C. (2005) Design and analysis of experiments. 6th Edition, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New Jersey.
[18] Arnous, A., Makris, D.P. and Kefalas, P. (2001) Effects of principal polyphenolics components in relation to anti-oxidant characteristics of aged red wines. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 49, 5736-5742. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jf010827s
[19] Poudel, P.R., Tamura, H., Kataoka, I. and Mochioka, R. (2008) Phenolic compounds and antioxidant activities of skins and seeds of five wild grapes and two hybrids native to Japan. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis, 21, 622-625. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jfca.2008.07.003
[20] Cacace, J.E. and Mazza. G. (2003) Optimization of ex- traction of anthocyanins from black currants with aqueous ethanol. Journal of Food Science, 68, 240-248. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2621.2003.tb14146.x
[21] Ribéreau-Gayon, P. (1982) The anthocyanins of grapes and wines. In: Markakis, P., Ed., Anthocyanins as Food Colors, Academic Press, New York, 209-244.
[22] Sánchez M., Sineiro, J. and Núñez, M.J. (2008) Extraction of polyphenols from white distilled grape pomace: Optimization and modeling. Bioresource Technology, 99, 1311-1318. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2007.02.009
[23] Sant’Anna, V., Brandelli, A., Marczak, L.D.F. and Tessaro, I.C. (2012) Kinetic modeling of total polyphenol extraction from grape marc and characterization of the extracts. Separation and Purification Technology, 100, 82-87. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.seppur.2012.09.004
[24] Karvela, E., Makris, D.P., Kalogeropoulos, N., Karathanos, V.T. and Kefalas, P. (2009) Factorial design optimization of grape (Vitis vinífera) seed polyphenol extraction. European Food Research and Technology, 229, 731-742. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00217-009-1105-1

  
comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2018 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.