Share This Article:

Second Language Acquisition: Reconciling Theories

Abstract Full-Text HTML Download Download as PDF (Size:189KB) PP. 404-412
DOI: 10.4236/ojapps.2013.37050    19,225 Downloads   33,773 Views   Citations
Author(s)    Leave a comment

ABSTRACT

This article argues that previous attempts to explain SLA should not be disregarded. Instead, when they are put together, they provide a broader and deeper view of the acquisition process. There is evidence to support the claim that second language acquisition (SLA) is a complex adaptive system due to its inherent ability to adapt to different conditions present in both internal and external environments. Based on this understanding, widely discussed second language theories, including behaviorism, will be treated as explanations of parts of a whole, since each captures a different aspect of SLA. In order to justify this assumption, excerpts from some English language learning histories are provided to exemplify how learners describe their learning processes. The final claim is that SLA should be seen as a chaotic/complex system.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Cite this paper

V. Menezes, "Second Language Acquisition: Reconciling Theories," Open Journal of Applied Sciences, Vol. 3 No. 7, 2013, pp. 404-412. doi: 10.4236/ojapps.2013.37050.

References

[1] D. Larsen-Freeman and M. H. Long, “An Introduction to Second Language Acquisition Research,” Longman, New York, 1991.
[2] M. Johnson, “A Philosophy of Second Language Acquisition,” Yale University Press, New Haven, 2004.
[3] J. H. Schumann, “The Acculturation Model for Second Language Acquisition”, In: R. C. Gingras, Ed., Second Language Acquisition and Foreign Language Teaching, Center for Applied Linguistics, Washington, 1978, pp. 27-50.
[4] N. A. Chomsky. “Reflections on Language,” Pantheon, New York, 1976.
[5] L. White, “Second Language Acquisition and Universal Grammar,” Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2003. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511815065
[6] R. Mitchell and F. Myles, “Second Language Learning Theories,” 2nd Edition, Arnold, London, 2004.
[7] S. D Krashen, “The Monitor Model for Second Language Acquisition,” In: R. C. Gingras, Ed., Second language acquisition & Foreign language teaching, Center for Applied Linguistics, Washington, 1987, pp. 1-26.
[8] S. D. Krashen, “The Input Hypothesis: Issues and Implications,” Longman, London, 1985.
[9] S. D. Krashen, “Applying the Comprehension Hypothesis: Some Suggestions,” Paper Presented at 13th International Symposium and Book Fair on Language Teaching (English Teachers Association of the Republic of China), Tai pei, 13 November 2004. http://www.sdkrashen.com/articles/eta_paper/index.html
[10] V. Cook, “Linguistics and Second Language Acquisition,” St. Martin’s Press, New York, 1993.
[11] E. M. Hatch, “Discourse Analysis and Language Acquisition,” In: E. M. Hatch, Ed., Second Language Acquisition: A Book of Readings, Newbury House, Rowley, 1978, pp. 401-435.
[12] M. H. Long, “Input, Interaction and Second Language Acquisition,” In: H. Winitz, Ed., Native Language and Foreign Language Acquisition Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 379, New York Academy of Sciences, New York, 1981, pp. 259-278.
[13] M. H. Long, “The Role of the Linguistic Environment in Second Language Acquisition,” In: W. Ritchie and T. Bhatia, Eds., Handbook of Second Language Acquisition, Academic Press, San Diego, 1996, pp. 413-468.
[14] M. Swain, “Three Functions of Output in Second Language Learning,” In: G. Cook and B. Seidlhofer, Eds., Principle and Practice in Applied Linguistics Studies in Honour of H. G. Widdowson, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1995, pp. 125-44.
[15] M. Swain, “Communicative Competence: Some Roles of Comprehensible Input and Comprehensible Output in Its Development,” In: S. M. Gass and C. G. Madden, Eds., Input in Second Language Acquisition, Newbury House, Rowley, 1985, pp. 235-53.
[16] M. Swain, “Languaging, Agency and Collaboration in Advanced Second Language Learning,” In: H. Byrnes, Ed., Advanced Language Learning: The Contributions of Halliday and Vygotsky, Continuum, London, 2006. pp. 95-108.
[17] M. Swain and M. Lapkin, “Problems in Output and the Cognitive Processes They Generate: A Step towards Second Language Learning,” Applied Linguistics, Vol. 16, No. 3, 1995, pp. 371-391. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/applin/16.3.371
[18] J. Lantolf and S. Thorne, “Sociocultural Theory and Second Lnguage lLearning,” In: B. VanPatten and J. Williams, Eds., Theories in Second Language Acquisition: An Introduction, Lawrence Erlbaum, Mahwah, 2007, pp. 201-224.
[19] J. L, Elman, et al., “Rethinking Innateness: A Connectionist Perspective on Development,” MIT Press, Cambridge, 1996.
[20] D. E. Rumelhart, P. Smolensky, J. L. McClelland and G. E. Hinton, “Schemata and Sequential Thought Processes in PDP Models,” In: D. E. Rumelhart, J. L. Mcclelland and the PDP Research Group, Eds., Parallel Distributed Processing: Explorations in the Microstructure of Cognition, Vol. 2, Psychological and Biological Models, MIT Press, Cambridge, 1986, pp. 8-57.
[21] N. Ellis, “The Associative-Cognitive CREED,” In: B. van Patten and J. Williams, Eds., Theories in Second Language Acquisition: An Introduction, Lawrence Erlbaum, Mahwah, 2007, pp. 77-95.
[22] N. Ellis, “Emergentism, Connectionism and Language learning,” Language Learning, Vol. 48, No. 4 1998, pp. 631-664. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/0023-8333.00063
[23] D. Larsen-Freeman, “Chaos/Complexity Science and Second Language Acquisition,” Applied Linguistics, Vol. 18, No. 2, 1997, pp. 141-165. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/applin/18.2.141
[24] D. Larsen-Freeman, “Second Language Acquisition and Applied Linguistics,” Annual Review of Applied Linguistics, Vol. 20, 2000, pp. 165-181. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S026719050020010X
[25] S. Thornbury, “Uncovering Grammar,” Macmillan Heinemann, London, 2011.
[26] L. Van Lier, “Interaction in the Language Curriculum: Awareness, Autonomy, and Authenticity,” Longman, London, 1996.
[27] D. Larsen-Freeman and L. Cameron, “Complex Systems and Applied Linguistics,” Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2008.
[28] C. Ockerman, “Facilitating and Learning at the Edge of Chaos: Expanding the Context of Experiential Education,” Proceedings of the AEE International Conference, 1997. http://eric.ed.gov/id=ED414142
[29] D. Kirshbaum, “Introduction to Complex System,” 2002. http://www.calresco.org/intro.htm#eme
[30] D. L. Gilstrap, “Strange Attractors and Human Interaction: Leading Complex Organizations through the Use of Metaphors,” Complicity, Vol. 2, No. 1, 2005, pp. 55-69. http://ejournals.library.ualberta.ca/index.php/complicity/article/view/8727
[31] V. L. M. O. Paiva, “Modelo Fractal de Aquisião de Línguas,” In: F. C. Bruno, Ed., Reflexão e Prática em Ensino/Aprendizagem de Língua Estrangeira, Editora Clara Luz, São Paulo, 2005, pp. 23-36.

  
comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2018 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.