Share This Article:

Oral Cancer: Health Promotion and Visual Screening
—A Study Report

Abstract Full-Text HTML Download Download as PDF (Size:592KB) PP. 1313-1320
DOI: 10.4236/jct.2013.48155    4,419 Downloads   5,908 Views  

ABSTRACT

Background: Oral cancer presents a heterogeneous geographic incidence. Annually, more than 275,000 new cases are diagnosed worldwide. In spite of the easy accessibility of oral cavity during physical examination, most malignancies are not diagnosed until late stages of disease. Methods: Oral health promotion was our main objective, risk factors were identified and oral cavity self-examination was promoted. The population considered (n = 1117) was divided in two main age groups—a youngest (individuals under 25 years old) mostly targeted for oral cancer awareness and oral cavity self examination promotion, and an older group having accumulated potential risk exposure. Results: The results obtained revealed smoking habits and fruits-vegetables consumption deficit as the highest risks factors found. Considering a Risk Factor Exposure Index analysis, individuals with secondary level of instruction and living in sub-urban areas assumed the highest risk exposure. Alcohol consumption had also contributed as a significant risk exposure. Conclusions: Some of these risk factors work as biological reward of quality of life deficit. A wide comprehension of the problem requires a multidisciplinary approach necessarily involving Health and Social Sciences in order to target the core of oral cancer health promotion. An effective epidemiological strategy must thus support three major aspects: population knowledge, sensitization and visual screening.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Cite this paper

A. Silveira, A. Marques, M. Pavão, E. Monteiro, G. Pereira, J. Gonçalves, L. Castro, M. Guimarães, B. Carvalho, C. Ribeiro and T. Sequeira, "Oral Cancer: Health Promotion and Visual Screening
—A Study Report," Journal of Cancer Therapy, Vol. 4 No. 8, 2013, pp. 1313-1320. doi: 10.4236/jct.2013.48155.

References

[1] S. Warnakulasuriya, “Living with Oral Cancer: Epidemiology with Particular Reference to Prevalence and Life-Style Changes That Influence Survival,” Oral Oncology, Vol. 46, No. 6, 2010, pp. 407-410. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.oraloncology.2010.02.015
[2] D. M. Saman, “A Review of the Epidemiology of Oral and Pharyngeal Carcinoma: Update,” Head & Neck Oncology, Vol. 4, No. 1, 2012, p. 1.
[3] D. Kademani, “Oral Cancer,” Mayo Clinic Proceedings, Vol. 82, No. 7, 2007, pp. 878-887.
http://dx.doi.org/10.4065/82.7.878
[4] A. Zini, R. Czerninski and H. D. Sgan-Cohen, “Oral Cancer over Four Decades: Epidemiology, Trends, Histology, and Survival by Anatomical Sites,” Journal of Oral Pathology & Medicine, Vol. 39, No. 4, 2010, pp. 299-305. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0714.2009.00845.x
[5] P. Sharma, S. Saxena and P. Aggarwal, “Trends in the Epidemiology of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma in Western UP: An Institutional Study,” Indian Journal of Dental Research, Vol. 21, No. 3, 2010, pp. 316-319. http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0970-9290.70782
[6] B. Y. Goldstein, S-C. Chang, M. Hashibe, C. La Vecchia and Z-F. Zhang, “Alcohol Consumption and Cancer of the Oral Cavity and Pharynx from 1988 to 2009: An Update,” European Journal of Cancer Prevention, Vol. 19, No. 6, 2010, pp. 431-465. http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/CEJ.0b013e32833d936d
[7] M. Gorsky, J. B. Epstein, C. Oakley, N. D. Le, J. Hay and P. Stevenson-Moore, “Carcinoma of the Tongue: A Case Series Analysis of Clinical Presentation, Risk Factors, Staging, and Outcome,” Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology, Oral Radiology and Endodontology, Vol. 98, No. 5, 2004, pp. 546-552. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tripleo.2003.12.041
[8] M. Bonifazi, M. Malvezzi, P. Bertuccio, et al., “Age-Period-Cohort Analysis of Oral Cancer Mortality in Europe: The End of an Epidemic?” Oral Oncology, Vol. 47, No. 5, 2011, pp. 400-407.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.oraloncology.2010.06.010
[9] T. Rodriguez, A. Altieri, L. Chatenoud, et al., “Risk Factors for Oral and Pharyngeal Cancer in Young Adults,” Oral Oncology, Vol. 40, No. 2, 2004, pp. 207-213. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.oraloncology. 2003.08.014
[10] G. C. Kabat, C. J. Chang and E. L. Wynder, “The Role of Tobacco, Alcohol Use, and Body Mass Index in Oral and Pharyngeal Cancer,” International Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 23, No. 6, 1994, pp. 1137-1144. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ije/23.6.1137
[11] C. Bosetti, S. Gallus, W. Garavello and C. La Vecchia, “Smoking Cessation and the Risk of Oesophageal Cancer: An Overview of Published Studies,” Oral Oncology, Vol. 42, No. 10, 2006, pp. 957-964. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.oraloncology.2006.03.007
[12] S. Petti and C. Scully, “Oral Cancer: The Association between Nation-Based Alcohol-Drinking Profiles and Oral Cancer Mortality,” Oral Oncology, Vol. 41, No. 8, 2005, pp. 828-834.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.oraloncology.2005.04.004
[13] J. H. Meurman, “Infectious and Dietary Risk Factors of Oral Cancer,” Oral Oncology, Vol. 46, No. 6, 2010, pp. 411-413. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.oraloncology.2010.03.003
[14] J. H. Meurman and J. Uittamo, “Oral Micro-Organisms in the Etiology of Cancer,” Acta Odontologica Scandinavica, Vol. 66, No. 6, 2008, pp. 321-326. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00016350802446527
[15] S. G. Fitzpatrick and J. Katz, “The Association between Periodontal Disease and Cancer: A Review of the Literature,” Journal of Dentistry, Vol. 38, No. 2, 2010, pp. 83-95. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/ j.jdent.2009.10.007
[16] Z. Nugent, “Periodontal Disease May Be Associated with Oral and Gastrointestinal Cancer,” Journal of Evidence Based Dental Practice, Vol. 10, No. 4, 2010, pp. 223-224. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/ j.jebdp.2010.09.012
[17] American Institute for Cancer Research, “World Cancer Research Fund: Food, Nutrition, Physical Activity, and the Prevention of Cancer: A Global Perspective,” AICR, Washington DC, 2007.
[18] S. C. Chuang, M. Jenab, J. E. Heck, et al., “Diet and the Risk of Head and Neck Cancer: A Pooled Analysis in the INHANCE Consortium,” Cancer Causes Control, Vol. 23, No. 1, 2012, pp. 69-88. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10552-011-9857-x
[19] P. Latino-Martel, N. Druesne-Pecollo and A. Dumond, “Nutritional Factors and Oral Cancers,” Revue de Stomatologie et de Chirurgie Maxillo-Faciale, Vol. 112, No. 3, 2011, pp. 155-159.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.stomax.2011.04.002
[20] E. Lucenteforte, W. Garavello, C. Bosetti and C. La Vecchia, “Dietary Factors and Oral and Pharyngeal Cancer Risk,” Oral Oncology, Vol. 45, No. 6, 2009, pp. 461-467. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/ j.oraloncology.2008.09.002
[21] M. Paiva, C. Pileggi, C. Nobile and I. Angelillo, “Association between Fruit and Vegetable Consumption and Oral Cancer: A Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies,” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 83, 2006, pp. 1126-1134.
[22] X. Marichalar-Mendia, M. J. Rodriguez-Tojo, A. Acha-Sagredo, N. Rey-Barja and J. M. Aguirre-Urizar, “Oral Cancer and Polymorphism of Ethanol Metabolising Genes,” Oral Oncology, Vol. 46, No. 1, 2010, pp. 9-13. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.oraloncology.2009.09.005
[23] R. Sankaranarayanan, K. Ramadas, G. Thomas, et al., “Effect of Screening on Oral Cancer Mortality in Kerala, India: A Cluster-Randomised Controlled Trial,” The Lancet, Vol. 365, No. 9475, 2005, pp. 1927-1933. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(05)66658-5
[24] K. Ramadas, S. Arrossi, S. Thara, et al., “Which Socio-Demographic Factors Are Associated with Participation in Oral Cancer Screening in the Developing World? Results from a Population-Based Screening Project in India,” Cancer Detection and Prevention, Vol. 32, No. 2, 2008, pp. 109-115. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cdp.2008.02.008
[25] K. J. Elango, N. Anandkrishnan, A. Suresh, S. K. Iyer, S. K. RamaIyer and M. A. Kuriakose, “Mouth Self-Examination to Improve Oral Cancer Awareness and Early Detection in a High-Risk Population,” Oral Oncology, Vol. 47, No. 7, 2011, pp. 620-624. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.oraloncology.2011.05.001
[26] L. Calabrese, A. Ostuni, M. Ansarin, G. Giugliano, F. Maffini, D. Alterio, M. C. Rocca, G. Petralia, R. Bruschini and F. Chiesa, “On Behalf of AROME: Future Challenges in Head and Neck Cancer: From the Bench to the Bedside?” Critical Reviews in Oncology/Hematology, Vol. 84, No. 1, 2012, pp. e90-e96. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.critrevonc.2010.11.001
[27] A. Borges, F. Marques, J. Lima, et al., “Smoking Habits of Sixth Year Medical Students and Anti-Smoking Measures in Portugal,” Revista Portuguesa de Pneumologia (English Edition), Vol. 14, No. 3, 2008, pp. 379-390.
[28] A. Borges, F. Marques, J. Lima, et al., “Smoking Habits of Sixth Year Medical Students and Anti-Smoking Measures in Portugal,” Revista Portuguesa de Pneumologia (English Edition), Vol. 14, No. 2, 2008, pp. 219-230.
[29] S. Petti and C. Scully, “Determinants of Oral Cancer at the National Level: Just A Question of Smoking and Alcohol Drinking Prevalence?” Odontology, Vol. 98, No. 2, 2010, pp. 144-152. http://dx.doi.org/ 10.1007/s10266-010-0133-4
[30] A. Silveira, J. Goncalves, T. Sequeira, et al., “Head and Neck Cancer: Health Related Quality of Life Assessment Considering Clinical and Epidemiological Perspectives,” Revista Brasileira de Epidemiologia, Vol. 15, No. 1, 2012, pp. 38-48. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1415-790X20120001000 04
[31] A. Silveira, J. Goncalves, T. Sequeira, et al., “Geriatric Oncology: Comparing Health Related Quality of Life in Head and Neck Cancer Patients,” Head & Neck Oncology, Vol. 3, 2011, p. 3.
[32] L.-S. Lin, D.-M. Wu, H.-R. Lai, Z.-P. Shi and N.-F. Chu, “Influence of Knowledge and Attitudes on Smoking Habits Among Young Military Conscripts in Taiwan,” Journal of the Chinese Medical Association, Vol. 73, No. 8, 2010, pp. 411-418. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1726-4901(10)70089-7
[33] L. Clancy, “Progress in Tobacco Control,” Health Policy, Vol. 91, No. 1, 2009, pp. S3-S14.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0168-8510(09)70003-X
[34] R. M. John, “Tobacco Consumption Patterns and Its Health Implications in India,” Health Policy, Vol. 71, No. 2, 2005, pp. 213-222. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.healthpol.2004.08.008
[35] B. N. Ames, “DNA Damage from Micronutrient Deficiencies Is Likely to Be a Major Cause of Cancer,” Mutation Research/Fundamental and Molecular Mechanisms of Mutagenesis, Vol. 475, No. 1-2, 2001, pp. 7-20.
[36] World Health Organization, “Diet, Nutrition and the Prevention of Chronic Diseases: Report of a Joint WHO/ FAO Expert Consultation,” 2003.
[37] C. F. Garland, E. D. Gorham, S. B. Mohr and F. C. Garland, “Vitamin D for Cancer Prevention: Global Perspective,” Annals of Epidemiology, Vol. 19, No. 7, 2009, pp. 468-483. http://dx.doi.org/ 10.1016/j.annepidem.2009.03.021
[38] P. E. Peterson, “Oral Cancer Prevention and Control— The Approach of the World Health Organization,” Oral Oncology, Vol. 45, No. 4-5, 2009, pp. 454-460. http://dx.doi.org/ 10.1016/j.oraloncology.2008.05.023
[39] T. O. Steele and A. Meyers, “Early Detection of Premalignant Lesions and Oral Cancer,” Otolaryngologic Clinics of North America, Vol. 44, No. 1, 2011, pp. 221-229. http://dx.doi.org/ 10.1016/j.otc.2010.10.002
[40] L. L. Patton, “The Effectiveness of Community-Based Visual Screening and Utility of Adjunctive Diagnostic Aids in the Early Detection of Oral Cancer,” Oral Oncology, Vol. 39, No. 7, 2003, pp. 708-723. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1368-8375(03)00083-6
[41] M. D. Mignogna and S. Fedele, “Oral Cancer Screening: 5 Minutes to Save a Life,” The Lancet, Vol. 365, No. 4-10, 2005, pp. 1905-1906.
[42] C.-I. How, R.-S. Jiang, Y.-K. Wong, S.-H. Wu, F.-J. Chen and S.-A. Liu, “Visual Screening of Oral Cavity Cancer in a Male Population: Experience from a Medical Center,” Journal of the Chinese Medical Association, Vol. 74, No. 12, 2011, pp. 561-566. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcma.2011.09.014
[43] G. Decuseara, D. MacCarthy and G. Menezes, “Oral Cancer: Knowledge, Practices and Opinions of Dentists in Ireland,” Journal of the Irish Dental Association, Vol. 57, No. 4, 2011, pp. 209-214.
[44] S. Petti, “Review: Lifestyle Risk Factors for Oral Cancer,” Oral Oncology, Vol. 45, No. 4, 2009, pp. 340-350. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.oraloncology.2008.05.018

  
comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2018 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.