Share This Article:

Multi-Level Halftoning by IGS Quantization

Abstract Full-Text HTML Download Download as PDF (Size:961KB) PP. 351-358
DOI: 10.4236/jsip.2013.44044    2,875 Downloads   4,761 Views   Citations
Author(s)    Leave a comment

ABSTRACT

Improved gray-scale (IGS) quantization is a known method for re-quantizing digital gray-scale images for data compression while producing halftones by adding a level of randomness to improve visual quality of the resultant images. In this paper, first, analyzing the IGS quantizing operations reveals the capability of conserving a DC signal level of a source image through the quantization. Then, a complete procedure for producing a multi-level halftone image by IGS quantization that can achieve the DC conservation is presented. Also, the procedure uses the scanning of source pixels in an order such that geometric patterns can be prevented from occurring in the resulting halftone image. Next, the performance of the multi-level IGS halftoning is evaluated by experiments conducted on 8-bit gray-scale test images in comparison with the halftoning by error diffusion. The experimental result demonstrates that a signal level to be quantized in the IGS halftoning varies more randomly than that in the error diffusion halftoning, but not entirely randomly. Also, visual quality of the resulting halftone images was measured by subjective evaluations of viewers. The result indicates that for 3 or more-bit, in other words, 8 or more-level halftones, the IGS halftoning achieves image quality comparable to that by the error diffusion.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Cite this paper

T. Kimoto, "Multi-Level Halftoning by IGS Quantization," Journal of Signal and Information Processing, Vol. 4 No. 4, 2013, pp. 351-358. doi: 10.4236/jsip.2013.44044.

References

[1] R. Ulichney, “Digital Halftoning,” MIT Press, Cambridge, 1993.
[2] R. C. Gonzalez and R. E. Woods, “Digital Image Processing,” Addison-Wesley, Boston, 1993.
[3] N. D. Venkata, B. L. Evans and V. Monga, “Color Error Diffusion Halftoning,” IEEE Signal Processing Magazine, Vol. 20, No. 4, 2003, pp. 51-58. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/MSP.2003.1215231
[4] R. W. Floyd and L. Steinberg, “An Adaptive Algorithm for Spatial Grayscale,” Proceedings of the Society of Information Display, Vol. 17, No. 2, 1976, pp. 75-77.
[5] J. F. Jarvis, C. N. Judice and W. H. Ninke, “A Survey of Techniques for the Display of Continuous-Tone Pictures on Bilevel Displays,” Computer Graphics and Image Processing, Vol. 5, No. 1, 1976, pp. 13-40. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0146-664X(76)80003-2
[6] A. N. Netravali and B. G. Haskell, “Digital Pictures,” Plenum, 1988. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4684-1294-9
[7] P. G. Roetling and R. P. Loce, “Digital Halftoning,” In: E. R. Dougherty, Ed., Digital Image Processing Methods, Marcel Dekker, New York, 1994, pp. 363-413.

  
comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2018 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.