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Nitric Oxide/Peroxynitrite Redox Imbalance in Endothelial Cells Measured with Amperometric Nanosensors

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DOI: 10.4236/ajac.2013.410A1004    2,921 Downloads   4,728 Views   Citations

ABSTRACT

The cytoprotective messenger nitric oxide (NO) and cytotoxic peroxynitrite (ONOO-) are the main components of oxidative stress and can be generated by endothelial cells. A tandem of electrochemical nanosensors (diameter 200-300 nm) were used to measure, in situ, the balance between NO and ONOO-produced by human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC’s). The amperometric nanosensors were placed 5 ± 2 μm from the surface of the endothelial cells and the concentration of NO and ONOO- was measured at 630 mV and -300 mV (vs Ag/AgCl) respectively. Normal, functional, endothelial cells produced maximal 450 ± 25 nmol.L-1 of NO and 180 ± 15 nmol.L-1 of ONOO- in about 3 s, after stimulation with calcium ionophore. The in situ measurements of NO and ONOO- were validated using nitric oxide synthase inhibitor L-NMMA, ONOO- scavenger Mn(III) porphyrin, and superoxide dismutase (PEG-SOD). The ratio of NO concentration to ONOO- concentration ([NO]/[ONOO-]) was introduced for quantification of both, the redox balance and the level of the nitroxidative stress in the endothelium. [NO]/[ONOO-] was 2.7 ± 0.1 in a functional endothelium. The model of the dysfunctional endothelium was made by the treatment of HUVEC’s with angiotensin II for 20 min. Dysfunctional HUVEC’s produced only 115 ± 15 nmol.L-1 of NO, but generated a significantly higher concentration of ONOO- of 490 ± 30 nmol.L-1. The [NO]/[ONOO-] ratio decreased to 0.23 ± 0.14 in the dysfunctional endothelium. Electrochemical nanosensors can be effectively used for in situ monitoring of changing levels of nitroxidative/ oxidative stress, and may be useful in early medical diagnosis of the cardiovascular system.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Cite this paper

A. Burewicz, H. Dawoud, L. Jiang and T. Malinski, "Nitric Oxide/Peroxynitrite Redox Imbalance in Endothelial Cells Measured with Amperometric Nanosensors," American Journal of Analytical Chemistry, Vol. 4 No. 10A, 2013, pp. 30-36. doi: 10.4236/ajac.2013.410A1004.

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