Share This Article:

Antioxidant potentials of various solvent extracts from stem bark of Enantia chlorantha

Abstract Full-Text HTML Download Download as PDF (Size:221KB) PP. 877-884
DOI: 10.4236/jbise.2013.69107    3,951 Downloads   5,983 Views   Citations

ABSTRACT

The stem bark of Enantia chlorantha is commonly used for the treatment of malaria and other ailments of the human body such as cough and wound. The plant had been intensely studied for its antimicrobial activities and antipyretic properties. However, the efficacy and mechanisms of action of the plant remain unclear. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to determine the in vitro antioxidant activity of the various solvent extracts from stem bark of Enantia chlorantha. In vitro antioxidant activity of certain extracts of stem bark of Enantia chlorantha such as methanol extract (ME), n-hexane, chloroform, ethylacetate, and aqueous fractions (HF, CF, EF and AF respectively) was evaluated using models of DPPH radical scavenging activity, ferric reducing property (FRAP), nitric oxide scavenging activity, hydroxyl radical scavenging activity. The inhibition of lipid oxidation, total flavonoids and phenolic contents of the extracts were also determined using spectrophotometric methods. The result revealed the highest phenolic and flavonoid contents in the methanol extract followed by AF, EF and CF while HF contained the least concentration. Free radical scavenging potentials of the extracts were found to be proportional to their respective phenolic and flavonoid contents. Our results suggest that part of the mechanisms through which the plant is used in folk medicine for the treatment of stress related diseases such as malaria, and cough and wound may be through its antioxidant activity, DPPH, nitric oxide , hydroxyl radical scavenging abilities and reducing power.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Cite this paper

Olanlokun, J. and Akomolafe, S. (2013) Antioxidant potentials of various solvent extracts from stem bark of Enantia chlorantha. Journal of Biomedical Science and Engineering, 6, 877-884. doi: 10.4236/jbise.2013.69107.

References

[1] Frankel, E.N. and Meyer, A.S. (2000) The problems of using one-dimensional methods to evaluate multifunctional food and biological antioxidants. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 80, 1925-1941. doi:10.1002/1097-0010(200010)80:13<1925::AID-JSFA714>3.0.CO;2-4
[2] Carpenter, R., O’Grady, M.N., O’Callaghan, Y.C., O’Brien, N.M. and Kerry, J.P. (2007) Evaluation of the antioxidant potential of grape seed and bearberry extracts in raw and cooked pork. Meat Science, 76, 604-610. doi:10.1016/j.meatsci.2007.01.021
[3] Halliwell, B. (1996) Ascorbic acid in the prevention and treatment of cancer. Altern. Medical Review, 3, 174-186.
[4] Madhavi, D.L., Deshpande, S.S. and Salunkhe, D.K. (1996) Food antioxidants: Technological, toxicological, health perspective. Marcel Dekker, New York, pp. 1-5.
[5] Tachakittirungrod, S., Okonogi, S. and Chowwanapoonpohn, S. (2007) Study on antioxidant activity of certain plants in Thailand: Mechanism of antioxidant action of guava leaf extract. Food Chemistry, 103, 381-388. doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2006.07.034
[6] Amro, B., Aburjai, T. and Al-Khalil, S. (2002) Antioxidative and radical scavenging effects of olive cake extract. Fitoterapia, 73, 456-461. doi:10.1016/S0367-326X(02)00173-9
[7] Cai, Y.Z., Luo, Q., Sun, M. and Corke, H. (2004) Antioxidant activity and phenolic compounds of 112 Chinese medicinal plants associated with anticancer. Life Sciences, 74, 2157-2184. doi:10.1016/j.lfs.2003.09.047
[8] Moure, A., Cruz, J.M., Franco, D., Dominguez, J.M., Sineiro, J., Dominguez, H., Nunez, M.J. and Parajo, J.C. (2001) Natural antioxidants from residual sources. Food Chemistry, 72, 145-171. doi:10.1016/S0308-8146(00)00223-5
[9] Ringman, J.M., Frautschy, S.A., Cole, G.M., Masterman, D.L. and Cummings, J.L. (2005) Potential role of the curry spice curcumin in Alzheimer’s disease. Current Alzheimer Research, 2, 131-136. doi:10.2174/1567205053585882
[10] Handbook of African Medicinal Plants. Library of Congress Cataloguing in Publication Data, New York, 208.
[11] Gill, L.S. and Akinwumi, C. (1986) Nigerian folk medicine: Practices and beliefs of the Ondo people. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 18, 259-266. doi:10.1016/0378-8741(86)90004-8
[12] Adesokan, A.A., Akanji, M.A. and Yakubu, M.T. (2007) Antibacterial potential of aqueous extracts of E. chlorantha stem bark. African Journal of Biotechnology, 6, 2502-2505.
[13] Agbaje, E.O. and Onabanjo, A.O. (1991) Antimalaria properties of E. chlorantha. Annals of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology, 885, 585-590.
[14] Singleton, V.L., Orthofer, R. and Lamuela-Raventos, R.M. (1999) Analysis of total phenols and other oxidation substrates and antioxidants by means of Folin-Ciocalteu Reagent. Methods in Enzymology 299 (Oxidants and Antioxidants, Part A). Academic Press, San Diego, 152-178.
[15] Meda, A., Lamien, C.E., Romito, M., Millogo, J. and Nacoulma, O.G. (2005) Determination of the total phenolic, flavonoid and proline contents in Burkina Faso honey, as well as their radical scavenging activity. Food Chemistry, 91, 571-577. doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2004.10.006
[16] Gyamfi, M.A., Yonamine, M. and Aniya, Y. (1999) Freeradical scavenging action of medicinal herbs from Ghana: Thonningia sanguinea on experimentally-induced liver injuries. General Pharmacology, 32, 661-667. doi:10.1016/S0306-3623(98)00238-9
[17] Oyaizu, M. (1986) Studies on products of browning reaction: Antioxidative activity of products of browning reaction prepared from glucosamine. Japanese Journal of Nutrition, 44, 307-315. doi:10.5264/eiyogakuzashi.44.307
[18] Green, L.C., Wagner, D.A., Glogowski, J., Skipper, P.L., Wishnok, J.S. and Tannenbaum, S.R. (1982) Analysis of nitrate and 15N in biological fluids. Analytical Biochemistry, 239, 131. doi:10.1016/0003-2697(82)90118-X
[19] Lopes, G.K., Schulman, H.M. and Hermes-Lima, M. (1999) Polyphenol tannic acid inhibits hydroxyl radical formation from Fenton reaction by complexing ferrous ions. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta, 1472, 142-152. doi:10.1016/S0304-4165(99)00117-8
[20] Belle, N.A.V., Dalmolin, G.D., Fonini, G., Rubim, M.A. and Rocha, J.B.T. (2004) Polyamines reduces lipid peroxidation induced by different pro-oxidant agents. Brain Research, 1008, 245-251. doi:10.1016/j.brainres.2004.02.036
[21] Ohkawa, H., Ohishi, N. and Yagi, K. (1979) Assay for lipid peroxides in animal tissues by thiobarbituric acid reaction. Analytical Biochemistry, 95, 351-358. doi:10.1016/0003-2697(79)90738-3
[22] Zar, J.H. (1984) Biostatistical Analysis. Prentice-Hall, Inc., Upper Saddle River, 62.
[23] Amic, D., Davidovic-Amic, D., Beslo, D. and Trinajstic, N. (2003) Structure-radical scavenging activity relationship of flavonoids. Croatica Chemica Acta, 76, 55-61.
[24] Oboh, G., Puntel, R.L. and Rocha, J.B.T. (2007) Hot pepper (Capsicum annuum, tepin and Capsicum chinese, Habanero) prevents Fe2+-induced lipid peroxidation in brain, in vitro. Food Chemistry, 102, 178-185. doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2006.05.048
[25] Oboh, G. and Rocha, J.B.T. (2008) Water extractable phytochemicals from Capsicum pubescens (tree pepper) inhibit lipid peroxidation induced by different pro-oxidant agents in brain in vitro. European Food Research and Technology, 226, 707-713. doi:10.1007/s00217-007-0580-5
[26] Rice-Evans, C.A. and Miller, N.J. (1996) Paganga, G. Structure-antioxidant activity relationships of flavonoids and phenolic acids. Free Radical Biology & Medicine, 20, 933-956. doi:10.1016/0891-5849(95)02227-9
[27] Je, J.Y., Park, P.J., Kim, E.K. and Ahn, C.B. (2009) Antioxidant and angiotensin I converting enzyme inhibitory activity of Bambusae caulis in Liquamen. Food Chemistry, 113, 932-935. doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2008.08.022
[28] Oboh, G. (2008) Polyphenol extracts from Hyptis suaveolens leaves inhibit Fe2+-induced lipid peroxidation in brain. International Journal of Biomedical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2, 41-46.
[29] Allhorn, M., Klapyta, A. and Akerstrom, B. (2005) Redox properties of the lipocalin alpha1 microglobulin: Reduction of cytochrome c, hemoglobin, and free iron. Free Radical Biology and Medicine, 38, 557-567. doi:10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2004.12.013
[30] Ashokkumar, D., Thamilselvan, V., Senthilkumar, G.P. Mazumder, U.K. and Gupta, M. (2008) Antioxidant and free radical scavenging effects of Lippianodiflora. Pharmaceutical Biology, 46, 762-771. doi:10.1080/13880200802315444
[31] Sainani, G.S., Manika, J.S and Sainani, R.G. (1997) Oxidative stress: A key factor in pathogenesis of chronic diseases. Medicine Uptake, 1, 1-4.
[32] Park, E.J. (2002) Pezzutto, J.M. Botanicals in cancer chemoprevention. Cancer and Metastasis Reviews, 21, 231-255. doi:10.1023/A:1021254725842
[33] Mates, J.M. and Sanchez-Jimenez, F.M. (2000) Role of reactive oxygen species in apoptosis: Implications for cancer therapy. The International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology, 32, 157-170. doi:10.1016/S1357-2725(99)00088-6
[34] Halliwell, B., Gutteridge, J.M.C. and Aruoma, O.I. (1987) The deoxyribose method: A simple “test-tube” assay for determination of rate constants for reactions of hydroxyl radicals. Analytical Biochemistry, 165, 215-219. doi:10.1016/0003-2697(87)90222-3

  
comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2018 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.