Share This Article:

Gamma-Rays in Association with the Rocket-Triggered Lightning Caused by Neutron Bursts

Abstract Full-Text HTML XML Download Download as PDF (Size:358KB) PP. 459-464
DOI: 10.4236/acs.2013.34047    4,097 Downloads   6,740 Views   Citations

ABSTRACT

In this work, it shows that nuclear reactions in lightning channel, which are produced by the deuterium-deuterium (D-D) and deuterium-tritium (D-T) nuclear reactions, represent a plausible mechanism for gamma-ray bursts observed at ground. Gamma-ray emissions from lightning can be explained by neutron inelastic scattering in the air. Neutrons (produced in lightning channel) will delay a definitive time (~33 ms) to cover the atmosphere before hitting a molecule and producing gamma rays, which is somewhat longer than the gamma-ray time delay (~20 ms) observed at ground.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Cite this paper

G. Paiva, C. Taft, M. Carvalho and N. Furtado, "Gamma-Rays in Association with the Rocket-Triggered Lightning Caused by Neutron Bursts," Atmospheric and Climate Sciences, Vol. 3 No. 4, 2013, pp. 459-464. doi: 10.4236/acs.2013.34047.

References

[1] J. R. Dwyer, H. K. Rassoul, M. Al-Dayeh, L. Caraway, B. Wright, A. Chrest, M. A. Uman, V. A. Rakov, K. J. Rambo, D. M. Jordan, J. Jerauld and C. Smyth, “A Ground Level Gamma-Ray Burst Observed with Rocket-Triggered Lightning,” Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 31, No. 5, 2004, Article ID: L05119. http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/2003GL018771
[2] D. Wang, V. A. Rakov, M. A. Uman, N. Takagi, T. Watanabe, D. Crawford, K. J. Rambo, G. H. Schnetzer, R. J. Fisher and Z. I. Kawasaki, “Attachment Process in Rocket-Triggered Lightning Strokes,” Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 104, No. D2, 1999, pp. 2143-2150. http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/ 1998JD200070
[3] M. Brunetti, S. Cecchini, M. Galli, G. Giovannini and A. Pagliarin, “Gamma-Ray Bursts of Atmospheric Origin in the MeV Energy Range,” Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 27, No. 11, 2000, pp. 1599-1602. http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/2000GL003750
[4] K. B. Eack, W. H. Beasley, W. D. Rust, T. C. Marshall and M. Stolzenburg, “Initial Results from Simultaneous Observation of X Rays and Electric Fields in a Thunderstorm,” Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 101, No. D23, 1996, pp. 29637-29640. http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/96JD01705
[5] D. M. Suszcynsky, R. Roussel-Dupré and G. Shaw, “Ground-Based Search for X-Rays Generated by Thunderstorms and Lightning,” Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 101, No. D18, 1996, pp. 23505-23516. http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/96JD02134
[6] C. B. Moore, K. B. Eack, G. D. Aulich and W. Rison, “Energetic Radiation Associated with Lightning SteppedLeaders,” Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 28, No. 11, 2001, pp. 21412144. http://dx.doi.org/ 10.1029/ 2001GL013140
[7] C. T. R. Wilson, “The Electric Field of a Thundercloud and Some of Its Effects,” Proceedings of the Physical Society of London, Vol. 37, No. 1, 1924, pp. 32D-37D. http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1478-7814/37/1/314
[8] J. R. Dwyer and D. M. Smith, “High-Energy Electron beams Launched into Space by Thunderstorms,” Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 32, 2005, Article ID: L22804.
[9] J. R. Dwyer, “The Source Mechanisms of Terrestrial Gamma-Ray Flashes (TGFs),” Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 113, No. D10, 2008, Article ID: D10103. http://dx.doi.org/ 10.1029/ 2007JD009248
[10] V. P. Pasko, U. S. Inan and T. F. Bell, “Fractal Structure of Sprites,” Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 27, No. 4, 2000, pp. 497-500. http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/1999GL010749
[11] L. P. Babich, A. Yu. M. L. Kudryavtsev, I. Kudryavtseva and M. Kutsyk, “Terrestrial Gamma-Ray Flashes and Neutron Pulses from Direct Simulations of Gigantic Upward Atmospheric Discharge,” JETP Letters, Vol. 85, No. 10, 2007, pp. 483-487. http://dx.doi.org/10.1134/S0021364007100037
[12] G. S. Paiva, “Terrestrial Gamma-Ray Flashes Caused by Neutron Bursts above Thunderclouds,” Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 105, No. 8, 2009, Article ID: 083301. http://dx.doi.org/ 10.1063/1.3089230
[13] L. S. Bratolyubova-Tsulukidze, E. A. Grachev, O. R. Grigoryan, V. E. Kunitsyn, B. M. Kuzhevskij, D. S. Lysakov, O. Yu Nechaev and M. E. Usanova, “Thunderstorms as the Probable Reason of High Background Neutron Fluxes at L < 1.2,” Advances in Space Research, Vol. 34, No. 8, 2004, pp. 1815-1818. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.asr.2003.03.044
[14] L. M. Libby and H. R. Lukens, “Production of Radiocarbon in Tree Rings by Lightning Bolts,” Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 78, No. 26, 1973, pp. 5902-5903. http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/ JB078i026p05902
[15] S. J. Stephanakis, L. S. Levine, D. Mosher, I. M. Vitkovitsky and F. Young, “Neutron Production in ExplodingWire Discharges,” Physical Review Letters, Vol. 29, No. 9, 1972, pp. 568-569. http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.29.568
[16] I. M. Vitkovitsky, L. S. Levine, D. Mosher and S. J. Stephanakis, “Dense Plasma Discharges for Solid Target Heating,” Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 23, No. 1, 1973, pp. 9-11. http://dx.doi.org/ 10.1063/1.1654736
[17] A. V. Gurevich, V. P. Antonova, A. P. Chubenko, A. N. Karashtin, G. G. Mitko, M. O. Ptitsyn, V. A. Ryabov, A. L. Shepetov, Yu. V. Shlyugaev, L. I. Vildanova and K. P. Zybin, “Strong Flux of Low-Energy Neutrons Produced by Thunderstorms,” Physical Review Letters, Vol. 108, No. 12, 2012, Article ID: 125001. http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.108.125001
[18] L. P. Bradley and G. W. Kuswa, “Neutron Production and Collective Ion Acceleration in a High-Current Diode,” Physical Review Letters, Vol. 29, No. 21, 1972, pp. 1441-1145. http://dx.doi.org/ 10.1103/PhysRevLett.29.1441
[19] J. R. Samworth, “Method of Logging a Borehole,” US Patent 7102125, 2006.
[20] C. S. Wuu, H. I. Amols, P. Kliauga, L. E. Reinstein and S. Saraf, “Microdosimetry for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy,” Radiation Research, Vol. 130, No. 3, 1992, pp. 355-359. http://dx.doi.org/ 10.2307/3578381
[21] G. Christ, O. S. Dohm, E. Schüle, S. Gaupp and M. Martin, “Air Density Correction in Ionisation Dosimetry,” Physics in Medicine and Biology, Vol. 49, No. 10, 2004, p. 2029. http://dx.doi.org/ 10.1088/0031-9155/49/10/013
[22] Equations, Air Density and Density Altitude, “An Introduction to Air Densityand Density Altitude Calculations,” 2012. http://wahiduddin.net/calc/density_altitude.htm
[23] I. Kaplan, “Nuclear Physics,” Addison-Wesley, Reading, 1971, p. 581.
[24] P. Tipler and R. Llewellyn, “Modern Physics,” 4th Edition, W. H. Freeman, New York, 2002.
[25] J. R. Dwyer, “The Source Mechanisms of Terrestrial Gamma-Ray Flashes (TGFs),” Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 113, No. D10, 2008, Article ID: D10103. http://dx.doi.org/ 10.1029/ 2007JD009248
[26] A. Poskus, “Attenuation of Gamma Rays,” 2012. http://www.kkek.ff.vu.lt/uploads/erasmus/no10.pdf
[27] J. H. Hubbell, “Photon Mass Attenuation and EnergyAbsorption Coefficients from 1 keV to 20 MeV,” The International Journal of Applied Radiation and Isotopes, Vol. 33, No. 11, 1982, pp. 1269-1290. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0020-708X(82)90248-4
[28] F. C. Young, S. J. Stephanakis, I. M. Vitkovitsky and D. Mosher, “Neutron Production by Hot Dense Plasmas Generated with High Power Pulsers,” IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science, Vol. 20, No. 1, 1973, pp. 439-445. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TNS.1973.4326944
[29] M. A. Uman, R. E. Orville and L. E. Salanave, “The Density, Pressure, and Particle Distribution in a Lightning Stroke near Peak Temperature,” Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, Vol. 21, No. 3, 1964, pp. 306-310. http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/1520-0469(1964)021<0306:TDPAPD>2.0.CO;2
[30] M. A. Uman, “Lightning,” Dover, New York, 1969, p. 215.
[31] V. A. Rakov, M. A. Uman and K. J. Rambo, “A Review of Ten Years of Triggered Lightning Experiments at Camp Blanding, Florida,” Atmospheric Research, Vol. 76, No. 1-4, 2005, pp. 503-517. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/ j.atmosres.2004.11.028
[32] P. Lalande, A. Bondiou-Clergerie, P. Laroche, A. EybertBerard, J.-P. Berlandis, B. Bador, A. Bonamy, M. A. Uman and V. A. Rakov, “Leader Properties Determined with Triggered Lightning Techniques,” Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 103, No. 12, 1998, pp. 14109-14115. http://dx.doi.org/ 10.1029/97JD02492

  
comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2019 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.