Share This Article:

A Realistic ICT Network Design and Implementation in the Neighbourhood Area of the Smart Grid

Abstract Full-Text HTML XML Download Download as PDF (Size:833KB) PP. 436-448
DOI: 10.4236/sgre.2013.46050    3,655 Downloads   5,002 Views   Citations

ABSTRACT

The Smart Grid has three main characteristics, which are to some degree antagonistic. These characteristics are: provision of good power quality, energy cost reduction and improvement in the reliability of the grid. The need to ensure that they can be accomplished together demands a much richer ICT monitoring and control network than the current system. In this paper we particularly investigate the design and deployment of the ICT system in the urban environment, specifically in a university campus that is embedded in a city, thus it represents the Neighbourhood Area Network (NAN) level of the Smart Grid. In order to design an ICT infrastructure, we have introduced two related architectures: namely communications network architecture and a software architecture. Having access to the characteristics of a real NAN guides us to choose appropriate communication technologies and identify the actual requirements of the system. To implement these architectures at this level we need to gather and process information from environmental sensors (monitoring e.g. temperature, movement of people and vehicles) that can provide useful information about changes in the loading of the NAN, with information from instrumentation of the Power Grid itself. Energy constraints are one of the major limitations of the communication network in the Smart Grid, especially where wireless networking is proposed. Thus we analyse the most energy efficient method of collecting and sending data. The main contribution of this research is that we propose and implement an energy efficient ICT network and describe our software architecture at the NAN level, currently very underdeveloped. We also discuss our experimental results. To our knowledge, no such architectures have yet been implemented for collecting data which can provide the basis of Decision Support Tools (DSTs).

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Cite this paper

Z. Pourmirza and J. Brooke, "A Realistic ICT Network Design and Implementation in the Neighbourhood Area of the Smart Grid," Smart Grid and Renewable Energy, Vol. 4 No. 6, 2013, pp. 436-448. doi: 10.4236/sgre.2013.46050.

References

[1] J. Miller, S. Pullins and S. Bossart, “The Modern Grid,” US Department of Energy, Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability, Bartlesville, 2008.
[2] N. Kayastha, D. Niyato, E. Hossain and Z. Han, “Smart Grid Sensor Data Collection, communication, and Net working: A Tutorial,” Wireless Communications and Mo bile Computing, 2012, pp. 1-33.
doi:10.1002/wcm.2258
[3] M. Daoud and X. Fernando, “On the Communication Requirements for the Smart Grid,” Energy and Power Engineering, 2011, pp. 53-60.
[4] Y. Rong, Z. Yan, S. Gjessing, Y. Chau, X. Shengli and M. Guizani, “Cognitive Radio Based Hierarchical Communications Infrastructure for Smart Grid,” Network, IEEE, Vol. 25, No. 5, 2011, pp. 6-14.
doi:10.1109/MNET.2011.6033030
[5] K. Khan, R. Haines and J. M. Brooke, “A Distributed Computing Architecture to Support Field Engineering in Networked Systems,” Proceedings of the 2010 Interna tional Conference on Complex, Intelligent and Software Intensive Systems, Krakow, 2010, pp. 54-61.
[6] J. Machell, S. R. Mounce and J. B. Boxall, “Online Mod Elling of Water Distribution Systems: A UK Case Study,” Drinking Water Engineering and Science, Vol. 2, 2010, pp. 279-294.
[7] I. Stoianov, L. Nachman, S. Madden and T. Tokmouline, “PIPENETa Wireless Sensor Network for Pipeline Moni toring,” Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Information Processing in Sensor Networks, Cam bridge, 25-27 April 2007, pp. 264-273.
[8] D. Hughes, P. Greenwood, G. Blair, G. Coulson, P. Grace, F. Pappenberger, P. Smith and K. Beven, “An Experiment with Reflective Middleware to Support Grid-Based Flood Monitoring,” Concurrency and Computation: Practice and Experience, Vol. 20, No. 11, 2008, pp. 1303-1316. doi:10.1002/cpe.1279
[9] Q. Yang, J. A. Barria and T. C. Green, “Communication Infrastructures for Distributed Control of Power Distribu tion Networks,” IEEE Transactions on Industrial Infor matics, Vol. 7, No. 2, 2011, pp. 316-327. doi:10.1109/TII.2011.2123903
[10] D. A. Roberts, “Network Management Systems for Ac tive Distribution Networks—A Feasibility Study,” SP Power Systems Ltd, Scottish Power Plc., Scotland, 2004.
[11] M. Qiu, W. Gao, M. Chen, J. W. Niu and L. Zhang, “En ergy Efficient Security Algorithm for Power Grid Wide Area Monitoring System,” IEEE Transactions On Smart Grid, Vol. 2, No. 4, 2011, pp. 715-723. doi:10.1109/TSG.2011.2160298
[12] A. A. Abbasi and M. Younis, “A Survey on Clustering Algorithms for Wireless Sensor Networks,” Computer Com munication, Vol. 30, No. 14-15, 2007, pp. 2826-2841.
[13] V. Raghunathan, C. Schurgers, S. Park and M. B. Sriva stava, “Energy Efficient Design of Wireless Sensor Nodes,” Wireless Sensor Networks, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Norwel, 2004.
[14] M. A. Youssef, M. F. Younis and K. A. Arisha, “Per formance Evaluation of an Energy-Aware Routing Pro tocol for Sensor Networks,” 2003.
[15] A. Chuang and M. McGranaghan, “Functions of a Local Controller to Coordinate Distributed Resources in a Smart Grid,” Power and Energy Society General Meeting— Conversion and Delivery of Electrical Energy in the 21st Century, Pittsburgh, 20-24 July 2008, pp. 1-6.
[16] R. E. Brown, “Impact of Smart Grid on Distribution Sys tem Design,” Power and Energy Society General Meeting— Conversion and Delivery of Electrical Energy in the 21st Century, 2008, pp. 1-4.
[17] P. P. Parikh, M. G. Kanabar and T. S. Sidhu, “Opportuni ties and Challenges of Wireless Communication Tech nologies for Smart Grid Applications,” Power and En ergy Society General Meeting, Minneapolis, 25-29 July 2010, pp. 1-7.
[18] D. E. Nordell, “Communication Systems for Distribution Automation,” Transmission and Distribution Conference and Exposition, Chicago, 2008, pp. 1-14.
[19] A. Krkoleva, V. Borozan, A. Dimeas and N. Hatziargyriou, “Requirements for Implementing Gossip Based Schemes for Information Dissemination in Future Power Systems,” 2nd IEEE PES International Conference and Exhibition on Innovative Smart Grid Technologies (ISGT Europe), Manchester, 5-7 December 2011, pp. 1-7.
[20] M. Ali, M. Zakariya, M. Asif and A. Ullah, “TCP/IP Bas ed Intelligent Load Management System in Micro-Grids Network Using MATLAB/Simulink,” Energy and Power Engineering, Vol. 4, No. 4, 2012, pp. 283-289. doi:10.4236/epe.2012.44038
[21] F.Aalamifar, H. S. Hassanein and G. Takahara, “Viability of Powerline Communication for the Smart Grid,” 2012 26th Biennial Symposium on Communications (QBSC), Kingston, 28-29 May 2012, pp. 19-23.
[22] B. Al-Omar, A. R. Al-Ali, R. Ahmed and T. Landolsi, “Role of Information and Communication Technologies in the Smart Grid,” Journal of Emerging Trends in Com puting and Information Sciences, Vol. 3, No. 5, 2012, pp. 707-716.
[23] M. Wiboonrat, “Next Generation Data Center Design under Smart Grid,” 4th International Conference on Ubi quitous and Future Networks (ICUFN), Phuket, 2012, pp. 103-108.
[24] F. Salvadori, C. S. Gehrke, M. D. Campos, P. S. Sausen and A. C. Oliveira, “A Hybrid Network Architecture Ap plied to Smart Grid,” International Journal of Computing and Network Technology, Vol. 1, No. 1, 2013, pp. 67-81. doi:10.12785/ijcnt/010104
[25] Z. Pourmirza and J. M. Brooke, “The Wireless Sensor Network and Local Computational Unit in the Neigh bourhood Area Network of the Smart Grid,” International Conference on Sensor Networks (SENSORNETS), Barce lona, 19-21 February 2013, pp. 84-88.
[26] Z. Pourmirza and J. M. Brooke, “Data Reduction for an ICT Network in the Smart Grid,” The 9th International Conference on Intelligent Environments, Athens, 18-19 July 2013, pp. 224-227.
[27] W. R. Heinzelman, A. Chandrakasan and H. Balakrishnan, “Energy-Efficient Communication Protocol for Wireless Microsensor Networks,” Proceedings of the 33rd Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, Hawaii, 2000, pp. 1-10. doi:10.1109/HICSS.2000.926982
[28] Z. Pourmirza and J. M. Brooke, “The Monitoring Net work Architecture in the Neighbourhood Area of the Smart Grid,” Salford Postgraduate Annual Research Con ference (SPARC), Salford, 30-31 May 2012, pp. 1-4.
[29] R. Kling, “Intel Research mote,” Intel Corporation Re search, Santa Clara, 2003.
[30] S. R. Madden, M. J. Franklin, J. M. Hellerstein and W. Hong, “TinyDB: An Acquisitional Query Processing Sys tem for Sensor Networks,” ACM Transactions on Data base Systems, Vol. 30, No. 1, 2005, pp. 122-173. doi:10.1145/1061318.1061322
[31] National Instruments, “What Is NI LabVIEW?” 2011. http://www.ni.com/labview/whatis
[32] LabVIEW, “LabVIEW Fundamentals,” National Instru ments Corporation, Austin, 2007.
[33] National Instrumrnts, “NI CompactRIO—Reconfigurable Control and Acquisition System, 2011. http://www.ni.com/compactrio/whatis
[34] Z. Pourmirza and J. M. Brooke, “Monitoring and Visual ising a Neighbourhood Area Sub-Grid,” SMARTGREENS 2013-2nd International Conference on Smart Grids and Green IT Systems, Aachen, 9-10 May 2013. pp. 127-131.
[35] S. Galli, A. Scaglione and Z. Wang, “Power Line Com munications and the Smart Grid,” 1st IEEE International Conference on Smart Grid Communications, Gaithers burg, 4-6 October 2010, pp. 303-308.
[36] Y. Tan, Y. Shi, Y. Chai, G. Wang, J. Liu, J. Wang, N. Li, and Z. Chen, “Research and Validation of the Smart Power Two-Way Interactive System Based on Unified Communication Technology,” Advances in Swarm Intel ligence, Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, Berlin, 2011.
[37] P. Rengaraju, L. Chung-Horng and A. Srinivasan, “Com munication Requirements and Analysis of Distribution Networks Using WiMAX Technology for Smart Grids,” 8th International Wireless Communications and Mobile Computing Conference (IWCMC), Cyprus, 27-31 August 2012, pp. 666-670.
[38] P. Levis and N. Lee, “TOSSIM: A Simulator for TinyOS Networks,” University of Berkeley, Berkeley, 2003.

  
comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2018 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.